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flushes from behind, the rate goes up to fifteen days. average October gauge in Cairo is about 23 cubits), and There is a very great difference in time and rate between from September 10 to October 25 the river remains from Green and Red Nile. The rise is 45 ft. at Aswân, 38 at 24 cubits to 25 cubits, and the Middle Egypt basins Thebes, and 25 at Cairo.
discharge so slowly that the opening day is hardly traceFrom the data obtained at the gauges named which able on the Cairo gauge. have been kindly forwarded to me by Mr. Garstin, the “In the 1878 food, which was the most disastrous flood U.S. of State of the Public Works Department of Egypt, I possible, the river rose in the most abnormal fashion, and have ascertained that the average time taken by the flood on October 3 attained 18 cubits at Aswân. This breached to travel now between Thebes and Memphis is about the Delta, and in addition so delayed the Upper Egypt nine days. Although the river bed is now higher than basins emptying from the reason before given that the formerly, the land around Thebes, according to Budge, wheat was sown too late, and got badly scorched by the having been raised about nine feet in the last 1700 years, hot winds of March and April.” 1 still the same elevation has taken place at Memphis, so
J. NORMAN LOCKYER. that no difference in the velocity of the stream would be produced by this cause.
The great difficulty experienced in understanding the THE LANDSLIP AT SANDGATE.
THE causes of landslips are in general so well known
1 and the localities which are liable to them so clearly registered in Cairo upwards of 40 days after the maxi- |
defined on geological principles that when on Monday, mum of Aswan. For the following account of how this is brought about
March 6, the public were startled by the news of a landI am indebted to the kindness of Col. Ross, R.E. :
slip at Sandgate, the probability would be that geologists ** The behaviour of the flood at the Aswân gauge is as
who knew the district would be by no means surprised, follows; Between August 20 and 30 a good average
more particularly as the locality of the catastrophe is in gauge of 16 cubits is often reached, and between August
the midst of a typical section shown in many of the text27 and September 3 there is often a drop of about 30
books, and the town itself gives its name to a subdivision centimetres. The August rise is supposed to be mostly
of the Cretaceous rocks. due to the Blue Nile and Atbara River. Between Septem
The event, however, does not appear to have been exber 1 and 8 the irrigation officers generally look for a
pected, and since it has happened conjectures as to its maximum flood-gauge of the year at Aswấn. This is
cause have been numerous; but the true explanation has
been wanting. supposed to be the first flush of the White Nile. In the middle of September there are generally two small flushes,
The series of rocks which, in descending order, form but the last twenty days of September are generally dis
the country about Sandgate are the Folkestone beds, the tinctly lower than that of the first week. The final fush
Sandgate beds, the Hythe beds, and the Atherfield clay. of the Nile is seldom later than the 21st to 25th
Amongst these it is natural to look in the first instance
for the presence of clays, as the probable origin of a landSeptember All this water does not merely go down the Nile ; it
slip, though very loose sands have also been known floods the different basins. The opening of these basins
to give way. The Folkestone beds are for the most part begins from the south to the north. This operation is
sand and they are bound together by bands of grit. generally performed between the 29th September and the
Moreover, they are above the affected area. The Hythe 22nd October. The great Central Egypt basins are not
beds are likewise characterised by bands of hard limeconnected with the Nile for purposes of discharge into
stone, separated by calcareous sands. There are left the the river between Asyût and near Wasta, or a distance of
Atherfield clay, whose nature is indicated by its name,
and the Sandgate beds. 395-90 kilometres = 305 kil. * The country in the middle or Central Egypt is broad,
The most recent description of these is that of W. Topley, and thus there is an enormous quantity of water poured
F.R.S., in the Comptes Rendus of the Congrès Géologique out of these basins into the lower reaches of the river
International, 1888, in which they are briefly characterised about the 20th October, which seriously raises the Nile
(p. 257) as “Argiles vertes et sables.” The same at Cairo, and in a good average year will bring the Cairo
writer's description of them in 1883 (quoted also by H. B. gauge (at Rodah) up to the maximum of the year on or
Woodward in 1887) is somewhat different, but in his about October 22, and hence it is that the guide books
“ Geology of the Weald," 1875, they are said to consist of say the Nile is at its highest in the end of October.
dark clayey sand and clay, the total thickness being given "A gauge of 165 cubits at Aswan while the basins are
as 80 ft. In his more detailed description, however, Mr.
