« PreviousContinue »
Here, in conclusion, I may briefly mention an instance of different sort of fax—the west and the woof of these mats were their correct discrimination on the contrary side, clearly showing not both taken from the same kind of flax ; the second, tha how well and closely the ancient New Zealander agreed in his extremely soft lustrous appearance was given to the flax-fibre opinion of a plant with the highly civilized scientific visitor al by repeated tawing done at different times—it was a pretty ready named above, the botanist Forster. Forster named the sight to see the various skeins of flax-fibres in their several Coprosma genus from the fetid odour of the first species he dis stages of preparation neatly hung up in the weaving-shed ; the covered in the South Island, which signification he also con third, that in the weaving of one of these garments, if a tinued in its specific name, C. fætidissima : this shrub also bears thread showed itself of a different shade of colour, that part of a similar Maori name, hupiro, highly expressive of its very dis- the garment was carefully unravelled to take it out, and to subagreeable smell.
stitute another better suited in its stead. It was also from this of their Textile Manufactures. These were formerly pro superior knowledge and close attention to their work that the minent among the great industrial achievements of the Maoris, | principal chiefs frequently took women who were clever a and always elicited ihe admiration of their wondering visitors. making those things to be their wives, in order to secure to
I divide them into two great classes-(I) of garments, which themselves their valued manufactures. were woven ; and (2) of threads, cords, lines, and ropes, which | They also wove very good and useful floor and bed-mats of were spun,
unscraped flax-leaves, split into narrow lengths and carefully Nature had given to the Maoris one of her choicest gifts in bleached in the sun-These were very strong and lasting ; also the well-known flax plant (Phormium), of which there are two baskets and kits of all sizes. Some of them were woven in ascertained and valid species (P. tenax and P. colensoi), and regular patterns with black (dyed) and uncoloured flax ; others several varieties. These plants are pretty general throughout were skilfully and pleasingly semi-damasked if I may so term New Zealand, and are well known to the Maoris by the com- it) by changing sides to the flax-leaves used to form the pattern, mon names of harakeke, wharanui, wharariki, and tihore- the upper side of the leaf being smooth and shining, the under excluding those of the many varieties as known to them. side not shining and of a glaucous colour. The little kit, a So that what they may have lost on the one hand through not basket, for a first-born child was often a little gem of weaving having the valuable wild edible fruits of other South Sea art, and made by the mother. islands (as the cocoanut, bread-fruit, plantain, &c.) they more Besides the flax plant they had other fibrous plants whos than merely gained in their flax plant, which is also common, leaves and fibres were also used in making articles of dress : I and almost endemic, being only found outside New Zealand in the toii (Cordyline indivisa), of which they made black everlasting Norfolk Island.
wraps or cloaks. The making of these was confined to the And here I may briefly mention an anecdote of the flax natives of the mountainous interior, where alone those plants plant. On my arrival in this country the Maoris (who knew grow. (2) The long orange.coloured leaves of the pingao (Desme nothing, or very little, of any other land) would olten inquire schænus spiralis),a prostrate spreading sea-side plant, also afforded after the vegetable productions of England ; and nothing them good materials for weaving uselul solded belts, which were astonished them more than to be told there was no harakeke strong and looked and wore well, and were highly valued. (3) The growing there. On more than one occasion I bave heard chiefs climbing kiekie (Freycinetia banksii) was also used ; likewise the say, “How is it possible to live there without it?" also, “I long, slender, and soft leaves of the kahakaha (Astelia bankstil, would not dwell in such a land as that." This serves to show but not frequently. (4) Of the leaves of the common swamp how highly they valued it. Moreover, at first and for many plant raupo= bulrush (Typha angustifolia), they formed large years the principal export from New Zealand prepared by the sails for their canoes. These leaves the Maoris curiously laced Maoris was the fibre of this plant-all, too, scraped with a together. (5) I should not omit to mention their flying kites broken shell, leaf by leaf.
