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s bearings were outside the steel chamber, and that the rater was thrown from the bottom to the lid of the calori. leter.
More than 100 experiments were performed (many of them isting several hours) in order to determine the value of
+ple, -0.), when the calorimeter contained different masses I water. The harmony amongst the results was satisfactory.
The pressure in the space between the calorimeter and the alls of the steel chamber was reduced, as a rule, to between 0-3 id 10mm.
The absolute value of the loss by radiation, &c., at different ressures was ascertained, and it was found that the rate of gain loss decreased very rapidly when the pressure was reduced low Oʻ5 mm. II is the rate of rise due to the non-electrical supply,
over different ranges we can find f without previously obtaining l;
TABLE XLI.–VALUES OF T AT 15°, 20°, AND 25° C.
od) that due to the electrical supply,
. . IR' M
. . . . . . (2) 81). J.R'.M' . .
col. vere R' is the resistance of the coil, and M' the capacity for at of the calorimeter and its contents at a temperature , Throughout the experiments E was kept constant, the
From this table we obtain the following results :angement for maintaining the ends of the coil at a con
Specific heat of water at 25° in terms nt potential difference worked admirably, and it is probable
of water at 15°,deduced from columns u in no case did the variations exceed 1/10,000 of the mean
4 and 6 ........... = o'99734 tential difference during each experiment.
Ditto from columns 4 and 5 .... = 0.99722 The value of R was determined by a direct comparison (con
Ditto from columns 5 and 6 .... = 0.99746 cted by Mr. Glazebrook) with the B. A. standards and ues of R were expressed in true ohms as defined in the B. A.
Mean ...... = 0.99734 port, 1892. The difference between the temperature of the coil and that
Hence, adopting 15o C. as the standard temperature, the the surrounding water was ascertained, and the resulting Specific Heat of Water = 1 -0.000266 (1-15).1 ference of resistance was found to be such that 8R= '00422n?, ere a was the number of Clark cells by which the potential
Also by means of equation (15) we get the following values erence at the end of the coil was maintained.
of J :Che mercury thermometers were standardised by direct com.
Columns 4 and 6 ... ... ... J = 4'1939 x 107 ison with several platinum thermometers, and a further com
4 , 5 ... ... ... J = 4.1940 X 137 ison has (through the kindness of Dr. Guillaume) been
, 5 , 6 ... ... ... J = 4'1940 X 107 de with the Paris hydrogen standard. The difference obled by the two methods in the value of the range is only
Mean ... ... ... J = 4'1940 x 10? 5C. The various quantities in equation (2) having been determined
This value of J, as previously pointed out (equation 5), is
entirely independent of the value assigned to the water equivalent th the exception of J and M'), we can deduce from equation
1 of the calorimeter. the time (T) of rising 1° C at any point of our range when
And we find the water equivalent of the calorimeter at 15° C. = I wand E is the potential difference of one Clark cell at
in terms of water at 15° C. = 85'340 grams. The water equiC.
valent of the calorimeter at 25° Č. in terms of water at 150*C. Ve thus get
= 86.174 grams. ..M' = T..........(3)
Hence water equivalent = 85'3401 + 0.000977(t - 15).
We can now find the capacity for heat of the calorimeter and iw be the weight of water, and we the water equivalent of contents for any weight of water at 15, 20°, and 25° C., calorimeter at the standard temperature, and if f and g be and deduce the value of J from each group separately. temperature coefficients of their specific heats, then
Table XLIII.–VALUES OF J. M' = 2(1 + fo, - 6) + wz(1 + 30, - 0); се
250 Mean. w(1 +70,- 0) + W. (1 + 30,- 0)} = T . . (4)
- - ---
4'1940 x 107 4'1940 x 107 4:1939 x 107 4:1940 repeating observations with different weights of water, wi
4'1930 , 4'1941 , 4'1949 , W2, and observing T, and T., the corresponding times, we
4'1939 ! 4'1938
4'1937 in by subtraction
| 31938 4'1940 4'1939 41940
4'1940 E (W2 - 27) (1 + fo, - 0) = T, - T, ...(5)
4:1938 , 4'1940 ! 4'1943 ,
ice when , = @(i.e. at the standard temperature) we can
4'1940 J without first ascertaining the values of f, g, or the water valent of the calorimeter, and by repeating the observations We have in the above table given the values resulting from r = rise in temperature per a second due to the stirring. p = gain | the calculation at different temperatures, for the limit of our $in temperature per i second due to radiation, &c., when - = experimental errors is thus clearly indicated, since the values of The pressures were ascertained by a McLeod's gauge.