F. G. H. Price divides these 80 ft. into four parts, the lowest being filled does not give more than 21 cubits at Rodah
20 ft. being all “clayey beds" (Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. iv. (Cairo), but as the basins with a 16} gauge will fill by the 10th September, it follows that a 165 to 16 cubit gauge at
p. 554). In a still earlier account by Prof. Morris (1.c. vol. Aswan will not give a constant Cairo gauge, as the great
ii. p. 41) we have the following interesting statement :
"The dark-greenish sub-argillaceous sands, known as mass of water passes by the basins and reaches Cairo. Hence we have frequently the paradox of a steady or
the Sandgate beds, rise on the shore at a short distance
west of Folkestone. The low undercliff which skirts the falling gauge at Aswân showing a steady rise at Cairo. "If the gauge at Aswân keeps above 16 cubits to near
shore from Folkestone nearly to Hythe owes its origin to the end of September, the basin-emptying is much
the presence of these beds, which from their retention of retarded, as the emptying at each successive basin fills
water and slight coherency of structure have caused the the Nile above the 16 cubit level; hence the lower halves
frequent subsidence of the beds above." of the chains of basins do not flow off, and thus when
It would appear, then, that there are two possible the great Middle Egypt basins are discharged, they do
sources of the slipping-the Atherfield clay and the not raise the Nile so much as they do when the last
clayey bands of the Sandgate beds, and thus much was half of September Nile is below 16 at Aswân.
indicated at once by Mr. F. W. Rudler (Daily Graphic, "In years like 1887 and 1892, which differ from each
March 8). other only in date of maximum gauge at Aswân, the
On a personal examination of the area the whole river, having filled the basins in 15 to 20 days instead
history of the subsidence becomes clear enough. At of io 25 to 30 days, comes down to Cairo in so largely 'The modern Egyptians still hold to the old months for irrigation. increased a volume that a really dangerous gauge of 2's 1 ? Tuba= January 15 is commencement of wheat virrigation : 30 Misra is the cubits at Cairo is maintained for over a fortnight (the ing the bridges=September 8 in Upper Egypt.
last safe date for sowing maize in the Delta ; 1st Tut is the date of regulat-.
Sandgate itself neither the Atherfield clay nor the Sand- spring, which may indicate the line of another fault ; ? gate beds are well exposed, but on the seashore between it may be that all this is only a surface slip; but, in a there and Folkestone we meet with the white-weathering case, Folkestone beds occupy the actual surface. massive limestone of the Hythe beds at Mill Point, and The strike faults thus indicated are only what we mig: to the west of it. They are here dipping east at a expect if the strata broke, as they so often do, during moderate angle, and if this dip is continued, as the beds 'their upheaval. It is plain that such faults will ratke rise to the west, there would be room for the 60 feet of complicate the surface exposure of the clayey rocks whic them which are seen at Hythe, between their probable overlie the Hythe limestone. Now, if we allow some los outcrop in the lower part of the Enbrook Valley and low- feet for the Sandgate beds, so as to include in the title : water mark, opposite its debouchure. It must be here, that portion of the series above the clay band at the base if anywhere, that the recorded appearance of Atherfield which is not strengthened by the occurrence of indurated clay occurs—for the state of things above described must bands, and draw, from the purely geological considerahere be terminated by a fault, as will be presently ex- tions detailed above, the boundary of their surface es. plained, and nowhere else along the coast till Sandgate is posure, which will not be an entirely simple one, it is. entirely passed can this clay occur within 40 yards sea- actly coincides with the boundary of the disturbed area ward of low-water. On the east side of Enbrook, how- Thus the upper boundary commences just beyond the ever, there is no landslip, and the actual landslip is thus town on the west, and runs very nearly along the line of shown to have nothing to do with the Atherfield clay. the most westerly fault, till the latter has Folkestone beds
Above the strong bands of Hythe limestone, however, on both sides of it; it then changes direction, and russ west of Mill Point, are seen about 20 feet of soft, crumb. parallel to the outcrop of the Hythe beds on the foreshore ling clay, occupying the base of the low cliff and becoming sloping down to a point above West Lawn, that is, to the sandier above, as described by Mr. Price, and it is easily probable position of the second fault ; it is then throws seen that the bottom of the Enbrook Valley is excavated back along the probable line of that fault. It then agai in clay. The same clay is admirably seen on the other changes its direction and runs at first parallel to the side of Sandgate, in the first cutting beyond Hythe second outcrop of the Hythe limestone, afterwards Station on the branch line from Sandling Junction, so sloping down rapidly to the shore, so as to follow shat
that though it is not now well exposed in Sandgate itself, we would be probably the line of outcrop of the first hari may be sure that it forms a continuous band immediately band in the possibly slipped mass of the Folkestone beds above the Hythe limestone.