(pakaukau and manuaute), formerly in great esteem among them, 1. Of their Woven Articles (or Garments).- I do not intend and made of the manufactured bark of the aute shrub= paper multo say much of them in this paper. Many of them are well berry (Broussonelia papyrifera), which was formerly cultivated known, and still to be found in use among the Maoris, but their by the ancient Maoris for its bark. Inferior ones, however, manufacture has for many years sadly deteriorated : indeed, I were made of the prepared leaves of some of the larger sedges. have not seen a newly-made first-quality clothing.mat for the They were pretiily made, requiring both time and skill in their last twenty to thirty years, and I very much doubt if such can construction, and much more resembled a bird flying than our ņow be made at all. Not that the art of weaving them has been English ones. They always served to remind me of those of entirely lost, but the requisite taste, skill, and patience in seek. The Chinese, as we see them in their own drawings and on their ing and carefully preparing and using the several parts (including chinaware. The old chiefs would sometimes quietly spend their dyes) are no longer to be found among ihe Maoris. I hours amusing themselves in flying them and singing (sotto dal sometimes indulge in a contemplating reminiscence-an idea-a the kite's song, using a very long string. Kites being flown at pleasing reverie of the long past-of great gatherings of Maoris, any village or fort was a sure sign of peace. These, too, gar tribes and chiefs; and at such times the figures of some head rise to proverbs, some being quaint and highly expressive. A men I have known, clothed in their handsome, clean, and pleasing one I give as a sample : "He manuaute e taea 2 lustrous dress-mats (kaitaka and aronui), would stand forth in whakahoro”=A Aying kite made of paper-mulberry bark can be pleasing high reliel. The close and regular weaving of such made to fly fast (away, by lengthening the cord). Used by a flax dresses, having their silky threads carefully selected as to lover, expressive of impatience at not being able to get away to fineness and uniformity of colour, and their smooth, almost see the beloved one. satiny appearance, as if ironed or calendered when worn new, 2. Of their Spun Fibrous Articles.—These were very nume. was to me a matter of great satisfaction--a thing to be remem rous in kind, size, and quality, according to the particular use bered—"a joy for ever.”
for wbich they were required ; and, while the larger number Those best dress-mats were always highly prized, both by them werecomposed of scraped and prepared flax-fibres there were Maoris and Europeans, and brought a high price. I well also other fibrous-leaved plants used by the Maoris, particularly recollect a young lady, daughter of very respectable early the leaves of the erect cabbage-tree=tii (Cordyline ausirak English settlers in the Bay of Islands, who, when she came and of the kiekie, already mentioned. Here, too, in this depar:across the inner harbour in a boat with her parents to attend the ment, the different kinds of varieties of the flax would be used English Church service on Sunday mornings in the Mission for making the different sorts of threads, cords, and ropes, some chapel at Paihia, often wore one ol them folded as a shawl, and of the varieties of flax enduring much greater strain when scraped to me it seemed a neat and gracesul article of dress.
and spun into lines than others; and of such their deep-zi Three things more in connection with these fine mats I will fishing-lines were made. It was ever to me an interesting sig ust relate : one, the cross-threads in weaving were always of a to see an old chief diligently spinning such lines and cords
always done by hand, and on his bare thigh. The dexterity be found here in New Zealand, is also used on the Continent of Europe for
and rapidity wiih which he produced his long hanks and coils o similar purposes. In some parts of Germany it is dedicated to the Virgin twine and cord, keeping them regular, 100, as to thickness, Mary (hence, too, its generic na'ne of Hicrochloc = sacred gra-s), and is truly wonderful. Some of their smallest twisted cords or strewed before the doors of the churches on festival days as the sweet sedge
threads were very fine. Such were used for binding on De (Acorus calamus) is strewed on the flor of the cathedral at Norwich for the same purpose at such seasons.
barbs to their fishing-hooks, and (or binding the long queues i Sir James Hector. in his book on the Phormium plants, enumerates fifty-five named varieties; but it is doub.ful whether more than half of that * See an interesting historical tradition respecting such (Trans. F: number are permanent ones.
| Inst., vol. xiii., p. 48).
log's hair to their chiefs' staffs. One of those peculiar cords places, that highlands close to the Equator are healthier for was a very remarkable one ; it was a small cord, bound closely Europeans than those of similar mean climate lying nearer the found throughout its whole length with a much smaller one tropics. Kavirondo is admirably adapted for grazing, and something like the silver or fourth string of a violin). I never ranches similar to those of the west of America might be tried. jaw this kind but once, and that was at the East Cape, in 1838. From the pasture lands of this plateau the transition to the rich A specimen of it I shall now exhibit. This cord was used for plantations of bananas and casava of Usnga and Uganda is very i single and particular purpose, attached to the small under marked, and the unclothed natives of Kavirondo give place to iprons of girls-chiefs' daughters.