1 Over the range 14° to 26° C.
J ought in the absence of experimental errors) to be identical aniline dyes. When you mix an opaque oil blue with its com at all temperatures. The close agreement between the values plementary orange-yellew and get a green it is because the light from different groups, and from the same group at different only passes through a very thin superficial film of the mixture temperatures, is a satisfactory proof of the accuracy of our and a paint which is orange-yellow in the mass is only a pale determination of the water equivalents of the calorimeter, and | yellow in a thin film, and transmits the green spectral ray of the changes in it and in the capacity for heat of the water. stopped by the orange-yellow. In this case, therefore, the the Hence, if we assume
film of paint which alone affects the light is not a mixture 1 1. The unit of resistance as defined in the “B.A. Report," | blue and its complementary orange-yellow, but only a mixture 1892;
of blue and pale yellow. 2. That the E.M.F. of the Cavendish Standard Clark cell at In the case of Maxwell's colour discs you get a gray 15° C. = 1'4342 volts; 1
if the blue and yellow are complementary, or a green er 3. That the thermal unit = quantity of heat required to raise red if they are not, just as in the case of mixtures di i gram of water through 1° C. at 15° C.,
transparent pigments. Complementary pigments are simpi the most probable value of
those which between them absorb all spectral rays ; thus blue J = 4:1940 107.?
absorbs red, yellow, and some green, and the complementary
orange-yellow absorbs violet, blue, and some green. A mistore This, by reduction, gives the following:
of these pigments on the palette-if transparent enough-o J = 427-45 kilogramme-metres in latitude of Greenwich the Maxwell's disc absorbs, therefore, the light which falls apon 6 = 981:17).
it from all parts of the spectrum in about equal proportions. I J = 1402'2 foot-pounds per thermal unit C in latitude of
examined by the spectroscope the mixture of pigments and the Greenwich (z = 32-195).
rotating disc both give a dim, unbroken spectrum identical wich J = 778 99 foot-pounds per thermal unit F in latitude of
that of white paper held in half light. In our study of vision Greenwich (s = 32'195).
we have to deal with the stimulus-spectral rays—and there The length of this abstract is already unduly great, and we
sulting sensations. Inasmuch as the stimulus-the light of will, therefore, not enter on any discussion of the results beyond
dim, unbroken spectrum-is the same whether the eye looks 1 remarking that if we express Rowland's value of J in terms of a mixture of blue and orange yellow on a palette, at a Maxwels our thermal unit we exceed his value by i part in 930, and we disc, or again at a piece of white paper held in half light, the re exceed the mean of Joule's determination by i part in 350.3 sulting sensation must in all cases be the same--we call it grey
The difference between Rowland's value of the temperature white. In the case of the rotating Maxwell's disc experiment wears coefficient of the specific heat of water and ours would, however, not dealing with the fusion of blue and orange-yellow sensation cause both his and our values of J to be identical if expressed in but the adding together of two halves of the spectrum to mase terms of athermal unit at 11'5° C.
a whole one. Once understood, the physiologist will discar: March 2.-" The Effects of Mechanical Stress on the Elec. the experiment altogether, as it has no bearing upon color trical Resistance of Metals." By James H. Gray, M. A., B.Sc., vision, and James B. Henderson, B.Sc., International Exhibition The work of Sprengel, Darwin, and especially of Sir Toks Scholars, Glasgow University. Communicated by Lord Kelvin, Lubbock, shows that the colour sense has gradually been evolred! P.R.S.
by the coloured environment of the species. We may infer that This investigation was begun for the purpose of obtaining an in the ancestral condition in which light was distinguished from easily worked method of testing the effect of any mechanical darkness, but blue was undistinguishable say from red, all visual treatment on the density and specific resistance of metals. stimuli were felt as white or various shades of grey. The greate
For alteration of density, copper, lead, and manganese the amount of spectral light the nearer the sersation approache! copper wires were tested. The effect of stretching was always white. This, if accepted, explains why the outer and less used to diminish the density, the alteration being small however : for parts of the retina are colour blind in the human eye at the precopper about 5 per cent., and for lead per cent. The effect sent day, and further explains why a minimal stimulus from: of drawing through holes in a steel plate was somewhat greater, coloured object gives rise to a sensation grey. Just as we may showing at first an increase of 2 per cent. ; and, when the draw. smell something, but require to "sniff,” in order to make a ing was continued, the density began to diminish till, after what it is, so the coloured object held far away may give fee drawing from diameter 2 mm. to 1'3 mm., it showed an increase only to the primitive sensation grey, and has to be brought Dearer on its original value of io per cent. Several other interesting | in order that its colour quality can be felt. results on alteration of density were obtained.