The conclusion from this seems inevitable. The we Now, continuing to examine the coast below Sandgate disturbance is due to a motion of soft Sandgate bed on the west side of Enbrook we find an outcrop of Hythe where they are unprotected by the overlying hard bands limestone nearly opposite Farleigh House. Here also it the Folkestone beds. has a dip towards the east; but it has also an abnormally The nature of the motion can be determined by an es. high dip-perhaps 10°-inshore ; such a dip in itself amination of its upper, and particularly of its lower lin.. indicates a dislocation in the neighbourhood, but inde- The greatest amount of visible disturbance has takes pendently of this, the position of this band at the same place along the upper limit ; here the ground is seen : level as that at Mill Point, while both bands dip, proves have slipped downwards and forwards. This might be that there is a fault between the two, probably along
the caused by the collapse of an underground hollow if such Enbrook Valley, with a downthrow on the west. This a thing were possible, but the loose sandy and clays brings down the clay band at the base of the Sandgate nature of the rocks would not admit of such a hollow beds to the sea level immediately to the east of the lime- being formed, and the thick clay band at the base poolt stone above mentioned, and further on, to the east of effectually shield the Hythe limestones from chemica the coastguard station, the sandy beds of the Folkestone erosion. The lower limit, however, shows very plan's series, which may, however, have slipped.
that the motion has been a simple slip in a south-east s Going further west, we find the same band of Hythe east-south-east direction. In the first place the western limestone exposed on the sloping shore, having a similar band of Hythe limestone on the foreshore which ab: easterly dip; but not so great an inshore dip, which, against a concrete groin is absolutely unmoved, and 2 unless this were a lower band of Hythe limestone sea-wall above is quite intact (which is a second proof (which other observations negative), proves a second fault it, after what has been said above, any further proof me: between these two, with a downthrow also to the west, needed, that the Atherfield clay has nothing whatever but of smaller amount. Further west again, and just do with the matter). In the second place, immediate beyond the town, the sandy Folkestone beds are found at to the east of this outcrop, the sea-wall bas bulgesi : a lower level than they should be if the stratification were ward by about three feet, as shown by the next, woode regular, and in the slight valley intervening there is a groin, and near low-water mark the overlying clay is
to be bulged up, so as to form a mound on the foreshore, accumulating, by the constant access of water and the which is being rapidly destroyed by the sea ; while fur- wearing action of the sea. If, however, the free discharge ther east, opposite the end of Wellington Terrace, the of the water from the beds has been in any way interoverlying more sandy clays are also seen bulged up. fered with-by the stoppage of wells, or the construction Along the main road also, in front of West Lawn, on the of imperforate sea-walls--this would doubtless tend to western side of the supposed fault, the surface has been the acceleration of the catastrophe ; and an exceptionally squeezed up. On the eastern side of this fault, further wet season, like that we have recently experienced, might cracks, indicating a forward motion, are seen at the suffice to determine it. It would be scarcely necessary entrance to Encombe grounds; and, finally, the Coast to add, except that the idea has been mentioned in the Guard houses and the wall in front bulge forward at least House, that the blowing up of the Benvenue and the Calypso three feet, and probably more, and the two sides of the could have absolutely nothing to do with it: in the first street opposite have been squeezed together.
place, because the scene of the explosions was to the Thus the whole disturbance has been caused by the west of the disturbed area, and cut off from it by the slipping downwards of the overlying soft beds over the massive Hythe beds, which are absolutely undisturbedinclined plane formed by the basement band of clay to say nothing of the Atherfield clay at sea which must which rests on the Hythe limestone as a firm foundation, necessarily intervene ; secondly, because such a cause the direction of motion having been somewhat modified could not require several months to operate ; and, by the resisting mass of rock which lies to the east, and lastly, because a vibration would rather tend to cause such by the natural tendency of the sliding mass to take the beds to settle than to slip.