the comfortably dressed Waganda, a warlike people, but skillub Their larger cords and ropes were composed of several in all the arts of peace. itrands, well twisted and put together. Besides their round Uganda is a land of low hills and valleys. The hills opes so made, they had also flat ones of various widths, which are of red marl, or marl.gravel, and shale, generally covered vere plaited or woven, resembling our webs and bands, and with pasture grass of a kind apparently peculiar to these nuch used as shoulder straps in carrying back.loads ; also countries. The valleys are generally of rich black soil, and most louble-twisted ropes, and three-strand ones ; likewise a remark. frequently the lowest part of the dip is a river swamp. The
bly strong one that was four-sided. This was made of the un swamp varies from a few score of yards to a mile or more in icraped leaves of the cabbage-tree, that had been gathered, and breadth, usually being from half to three-quarters of a mile. arefully wilted in the shade, and then soaked in water to make There is a slight trickling current-but very slight; the river is hem pliant. It was used for their anchors, and other heavy choked with dense papyrus, with an undergrowth of marsh ferns, canoe and house requirements. The leaves of the flax would grass, reeds, &c. The water is usually the colour of coffee, and not be suitable for this purpose. I have had all those different red with iron rust. Most of these swamps are of treacherous kinds of cords and ropes made for me in former years, but I quagmire without bottom; and unless the roots of the papyrus much fear the art of making them is lost.
form a su fficient foothold it is necessary to cut down reeds and There were also their pets for catching fish and for other boughs of trees to effect a crossing. It is a singular purposes, with their meshes of various dimensions. Their characteristic of these countries that, spite of their altitude smaller caes (hand nets) were made of all manner of shapes and and hilly character, rushing water is rarely, almost never, to be sizes. Some of them were dexterously stretched over circular ceen. Thus Uganda has a mean elevation of some 4200 feet, skeleton framework. And their large seine-nets, used for catch and borders the trough of the Victoria Nyanza at 3700 feet ing mackerel and other summer fish that swam in shoals, were only, and is a country full of bills and valleys. Kitagwenda, at very long and very strong, made of the leaves of flax, split and about the same altitude, borders the Albert Edward Lake at prepared, but not scraped, and completely fitted up with floats, 3300 seet. Unyoro, with more lofty hills and peaks of granite, and sinkers, and ropes, and other needsul appurtenances. Cook, with an altitude gradually increasing in the south, as you near who was astonished at their length, has written much in praise The Albert Lake, to some 5300 feet, similarly borders the trough of them. I make one striking quotation : “When we showed of the Albert, which has an elevation of only 2000 feet. Yet the natives our seine, which is such as the King's ships are nowhere are these river swamps more frequent than here in generally furnished with, they laughed at it, and in triumph South Unyoro at the highest altitudes. The origin of the produced their own, which was indeed of an enormous size, and | water to supply the enormous Lake Victoria is an intermade of a kind of grass (Phormium) which is very strong. It esting problem. Throughout the British sphere, on the was five fathoms deep, and by the room it took up could not be north and west of the lake, there is no single river, except less than three or four hundred fathoms long."i (Voyages, vol. the Nzoia, which is worthy of the name flowing into the ii., first voyage, pp. 369, 370.)
Victoria. The Katonga-marked on the maps as a big riverIn residing at Dannevirke, in the Forty-mile Bush district, is merely a broad papyrus swamp. It is by no means so imduring several months, I have often noticed the Maoris from portant a drainage as the Marengo; and all the endless river. neighbouring villages coming to the stores there to purchase swamps (including the Marengo) send their sluggish streams tether and other ropes and lines (large and small) for their use northwards to the Kafur and the Somerset Nile. The superwith their horses, ploughs, carts, pigs, &c., while on their own ficial area of the Victoria being 27,000 square miles, crossed by lands and close to them the fax plants grew in abundance. the Equator, and at an altitude of about 3800 feet, an These Maoris had very little to occupy their time, and could enormous amount of evaporation must occur, and yet spite of easily have made common lines and ropes for their own use if this evaporation, there issues from its north-western corner the they knew how to spin them as their fathers did, and also magnificent Somerset Nile, a deep, broad, silent river. possessed their foresathers' love of work.