We may explain the fact that an artificial mixture of specs The most important part of the investigation, however, green and red gives rise to the sensation yellow by the fact that relates to the alteration of specific resistance of copper, iron,
coloured objects which send to the eye red and green rays I've and steel wire due to stretching; and, in connection with this, send the intermediate yellow ; these objects give rise to the seasthe authors wish particularly to emphasise the advantages to
tion yellow, and we call them by that name. Inasmuch as ths be gained from using the unit of specific resistance introduced
association of red and green rays has in the evolution of the exc by Weber, who always defined it in weight measure, that is, as always combined with yellow rays to produce the sensa: the resistance of a length of the metal numerically equal to its
yellow, we can explain, as an instance of association, the fac density and section unity.
that artificially combined red and green rays produce a yelica The conclusions arrived at are that for practical purposes any
sensation. mechanical treatment, however severe, does not affect the When, say, red and blue-green spectral rays are artifal electrical properties of the metals tested. As contrasted with combined, they produce a grey sensation, and this we me this, it is interesting to note that the smallest impurity in the
| explain by the fact that no fully coloured natural object send metal produces a greater change than the most severe me
to the eye such a combination, which combination, therefore chanical treatment. For example, an impurity of 4 per cent. | played no part in the evolution of the colour sense, ad & lowers the electrical conductivity by 13'5 per cent., while an produces merely a primitive sensation of simple brightness-t: impurity of 4 per cent. lowers it as much as 30 per cent.
or grey. "A New Hypothesis concerning Vision."
That a coloured object brightly illuminated appears in
By John Berry Haycraft, M.D., D.Sc. Communicated by E. A. Schäfer, F.R.S.
follows the law of maximal stimulation, for in this car The author pointed out that when a blue pigment is mixed
the object absorbs so slight a proportion of the light from a with its complementary pigment-orange-yellow-it makes a
one part of the spectrum that that part gives rise to its mans grey, not a green as is generally stated.
In effect, and the rest of the spectrum can do no more.
This can be shown by the use of transparent colours, such as watery solutions of the
case, therefore, the eye is affected equally (maximally) by all
of the spectrum, and we have of course the sensation of white i If we assume the E.M.F. of our Clark cells to be the same as that of the The above view is an attempt to explain some of the fac si Cavendish standard (and we are inclined to think we have over-estimated the difference), we get J=4'1930 X 107.
vision by showing that they are on all fours with other fe ? The value obtained by us in 1891 = (4.192 +) X 107.
known to the physiologist. This seems to the author a 3 Rowland obtained the mean value of Joule's determinations by assign scientific method than the one adopted by Young and Helme ing values to different experiments, and the above comparison refers to the
who “conceive" a visual apparatus, and endow it with numbers thus obtained. If, however, we attach equal weight to all Joule's results, as reduced by Rowland, the mean exceeds our value by 1 in 428o,
properties as will, in their opinion, account for the facts of assuming our expression for the temperature coefficient of the specific heat sensation. of water.