J. F. BLAKE. shortest course to a lower level.
It is thus seen that the circumstances of the locality exactly fulfil the usual geological conditions for a
NOTES. landslip-i.e. a sloping bed of clay, which is liable to
PROF. VIRCHow will deliver the Croonian Lecture this afterbecome slippery, and whose dip is towards the lower surface level where the overlying rocks find no support. noon, and in the evening he will be entertained at the public Hence it may safely be said that any geologist, whose dinner which is to be given in his honour at the Hôtel Métroattention had been specially directed to the question, pole. It may at the sanie time be noted that an important could have predicted that such an occurrence was ex- scientific work, in three volumes, has just been issued by the tremely likely, sooner or later, to happen. There is, Berlin publisher, August Hirschwald, in memory of the celebrahowever, one necessary condition, which does not depend tion of Prof. Virchow's seventieth birthday. The work is on the lie of the strata and the form of the ground, and
entitled " Internationale Beiträge zur Wissenschaftlichen that is that the clay should become slippery. This con
Medicin," and among the contributors to it are Sir James Paget, dition will probably account for the fact that in the area to the east of the Enbrook fault where all the other con
Sir Joseph Lister, and other English writers. ditions are satisfied, i.e. in the neighbourhood of Radnor A MOVEMENT has been started for the celebration of the Cliff, no landslip has occurred. Clay is of course
hundredth anniversary of the birth of the illustrious Russian rendered slippery by the access of water. Now water will easily find its way through sandy strata, and there
mathematician, Lobatcheffsky, who was described by the late are sandy beds even in the lower portion till we come to
Prof. Clifford as “the Copernicus of geometry.” He was born the band of clay itself. As this is equally true in both
on October 10, 1793. It is proposed that honour shall be done localities the only difference can be in the amount of to his memory at the Imperial University of Kasan, with which water.
he was for many years connected as a professor and as rector. Now there is a natural tendency for water to run down The Physico-Mathematical Society of the University, which has the dip slope of the strata, especially when there are taken the matter in hand, hopes to be able either to establish a hard bands as in the Folkestone beds, so that in this prize with Lobatcheffsky's name for researches in mathematics, case most of the water will come from the west, and this source is cut off from the Radnor Cliff side by the buildings. If the funds suffice, both of these things will be done.
or to erect a bust of the great investigator in the University
to the Physico-Mathematical gathering ground; but to the west and north-west of the Subscriptions should be sent disturbed area there is a wide expanse of high ground, Society, Kasan. mostly rising 100 feet above the level of the Sandgate beds,
The German Congress of Naturalists and Physicians, which and the water which falls on this finds its easiest outlet into these beds. They are therefore exactly in a position
was postponed last year on account of the outbreak of cholera, to get waterlogged, and that they are so is shown by the
is to meet this year at Nürnberg. numerous springs that may be seen along the upper Prof. W. C. ROBERTS.AUSTEN, F.R.S., chemist and assayer limit of the disturbed area.
to the Royal Mint, and Mr. Thomas Bryant, President of the The above considerations show that this area always has been and always will be liable to landslips. a Theatre Royal College of Surgeons, have been elected members of the of the beds which produces this liability cannot be
Athenæum Club, under the provisions of the rule by which the altered by human agency, but the liability may be reduced
Committee is empowered to elect annually nine persons “of to a minimum by a suitable system of drainage, which distinguished eminence in science, literature, the arts, or for shall prevent the access of so large a body of water to so public services." dangerous an area. In the meantime the inhabitants of Sandgate may con
The half-yearly general meeting of the Scottish Meteorogratulate themselves that the shoreward dip of the beds logical Society was held at Edinburgh on Monday, March 13. and fault which breaks their continuity have reduced the
The council of the society submitted its report, and the followresult of the slip to a minimum, and rendered possible the ing papers were read :-On the temperatures of Lochs Lochy remarkable circumstance that, though it happened in an
and Ness as affected by the wind, by Dr. Murray; mean temarea covered with houses, not a single house has been perature of London from 1763 to 1892, by Dr. Buchan ; actually thrown down-not a single life lost.
hygrometric researches at the Ben Nevis Observatories, by As to the immediate cause of the occurrence, it is per- | A. J. Herbertson. haps scarcely necessary to look for it. The landslip must necessarily have occurred at some time or another, and We understand that an enormous iron meteorite weighing the conditions must for a long time have been gradually nearly one ton (2044 lbs.) has just been received by Mr. J. R.