The close of the year 1891 and the early part of 1892 were exceptional in the matter of rainfall. Usually in this part of Africa the lesser rains begin early in October and cease in the middle of December. From that time the heat and drought
increase, and the grass dries up and is burnt, till in the beginning UGANDA.
of March the greater rains set in, and a tropical downpour con
tinues with few breaks till the end of May. Last October and AT a special meeting of the Royal Geographical Society on the evening of November 3, Captain F. D. Lugard gave
Nuvember the lesser rains were unusually heavy, and continued in account of the geographical aspects of his work in Uganda.
with little intermission till the time of the regular rains in March. The ball of the University of London was crowded, and although
There was a little check, and then the rain continued up to the he issue of extra tickets was suspended, a large number of
middle of June and later. The result was, that the Lake Vicellows and their friends failed to get admittance. An excellent
toria was some six feet perhaps above its ordinary level, and may and-map, by Mr. Ravenstein, enabled the audience to follow
probably rise still higher. Unusual floods occurred in the Nile aptain Lugard's route. The first part of the paper was con:
in Egypt during Sepiember, this not being the time at which the erned with the journey from Mombasa along the Sabakhi river,
usual high Nile due to the Atbara floods occurs.
Uganda is divided into ten provinces, and the ten chiess who n unpavigable stream, to Machako, the furthest station of the . B. E. A. Company at that time, the district passed through
| rule these districts entirely drop their personal names, and are
called by the traditional title attached to those provinces. eing almost uninhabited, and supplies difficult to procure.
Of "he greater part of the paper related to Uganda and the other
these the four largest and most important have separate titles. puntries surrounding" he Victoria Nyanza, where Captain
Thus, the chief of Chagwe is the Sekibobo; of Singo, the ugard was in com and for two years. On the Kavirondo
| Mukwenda ; of Buddu, the Pokino; and of Bulamwezi, the lateau, east of the lake, there is a promising field for European
Kangao. The remaining six are called by the title of their plonization. The plateau is crossed by the Equator, but at ele
province, viz. Kitunzi, Katambala, Kasuju, Mugema, Kago, ations of from 7000 10 8000 feet the climate is cool and
and Kaima. Superior in rank to these ten governors
of provinces are the Katikiro (the vizier and chief chilarating. It is possible, judging from experience in other
magistrate of Uganda), and the Kimbugwe. These two hold * An interesting historical tragic story of the cleverly-planned taking and innumerable estates, scattered throughout the country. eath of a large number of Maoris in one of these seine-nets, together with In June, 1891, Captain Lugard lest Uganda with the object
fish (illustrating what Cook has written of their immense size), and of e deadly warfare that followed, is given in the Transactions N.Z. Insti
of coming in touch with the Soudanese refugees from the Equate vol. xiii., p. 43
torial Province, who had assembled at Kavalli's, on the south
west shore of the Albert Lake. Marching from near Masaka,
SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. the capital of Buddu, he traversed Northern Ankole, a district
American Meteorological Journal, October.-A metece hitherto unvisited by any European, though Mr. Stanley, in
logical balloon ascent at Berlin by A. L. Rotch. The asce 1876, had travelled parallel to it within the boundaries of
was made on the morning of October 24, 1891, and at the sam Uganda, and reaching the borders of Kitagwenda, proceeded
time a captive balloon was sent up to 600 metres. The weatsa south-west to the narrow channel or river which connects the
was hazy up to about 1000 feet, but above that the sky upper lake of Rusango with the main waters of the Albert
nearly clear. The mean decrease of temperature between Edward Lake. Crossing this narrow channel (at most 500
ground and the captive balloon was oo6 C. per 100 metres. . yards wide) the force camped in the hostile country of the Wasura, a tribe subject to Kabarega of Unyoro, and identified with the
the stratum of air between the captive and free balloon (700?
1000 metres) the decrease was much slower during the mon Wanyora. Here they crossed Mr. Stanley's route at the Salt
ing, there being at first an increase, the temperature at og Lake ; but since his book nor maps had not then reached
metres was 10° C., and at 858 metres 10°:4. In the afternoa Central Africa the journey was in the nature of entirely new exploration, though of course the discovery of the Albert Edward
the rate of decrease in the upper stratum became nearly Lake and of Ruwenzori had been anticipated. The natives, too,
same as that which prevailed in the lower stratum during the being hostile, no one was met with who had seen Mr. Stanley,
morning.-Improvement of weather forecasts, by Prof. H..