Chemical Society, February 16.-Prof. A. Crum Brown, - The hydrates of hydrogen chloride, by S. U. Pickering. F.R.S., President, in the chair. - It was announced that the | Determinations of the densities of aqueous solutions of hydrogen following changes in the Council were proposed by the Council | chloride show a strongly-marked break indicative of the presence for the ensuing year :-President, Prof. H. E. Armstrong, vice of a trihydrate. The author has obtained this hydrate in the Prof. Crum Brown. Vice-Presidents : Dr. E. Atkinson and solid state by making a series of freezing point determinations ; Mr. C. O'Sullivan, vice Prof. Hartley and Mr. Warington. | it forms large, transparent crystals melting at - 24o9. The Secretary, Prof. Dunstan, vice Prof. Armstrong. Ordinary densities also indicate the existence of a change of curvature at Members of the Council : Messrs. C. F. Cross, Bernard Dyer, a point corresponding to a hexhydrate ; the freezing-point de. Lazarus Fletcher, and W. A. Shenstone, vice Mr. H. Bassett, terminations afford no evidence for or against the existence of Prof. Ferguson, Mr. J. Heron, and Mr. S. U. Pickering.-The this substance, but the presence of a decahydrate was indicated. following papers were read : Note on the preparation of -A new base from Corydalis cava, by J. A. Dobbie and A. platinous chloride, and on the interaction of chlorine and mer Lauder. By exhausting crude corydaline with hot water the cury, by W. A. Shenstone and C. R. Beck. The authors find authors have isolated a new alkaloid of the composition that very pure specimens of chlorine may be prepared by igniting C9H2NO,, which they term corytuberine ; this alkaloid conplatinous chloride obtained by heating hydrogen platinichloride tains only two methoxy-groups, whilst corydaline contains four. in a current of dry hydrogen chloride. On passing the dry gas A number of its salts are described. The authors also give for fifteen hours over the platinichloride at the boiling point of some notes on yet another alkaloid, which they consider to be mercury and igniting the residue in vacuo, chlorine was obtained distinct from all the bases of Corydalis cava hitherto described. which contained 99.84 per cent. of the gas. A portion of the February 20.—Lord Playfair, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the platinous chloride obtained in this experiment was heated at chair.—This being the anniversary of the death of Hermann 500° in a current of dry hydrogen chloride during many hours ; on Kopp, Prof. T. E. Thorpe delivered a memorial lecture enthen igniting the residue, chlorine was evolved which when titled “ The Life Work of Hermann Kopp.' treated with mercury only lest a residue of o'o6 per cent. unab. sorbed. The platinous chloride made by the above method
PARIS. probably contain a little platinum, but as a source of chlorine, it seems to be superior to the product of more familiar processes.
Academy of Sciences, March 6.-M. Læwy in the chair. The second sample of chlorine mentioned above acted very
-On a partial differential equation, by Émile Picard. - On the sluggishly on mercury ; this fact, considered in connection with
spectro-photographic method which makes it possible to obtain the great purity of the gas, supports the authors' view that the
photographs of the chromosphere, faculæ, protuberances, &c., activity of chlorine towards mercury is probably due to the
by M. J. Janssen. This method was outlined by M. Janssen as presence of imparity in the former.-The action of phosphoric
early as 1869, at the Exeter meeting of the British Association.anhydride on fatty acids. Part III., by F. S. Kipping. In the
Analysis of the ashes of the diamond, by M. Henri Moissan. All present paper the author shows that caprylone (C,H15),CO,
the specimens of the carbonado and Cape diamond analysed connonylone (C,H1),CO, and myristone (CizH,7),CÓ, can be
tained iron, as shown by the potassium sulphocyanide reaction. readily prepared from the corresponding fatty acids by the action
This metal formed the larger portion of the ashes. Silicium of phosphoric anhydride ; a number of derivatives of these
also occurred regularly, and calcium very frequently. It will be ketones are described. Mixed ketones of the general formula
remembered that this alkaline earthy metal was found by M. R.CO.R' are produced when a mixture of two fatty acids is
Daubrée in native iron from Ovifak.-On some new properties treated with phosphoric anhydride at a moderately high
of the diamond, by M. Henri Moissan (see Notes). — The pantemperature ; the mixed ketone is, however, accompanied by
creas and the nervous centres controlling the glycemic function, two simple ketones. Treatment with phosphoric anhydride
by MM. A. Chauveau and M. Kaufmann. The inhibitory would seem to be one of the simplest and most rapid methods
action exerted by the pancreas on the glycogenic function of the by which the ketone (C.Hgn+1),CO can be prepared from a fatty
liver appears to be dependent upon an excito-secretory centre acid C,H2.0.g. -Regularities in the inelting points of certain
controlling the cells performing the internal secretion of the paraffinoid compounds of similar constitution, by F. S. Kipping.