Gregory, of Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, from the same high readings are more usual. On January 12 the pressure a locality as the one described by him in Nature in November Irkutsk exceeded 31'5 inches, and on the next day it reached last ; it is 4 feet 2 inches long by 2 feet 3 inches wide and 20 317. According to Dr. Hann, such a high reading had only inches thick. It comes from Youndegin in Western Australia. been recorded once before, viz, on December 16, 1877, at Semi
palatinsk. But on the morning of January 14, the reading at The secretary of the Physical Society asks us to say that in
Irkutsk, reduced to sea level and corrected for gravity, attained the report of the Society's annual general meeting (NATURE,
the unprecedented height of 31.8 inches. So far as it is know March 2, p. 429) the name of Mr. J. T. Hurst was wrongly
this is the highest reading that has ever been recorded on the included in the list of members lost by death.
globe. These high pressures were also accompanied by very low ATTENTION is called in the North Atlantic Pilot Chart to temperatures. On January 14 the thermometer at Irkutsk fell the fact that the great astronomical event of the month of April to minus 51° -3, or about 40° below the mean for the time of —the eclipse of the sun on April 16—will have certain features year. In the north of Sweden the thermometer fell to minus of special interest to the science of marine meteorology. 76°, or 38° below the freezing point of mercury. Masters of vessels and observers who may be within the limits
Some shocks of earthquake have lately been felt at Quetta. of the visibility of this eclipse are earnestly requested to make
Two occurred on February 13 at 9.50 p.m., and another shock reports of their observations. The chart shows graphically the
on the 14th at about 3 a.m. These shocks caused a considerpath of the total eclipse, the northern limit of visibility, and able scare, and many people rushed out of doors, the condition curves showing at what places the eclipse begins at 1 hour, 2
of many houses in Quetta being anything but safe. The Pioneer hours, and 3 hours, and when it ends at 3 hours, 4 hours, and
Mail says that several houses have since fallen at Quetta, and 2 5 hours, Greenwich mean time, April 16. It is pointed out that
number of people have been injured, and two killed thereby. there are observations which any one can make, and that these may prove to be of great interest and value. The following
DR. D. D. CUNNINGHAM is carrying on a series of microare particularly desired : (1) any changes in the clouds accom- scopical investigations into the Indian potato blight. Elaborate panying changes of temperature during the eclipse ; (2) reading experiments are also being made in the practical treatment of the of the barometer every half hour from 11.30 to 5.30 G.M.T., crop and of diseased soils. The results, according to the Pienet while in the path of total eclipse ; (3) temperature of the air, Mail, are expected to be important, and will be made public in both wet and dry bulb, during the same interval ; (4) any
due course. peculiar appearance of light during the eclipse ; (5) the altitude
It appears from the Ceylon Census Report for 1891 that the and azimuth of any faint comet that may be detected during the
bulk of the population of the island live by agriculture. The eclipse.
proportion of the agricultural class to the general population is The weather during the latter part of last week was excep. in Ceylon 70°5 ; in India 64'09 ; in England and Wales 15'44. tionally fine over England, the daily maxima being frequently Next in order of number comes the industrial class, which in. above 60°, and reaching 66° in the midland counties on Sunday, cludes something less than one-sixth, and after it the commerciai a temperature which is nearly 20° above the mean maximum for class, holding one-twentieth. The Ceylon Observer notes as the time of year. The nights, however, were very cold, owing remarkable the fact that in the Southern Province there is a to the radiation under a clear sky ; in some localities the read. larger Sinhalese industrial population than in any other proings on the grass were as low as 23° to 25°, and little, if any, vince-a result, it is supposed, attributable to the large number above freezing in the shade. These conditions were occasioned of people engaged in utilising the products of the cocoa-nut tree, by the distribution of atmospheric pressure, there being a well with a certain number of workers in jewellery, tortoise-shell, &c. detined anticyclone over the southern parts of England and over part of the continent. But in Scotland and Ireland the weather
Two Akka girls, who were rescued from Arab capturers by was much less settled ; low-pressure areas lay off the north of
Dr. Stuhlmann and his companions, have been brought to Scotland, causing gales and occasional rainfall, while hail Europe, and will remain in Germany for some months. In the occurred at Wick on Friday. At the beginning of the present
summer they will be taken back to Africa, where they will be week the barometer fell decidedly, the anticyclone moved to placed in some mission house, or otherwise provided for. They the eastward, and the type of weather underwent a complete
are supposed to be between seventeen and twenty years of age. change, sog becoming prevalent at many places in the southern
A correspondent of the Daily News, who saw them at Naples, parts of the kingdom, and on Tuesday a new depression reached
says they are well proportioned, and as tall as a boy of eight the north of Scotland, accompanied by rainy and unsettled years of age. Their behaviour is “infantile, wild, and shy, but weather generally. The official report for the week ending the
without timidity.” One of them was always cross, bending her urth instant showed that bright sunshine was more prevalent head, and glaring from beneath frowning brows; while the than it has been for many weeks, and that it exceeded the other often laughed joyously, was pleased with bead bracelets average amount in all districts ; also that there was a great of her fat nose her appreciation of some chocolate bonbons
and other trinkets given to her, and expressed by a queer soiff deficiency in the amount of rainfall in all districts, except in the north of Scotland.