Hazen. The author recommends the study of moisture 0.1 or could give information of his route, or tell of his exploits.
ditions at various heights in the atmosphere, and considers tha On the route to the Albert Lake many deep and almost
the greatest hope of improvement is in the observation of ato. symmetrically circular depressions like the crater of a volcano,
spheric electricity. The storms of India, by S. M. Ballou. Tu or a dried-up pond, were passed. A few of these, as shown on
storms are divided into three classes : (1) the cyclones te the map, were tiny lakes no bigger than a mill-pond, but appa
occur at the changes of the monsoons ; (2) the storms of th rently of great depth, with clear blue water, and all the charac.
summer rains ; (3) the winter rains of the northern provinces teristics of a lake. The alligator and great fish eagle haunted
he discusses the causes of their formation, and gives a brief their waters. Others, again, were dry, the bottoms being per
scription of each of these classes, -The ether and its relation » haps 100 feet or more below the level of the surrounding
the aurora, by E. A. Beals. The author gives a brief sumns country, which is about 4200 feet above the sea.
of some of the facts respecting our knowledge of auroras, The Lake Albert Edward consists of two portions, the
view of their probable maximum during the coming year i Mwutan-zigé (Barrier to Locusts), or the Great Lake and the
connection with their correlation with frequency of sunspots Rusango on the north-east. This latter is in reality a separate
There are also short articles on warm and cold seasons, by H lake, connected with Mwutan-zigé by a river. Its general
Gawthrop ; facts about rain.making, by G. E. Curtis ; 11 direction is north-west and south-east. There is no swamp
convectional wbirls, by Prof. H. A. Hazen. arvund it except at the north-west end, where dense jungle and impenetrable marsh afford a home for great herds of elephant. It is at this point that the rivers Wami and Mpanga, into which the countless streams from Ruwenzori flow, bring
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. their waters to the lake. The gorge through which the latter
LONDON. flows is picturesque in the extreme, especially in the rains. The great body of water confined between its rocky walls Anthropological Institute, Octo' er 18.-A special med boils and eddies over the sunken rocks below. The gorge ing was held, the president, Edward B. Tylor, D.C.I is some 700 feet deep, and is full of tropical forest. The F.R.S., in the chair, to receive a communication from May orchids, ferns, and mosses which are found in such a natural
R. C. Temple, I.S.C., on “Developments in Buddhist Arch forcing-house, where the damp vapours hang, are extremely
tecture and Symbolism as illustrated by the Author's Rece luxuriant.
Exploration of Caves in Burma." Major Temple comme Captain Lugard followed the eastern base of the Ruwenzori ced by saying that the object of the paper was chiefly to dra Mountain, crossing the endless streams which descend from its attention to the extraordinarily rich and for the present practica perpetual snows, and bear their clear, sparkling, icy-cold water | untouched field for the ethnographist and antiquary existing to the Wami and Mpanga, and so to the Albert Edward. The | Burma. He exhibited some photographs of life-size figures drainage of the eastern Ruwenzori is not towards the Albert and wood, carved by a well-known artist of Maulmain, of the "fa so to the Nile, but to the southern lake, from which the only sights” shown to Buddha as Prince Siddhartha on his first vis overflow is the Semliki, a river which at its exit probably con- to the outer world, viz., the old man, the sick man, the de veys a lesser volume of water from the Lake than is contributed man, and the priest; and also some admirable gilt wood to it by the Mpanga alone. The ground rises gradually from representations from Rangoon of Buddha in his standing a the level of the Albert Edward 3300 feet to some 5300 feet at | recumbent postures, with his begging bowl, and seated as a Kiaya. Here the route descends into the head of a narrow | Jambupati, surrounded by priests and other worshippers. I valley, while the plateau trends away to the right, and forms the next showed a remarkable set of gilt wooden images from: uplands of Unyoro, its bold outline appearing from the Semliki platform of the great Shwedagon pagoda at Rangoon, of te Valley and the Albert Lake like a lofty range of hills. The belus, hanuman myauks, and other spirits believed in by valley of Kiaya is extremely fertile, intersected with streams, Burmese, seated on the steps of a lofty tagon-dain, or post, and studded with banana groves and cultivated land, Between the the top of which is always perched the figure of the her: edge of the plateau on the east and the base of Ruwenzori there (hansu), or sacred goose, which apparently protects pagodas is a deep trough, or gorge, the hills