pancreas. This centre is situated in the encephalic portion of The author has prepared and characterised a number of
The spinal cord, and the inhibitory impulse acts through this hydroximes, secondary alcohols and ethereal salts derived from
centre upon an excito-secretory centre controlling the glycogenic the fatty ketones (CnH2n+1),CO and draws attention to certain
activity of the liver. The removal of ihe pancreas eliminates regularities observed on comparing the melting points of these
this control, and renders an excessive activity of the liver more compounds. The melting points of all ketones of the
serious.—The fixation of torrents and the planting of the mount. general formula C H2O cannot be calculated by means
ains, by M. Chambrelent. It has been calculated that in the last of the formula given by Mills (Phil. Mag. 1884), inas
forty years France has suffered losses amounting to 700 much as isomeric ketones frequently melt at different
million francs due to inundations in places where the mountains temperatures.-Some relations between constitution and were not wooded sufficiently to check the ravages of mountain physical constants in the case of benzenoid amines, by W.
torrents after heavy rain. 'The Chamber has recently voted R. Hodgkinson and L. Limpach. A study of the formyl and a sum of 2,600,000 frcs. for the planting of the mountains, and acetyl derivatives of certain homologues of aniline shows, (1) it is hoped that the work will be completed in twelve or fifteen that the entry of alkyl groups into the nucleus affects the years.-On the cause of the variations of terrestrial latitude, by melting and boiling points in a regular manner; (2) that the M. Hugo Gylden.-On some new derivatives of phenolphtalein conversion of formyl into acetyl also involves an alteration in and fluoresceîn, by MM. A. Haller and A. Guyot. -On the physical properties in extent the same as that produced by
diameters of Jupiter's satellites, by M. J. J. Landerer.-On a introducing CH, into the nucleus in an ortho- or para position
class of dynamical problems, by M. P. Staeckel.-On surfaces relatively to the amido-group, and (3) that the same (or any ?) whose principal planes are equidistant from a fixed point, by alkyl group entering the nucleus in the meta-positions has no
M. Guichard. -On a theorem of M. Stieltjes, by M. Cahen. effect on melting or boiling point. Several numerical regularities
On a partial differential equation of the second order, by M. J. are also apparent.-Electrolysis of sodic ethylic camphorate, by
Weingarten.-On the calculation of stability of ships, by M. E. J. Walker. On electrolysis, sodium ethyl canıphorate yields
Guyon.-On electric waves in wires, and electric force in the the ethyl salts of two new acids, viz. campholytic acid,
vicinity of a conductor, by M. Birkeland.-Oscillographs ; new C.H . COOH, and camphotetic acid, C&H,,(COOH). The
apparatus for the study of slow electric oscillations, by M. A. first of these is a monabasic, unsaturated acid boiling at
Blondel. - Photographic reproduction of gratings and micro240 - 242". It is lævo-rotatory, but gives a dextro-rotatory
meters engraved on glass, by M. Izarn. Ammonium bichromate ethyl salt. Camphoteric acid is a colourless crystalline solid,
in gelatine gives better results than either collodion or silver inclting at 132° ; it bebaves as a saturated, bibasic acid and
salts in gelatine. Copies of microscopic divided scales and forms well-characterised salts. Judging from the nature of the gratings were obtained easily and with certainty, and reflection electrolysis and the behaviour of campholytic acid towards gratings were produced by employing silvered instead of plane bromine, camphoric acid should contain the group
glass. - Concerning the direct-reading stereo-collimator of M, de
Place, by M. R. Arnoux.-On the industrial preparation of HC.COOH
aluminium, by M. A. Ditte. The alkaline aluminates are
decomposed by water, and even in the presence of an excess of -C. cooh
alkali ihe introduction of a few crystals of aluminium hydrate | into the solution suffices to prevent the establishment of equili.