After making a capital dinner on rice and meat," they greatly
enjoyed the sunshine in a pretty garden, where they gradually Das Wetter for February contains some particulars respecting grew more confident, and finally allowed themselves to be the extraordinarily high barometer readings during January. At photographed arm-in-arm with the little son of their bostes. the commencement of that month the isobar between Lapland " The coquettish one shook with laughter, and seemed to guess and Finland indicated the unusual height of 30'9 inches, which that a process was going on flattering to her vanity, while the increased to 31.I on the 3rd. On this day the centre of high cross one still looked gloomy and suspicious. They showed pressure was in the vicinity of the White Sea, the reading at neither wonder nor admiration of the people and things around Archangel being 31'2 inches, and at Kargopol, on the Onega, them in the artistically furnished house and tasteful garden; 313 inches. Such high readings in those parts in winter are their eyes, though large and lustrous, have less expression that the more noteworthy, owing to the frequent passage of depres. the ugly eyes of a monkey." These interesting representatives sions over the north of Europe during that season. Subse- of one of the pygmy races of the world are to be presented ta quently the high pressure area shifted to Eastern Siberia, where various scientific societies in Berlin.
An interesting address delivered by M. Paul Richer at the after careful investigation, strongly recommends the use of last meeting of the French Association for the Advancement artesian wells, the water of which, he says, would be of conof Science is printed in the current number of the Revue Scien. siderable quantity and excellent quality. tifique. The subject is the relation of anatomy to art. M. Richer gives a lucid account of the canons of the human figure simplicity can hardly be surpassed, is described by A. Handl in
An instrument for measuring densities of liquids, which for which have been adopted during various periods in the history
the Wiener Berichte. It consists of two glass tubes joined by of art, referring especially to those of the Greek sculptors Polycleitos and Lysippos and to those of Leonardo da Vinci,
an indiarubber tube. One of them is 30 cm. long and about Albert Dürer, and Jean Cousin. He then shows that we now
I cm. wide, and bears two marks scratched into the glass at a
distance of 20 cm. This tube is immersed in the liquid to be have materials for the establishinent of a scientific type of the proportions of the human body, so far at least as the white race
examined up to the lower mark. Meanwhile the other tube is is concerned. This type is not, of course, to be reproduced in totally immersed in water. On pulling it out the liquids in
both tubes rise until that in the first tube reaches the second the works of artists ; but M. Richer thinks it may be of real service to them as a guide çin the appreciation of the propor
mark. The height of the water-column, read off on a suitable tions of the different models they have from time to time to
scale, measures the density of the liquid. study.
MESSRS. SIMPKIN, MARSHALL AND Co have issued Miss MR. A. C. MACDONALD contributes to the Agricultural
Eleanor A. Ormerod's “Report of Observations of Injurious Journal of Cape Colony a full and interesting account of what
Insects and Common Farm Pests, during the Year 1892, with has been done to develop the dairy industry in Great Britain.