gave an i
brium and to effect the decomposition of the aluminate, the amplitude of variation is greater in the forest. The speaker had rapidity of the reaction being increased by well stirring. In however found, from a careful perusal of the existing data, and the industrial process of obtaining aluminium from bauxite, from comparative determinations made in the forests Der these crystals are provided by adding to the sodium Eberswalde, that the results so far obtained are markedl, aluminate a little of the deposit obtained by treating it with a affected by radiation. The true temperatures of the air insuke current of carbon dioxide in the cold, a deposit which consists and outside the forest have not yet been measured, and for this of crystallised aluminium hydrate. The gelatinous hydrate has purpose it would be necessary to use an aspiration-thermometer. no such effect. The alumina precipitated is very pure. Sub Determinations of humidity are similarly adversely affected by stances such as silica and phosphoric acid, dissolved out of the wind and by evaporation due to air-currents. In this car bauxite by the caustic soda employed, remain in solution. -On accurate results would be obtained by means of an aspiration the isomerism of the amido-benzoic acids, by M. Oechsner de psychrometer. Prof. Sprung communicated an observation de Coninck.-On the dimorphism of the chloroplatinate of di. had made at the Potsdam meteorological institute on the recet: methylamine, by M. Le Bel.-On inuline and two new coldest day in January. While endeavouring to find the most proximate bodies--pseudo-inuline and inulenine, by M. C. suitable position for a thermometer, he observed, while using Tanret.-Absorbing action of cotton on dilute solutions of sub similar aspiration-thermometers, the following simultaneous limate, by M. Léo Vignon.-Remarkable resistance of animals | temperatures at four different places, viz. -23°, -23°, - 18". of the genus Capra against the effects of morphine, by M, L. | and® - 17o. The four places were : (1) in an adjoining meadow Guinard.-Alterations of molecular tissue in the barbel due to two metres above the ground; (2) at the north side of the ob the presence of myxosporidia and microbes, by M. P. Thélo- servatory two metres above the ground ; (3) two metres abok han.-On the maxillary apparatus of the Eunicidæ, by M. Jules the platform of the tower; and (4) at the cage of the apenoBonnier.-On the perfume of orchids, by M. Eugène Mesnard. meter seven metres above the platform. Hence the temperatut
Experimental researches on the mole and on the treatment of l at the comparatively slight elevation of the anemometer was 6 his disease, by M. Julien Constantin.--A disease of the endive, higher than at the ground, whereas usually the same for by M. Prillieux ; remarks by M. Arm. Gautier.-On the thermometers showed a slight fall of temperature at the greater morphology of the cellular nucleus in the Spyrogyras and the elevation. resulting phenomena in this plant, by M. Ch. Decagny. -Disvery of Mastodon Borsoni at Rousillon, by M. A. Donnezan.
BOOKS RECEIVED. Con the use of soluble cartridges in oceanographic measure L'Art, de Chiffrer et Déchiffrer les Déspéches Secrètes; Maxents and experiments, by M. 1. Thoulet.--Temperatures ob de Viaris (Paris, Gauthier Villars).-Traité Pratique de Calorimed ved in the winter of 1789 at Montbéliard, by M. Contejean.
Chimique : M. Berthelot (Paris, Gauthier-Villars).-The Poets and Naturt
Balfour (Percival).--Discussion of the Precision of Measurements: S
Holman (K. Paul).-Report of Observations of Injurious lasects zal Physical Society, January 20.-Prof. Kundt, President, in
Common Farm Pests during the Year 1892: E. A. Ormerod (Simpkin)e chair.—Dr. Haentzsch spoke on the potential equation,
Some Lectures by the late Sir G. E. Paget, edited from MSS, WE
the British Echinoderms in the British Museum (Natural History): F communication on the results of his own investigations. Jeffrey Bell (London).-Lehrbuch der Allgemeinen Chemie, 2 vols. : Dt 0 cof. Planck explained the arrangement and principle of a truly.
Ostwald (Leipzig, Engelmann).-The Mechanics of the Earth's 4
sphere : C. Abbe (Washington).- Das Horizontalpendel: Dr. E rr ned harmonium, built on the system of C. Eitz, and bequeathed
Rebeur. Paschwitz (Halle).-A Manual of Ethics : J. S. Mackenzie (Chee, to the Physical Institute. The instrument includes four and a half - Notes on Astronomy: S. P. Johnston, edited by J. Lowe (J. Heyacc. octaves, and possesses special notes, arranged in several rows -L'Aquarium d'Eau Douce: H. Coupin (Paris, J. B. Baillère) -
ind distinguished by four different colours, for the fifths, the Lichens : A. Aclocque (Paris, J. B. Baillière).-Éléments de Paléontologi maior and minor thirds, and the major and minor sixths. The 1 première partie : F. Bernard (Paris, J. B. Baillière).- Der Nord-Os
Kanal : C. Beseke (Kiel, Lipsius and Tischer).--Catalogue of Amand! ure intonation of the harmonium enables it to be used with far ! Localities of Minerals : Prof. E. S. Dana (Gay and Bird). Greater success than one which is “tempered,” for demonStrating that our ear accommodates itself to concords which are
PAGE not quite pure, and is influenced in its discrimination of concords by the recollection of tones heard previously. The instrument
Macpherson's Fauna of Lakeland ... is not suited for concert purposes.
The Evolution of Double Stars. By Prof. G. H.
Darwin, F.R.S. ... Physiological Society, February 3.-Prof. du Bois Rey- | Magnetic Induction in Iron and other Metals. By mond, President, in the chair.-Prof. Gad opened a discussion
E. W ilson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on the communication made by Prof. Behring at the last meeting
Our Book Shelf:of the Society (see NATURE, vol. xlvii. p. 336). The dis
Zacharias : “Forschungsberichte aus der Biologischen cussion turned chiefly on the applicability of the results of Prof.
Station zu Plön”... Behring's experiments to the treatment of tetanus in man. Dr.
Taylor : “ The British Journal Photographic Almanac Wernicke exhibited diphtheritic cultures which had been kept
for 1893” .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . for more than a year, and still developed rapidly in either agar,
Barry : "Studies in Corsica" .......... gelatine, or broth. He then demonstrated on dissected guinea
Letters to the Editor :pigs the more important symptoms of diphtheritic infection,
Luminous Earthworms. -Rev. Hilderic Friend viz, edema at the place of inoculation, hyperæmia of the liver,
Quaternions and the Algebra of Vectors.-Prof. J. kidneys, and adrenals, serous exudations in the abdomen and
Willard Gibbs , thorax. He next exhibited some guinea-pigs which, after
Glacial Drift of the Irish Channel.-Prof. Grenville inoculation with the bacilli of diphtheria, had been treated with
A. J. Cole ... blood-serum from other animals immune to diphtheria and had The Sacred Nile. By J, Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. 404 been thereby cured. It was found that the longer the intervai
The Landslip at Sandgate. (With Diagram.) By which elapsed after inoculation before the curative serum was
Prof. J. F. Blake ............ administered, the greater was the dose of the serum required to
Notes ................ ... 0 effect a cure. He finally reported on experiments on dogs in
Our Astronomical Column:which immunity and recovery after inoculation had been
Comet Holmes (1892 III.).... similarly attained.
The Sizes of Jupiter's Satellites .... Meteorological Society, February 7.-Prof. von Bezold, Observations of the Zodiacal Light... President, in the chair. --Dr. Schubert gave an account of recent Weinek's Lunar Enlargements ... researches on the influence of forests on the temperature and
L'Astronomie for March .... humidity of the air, with special reference to certain forests in Bermerside Observatory ..... Austria. So far only the experiments made in Podolia in a Geographical Notes ..... leafy forest on level ground have led to uniformly positive The Chatham Islands and an Antarctic Continent results. From these it appears that the forest lowers the mean Archæological Work in America. By Prof. Patnama temperature of the air, but only in so far that the temperature at University and Educational Intelligence... 8 p.m. is much lower than that existing in the open country,
Societies and Academies .......... that at 2 p.m. it is higher than in the open, and that the daily Books Received ..............
Mathematical Instrument Manufacturer to H.M. Government, Council of
India, Science and Art Department, Admiralty, &c. Mathematical, Drawing, and Surveying Instruments
of every description, Of the Highest Quality and Finish, at the most Moderate Prices.
Illustrated Price List Post Free. W. F. S. obtained the only Medal in the Great Exhibition of 1862 for Excellence of Construction of Mathematical Instruments, and the only GOLD MEDAL in the International Inventions Exhibition 1885 for Mathematical Work. Silver Medal, Architects' Exhibition, 1886.
Address :-GREAT TURNSTILE, HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C.
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.
THURSDAY, MARCH 16. ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.—The Croonian Lecture, on the Position of
Pathology among the Biological Sciences: Prof. Rudolf Virchow,
For. Mem. R.S. (in the Theatre of the London University). LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Botanical Results of the Sierra Leone Boundary
Commission : G. F. Scott Elliot.-Contributions to the Arthropod Fauna
of the West Indies : R. I. Pocock. CHEMICAL Society, at 8.-Limits of Accuracy of Gold-bullion Assav and the Losses of Gold Incidental to it : T. K. Rose. - Boiling-Poin: of Liquid Nitrous Oxide at Atmospheric Pressure and on the Melting Point of Solid Nitrous Oxide : W. Ramsay, F.R.S., and Dr. John Shields.-Isomerism of Aliphatic Aldoximes : W. R. Dunstan and T. Dymond.- Formic Aldox. ime : W. R. Dunstan.- Properties of a Benzaldoxime : W. R. Dunstan
and M. C. Luxmore. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3. -The Great Revival-A Study in Medieval History: Rev. Augustus Jessopp.