Methods of Prevention and Remedy." This is Miss Ormerod's Speaking of the same industry in Cape Colony, he says that it
sixteenth report. She notes that during 1892 most of the insect is there only in its infancy. This is largely due to the difficulty infestations commonly injurious to field crops and fruit were which farmers otherwise favourably circumstanced have had
present to such an extent as to cause inquiry as to their nature hitherto to contend with in the transport of their dairy products they did not affect large districts to a serious extent.
and as to methods of prevention, but that for the most part to market in good condition. Now, however, the extension and union of railways have more or less removed this difficulty, and A NEw scientific journal devoted to the interests of general many of the leading farmers, taking advantage of the facilities systematic botany has made its appearance, published at afforded by such extension and union, have greatly increased Chambésy, near Geneva, under the title Bulletin de l'Herbier their butter production. In fact, within the last two years the Boissier. increase in the manufacture of this commodity in the colony has A Botanical Dictionary, by Mr. A. A. Crozier, has just been very large. Mr. Macdonald sees no reason why in dis
been published by Holt and Co., of New York, containing tricts such as Alexandria, Bathurst, Peddie, Victoria East, Fort
definitions of over 5000 words. Beaufort, Albany, Port Elizabeth, Uitenhage, and East London, where it has now become difficult to farm with small stock or
Messrs. PerKEN, SON, AND RAYMENT have issued an illusgrow grain profitably, dairying should not prove as great a
trated catalogue of photographic apparatus, inagic lanterns, and success as it has done in the Australian colonies, which in some
optical instruments. respects are not so favourably situated as Cape Colony, pro- Messrs. WhittaKER AND Co. will issue in their Specialists' vided that the same means are used.
Series a work on “The Dynamo,” by C. C. Hawkins and F. The nucleus of a palæontological collection was formed at
Wallis, and a new edition of Sir David Salomons' work on the Johns Hopkins University five years ago by Dr. W. B.
“The Management of Accumulators.” They have also in Clark from the deposits of the Atlantic coastal plain. He was preparation in the Library of Popular Science an introductory able to gather together a very large amount of material owing work on “ Electricity and Magnetism,” by S. Bottone, and one to the richness of the formations in fossils and their accessibility
on “Geology,” by A. J. Jukes-Browne. Mr. Perren Maycock to the city of Baltimore; and since that time additions have has completed the second part of his work on
“Electric Lightbeen made each year by collection and by exchange with the ing and Power Distribution,” and it will be issued in a few National and State Surveys and educational institutions. we days. An illustrated work on “British Locomotives,” by C. learn from the new number of the University's “Circulars ”
J. Bowen Cooke, of the London and North-Western Railway, that there was a greater increase of the fossil collections during is in the press, and will probably be issued in May. Messrs. the past year than during any preceding one. This was accom
Whittaker have also in the press a new work by J. Horner ("A plished mainly by exchange and purchase, although a consider. Foreman Pattern-Maker "), entitled “ The Principles of Fitting,” able amount of material was collected in the field. Among the and the second part of Mr. Brodie's “Dissections Illustrated.” more notable additions was a collection sent in exchange by Mr. Messrs. GRIFFIN AND Co. announce “A Manual of Dyeing," G. F. Harris, of the British Museum. This collection is very by Dr. Knecht, Mr. Chr. Rawson, and Dr. R. Loewenthal ; rich in tertiary fossils, illustrating many of the typical English Oils, Fats, Waxes, and Allied Materials, and the Manufacture localities. It contains hundreds of species from the Eocene, therefrom of Candles, Soaps and other Products,” by Dr. C. Oligocene, and Pliocene of England. Owing to the fact that R. Alder Wright;“Painters' Colours, Oils, and Varnishes, by the richest and finest collections of the Palæontological Museum Mr. Geo. H. Hurst; “ Griffin's Electrical Price-Book,” edited of the University are from the American tertiary, these English by Mr. H. J. Dowsing ; the tenth annual issue of the “ Year. tertiary fossils are said to be of the highest interest and useful- Book of Learned and Scientific Societies; ” “A Treatise on ness to students of geology.
Ruptures,” by Mr. J. F. C. Macready ; “Forensic Medicine An interesting paper on Artesian wells as a water supply and Toxicology,” by Prof. Dixon Mann ; “The Medical Disfor Philadelphia was lately read by Prof. 0. C. S. Carter eases of Children," by Mr. Bryan Donkin ; “A Medical Handbefore the chemical section of the Franklin Institute. A long book for the Use of Students,” by Mr. R. S. Aitchison ; " The continued drought caused much inconvenience at Philadelphia Physiologist's Note-Book,” by Dr. W. Hill; and "A Textduring the summer of 1892, so that the inhabitants would be Book of Biology," by Prof. J. R. Ainsworth Davis. likely to welcome any practicable suggestion for providing them MESSRS. L. REEVE AND Co. have in preparation a new work with new supplies of fresh and wholesome water. Prof. Carter, on the British Aculeate Hymenoptera from the pen of Mr.