FRIDAY, MARCH 17. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Ancient Egyptian Pigments : Dr. William James Russell, F.R.S.
SATURDAY, MARCH 18. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Sound and Vibrations : The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S.
SUNDAY, MARCH 19. SUNDAY LECTURE Society, at 4.-An Hour with the Microscope, with
Illustrations from Insect Forms (with Oxy-hydrogen Lantern Illustrations): Gerard Smith.
MONDAY, MARCH 20. ARISTOTELIAN SOCIETY, at 8.—The Philosophy of Jacob Behmen: C. C. VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 8.—Buddha and the Light of Asia : R. Collins.
TUESDAY, MARCH 21. ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.30.-On the Tasmanians as Representatives of Palæolithic Man, with Exhibition of Tasınanian Stone Implements : Dr. Edward B. Tylor, F.R.S.-Burial Customs in Modern Greece: Prof. Politis.-The Cave Paintings of Australia : Rev. John
Mathew. ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, at 7.45 (at 28 Jermyn Street, S.W.).
Progress of the External Trade of the United Kingdom in Recent Years : Stephen Bourne. INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Monthly Reception by the
President and Council.-The Breakdown of the Umbria : Thomas
Sopwith. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Physical and Psychical Neurology: Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S.
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 22. GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Jaw of a New Carnivorous Dinosaur
from the Oxford Clay of Peterborough: R. Lydekker.-On a Mammalian Incisor from the Wealden of Hastings: R. Lydekker.-On an Intrusion of Muscovite-Biotite Gneiss in the South-Eastern Highlands of Scotland, and its accompanying 'Thermometamorphism : George Barrow (communicated by permission of the Director-General of the Geological Survey).
THURSDAY, MARCH 23. ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30. Royal INSTITUTION, at 3.—The Great Revival-A Study in Medieval History : Rev. Augustus Jessopp.
FRIDAY, MARCH 24. PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.- On the Differential Equation of Electric Flow :
T. H. Blakesley.-Experiments on the Viscosity of Liquids : Prof. Perry,
J. Graham, and L. W. Heath. INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 7.30.- Some Points in the Regu
lation of Direct-Current Motors: Francis G. Baily. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Interference Bands and their Applications : Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S.
SATURDAY, MARCH 25. ROYAL BOTANIC SOCIETY, at 3.45. ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Sound and Vibrations : The Right Hon. Lord
London Address : 12 FENCHURCH STREET, E.C.
(W. B. ALLISON, AGENT.) ESTABLISHED 1876.
PLATTNER'S COMPLETE BLOWPIPE LABORATORY.
For Geologists, Mineralogists, Prospectors, &c. For Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis ; comprises Collapsible Glass Case Assay Balance, 74 pieces of Apparatus, 36 Chemicals. The Tools in Polished Mahogany cases, lined with cloth, locks and keys. The complete set contained in a solid black leather travelling case. Very compact, £25 12s. 6d. WILLIAM HUME, 1 Lothian Street, Edinburgh.
TO SCIENCE LECTURERS. See Mr. HUGHES'S PATENT COMBINATION OPTICAL LANTERN, used by late W. LANT CARPENTER, Esq., Prof. Forbes. New Triple constructed for B. J. MALDEN, Esq., this season. New Oxyhydrogen Microscope. Grand Results. Docwra Triple, Prize Medal, Highest Award. Supplied to the Royal Polytechnic Institution, Dr. H. GRATTAN GUINNESS, Madame ADELINA PATTI, &c. Patent Pamphagos Lantern Science Lecture Sets. Novelties Cheapest and Best. Elaborately Illustrated Catalogue 300 pages, IS.; Postage, 5d. Smaller do., 6d. Pamphlets Free.-HUGHES, SPECIALIST, Brewster House, Mortimer Road, Kingsland, N.
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