rising steep as it were from some way. From these he passed on to four representations their own foundations without connection with the plateau, large glazed bricks or tiles from Pegu. These curious, and which reaches to their very feet. Leaving Kiaya, they passed far as English museums are concerned) probably uniques through a wild country of quartz and scrub jungle, cut at right tiquities may be presumed to be at least 400 years old, s angles by gigantic ravines of rich soil, in which are villages, formed at one time the ornamentation of the three procese forest, and cultivation. This led to the edge of a lower plateau, paths round a now completely ruined pagoda. They repres overlooking the Semliki valley. Simultaneously the massive the march, battle, and flight of some foreign army, represena peaks of Ruwenzori sloped down to lesser hills, and mingled in true Indian fashion with elephant, monkey, and other anid with the plain, and a new range of mountains, increasing in faces. Some of the figures are clad in Siamese and Cambod height from south to north, appeared opposite. Mountains fashion. The glazing is remarkably good, and Indian influen they appear, but, like those left behind, they are really the is clear in their construction. They may probably represent escarpment of the plateaus on which the sources of the sturi, scene from the Ramayana, which in a mutilated form is and the other great affluents of the Congo, take their rise; ì known to Burmese mythology. These were followed by a which, for convenience, may be called the Kavalli plateau. figure of Buddha from Pegu, in his recumbent attitude, w From Kavalli's Captain Lugard escorted 8000 Soudanese troops, may be referred to King Dhammacheti, who flourished it, who had by their vacillation retarded the departure of Stanley fifteenth century. This image is 181 feet long and 46 feet with Emin for the coast. Some of these he settled in forts to
at the shoulder. It is built of brick, and is well proportid protect Uganda from Kabrega's raiders, while others were sent throughout. Its history is lost, and so was the image itself a back to Egypt by Mombasa.
1881. Pegu was utterly destroyed about 1760 by the Burne
nad the interest in its holy places lost for more than a generation. bred by Mr. J. Collins : also a white variety of Triphana This image became jungle-grown ant bilden from view, and pronuba, taken at Swansea.-Mr. M. Tacoby exhibited a was accidentally discovered by a railway contractor searching specimen of Sagra femorata, from India, with differently for ballast for the line in the neighbourhood. General and sculptured elytra, one being rough and the other smooth.-Mr. detailed views of the Kawgun Cave were shown, exhibiting the J. A. Clark exhibited a long series of remarkable varieties of wonderful extent of its decoration by a vast number of terra cotta | Liparis monacha, bred from two specimens taken at Scartablets and images in wood, marble, alabaster, and other | borough. Several of the specimens were as light in colour as materials, and the extraordinary variety and multitude of the the typical form of the species; others were quite black; objects connected with Buddhistic worship, both ancient and and others intermediate between these two extremes.—The modern, to be found in it. The Kawgun Cave is the richest Rev. Seymour St. John exhibited a monstrosity of Abraxas of those visited by Major Temple, but he explained that he had grossulariata, and a specimen of Taniocampa stabilis, with a examined about half a dozen others in the district, and had since distinct light band bordering the hind margin of the upper gathered positive information from local native sources of the wings.—Mr. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., exhibited two series of existence of about forty altogether. Many of these are hardly imagos of Gnophos obscurata, which had been subjected to dark inferior to Kawgun in richness of Buddhistic remains, and and light surroundings respectively. The results were seen to several are said to contain in addition ancient MSS., which must be completely negative, the two series being equally light.now be of inestimable value. A few such MSS. have actually been | Mr. F. Merrifield showed a number of pupæ of Pieris napi. found. It will thus be seen how great and valuable is the field, About eight of them, which had attached themselves to the and how well worth systematic study by competent students. leaves of the cabbage plant on which they were fed, were of a
uniform bright green colour, with light yellowish edgings; of Royal Microscopical Society, October 19.-Mr. G. C.
the others, those which had attached themselves to the black Karop, Vice-president, in the chair.-The chairman exhibited
net covering the pot, or the brownish twigs which supported it, and described Messrs. Swift's aluminium microscope, which he
were dark coloured, with dark spots and lines. Mr. R. Adkin believed to be the first microscope made of that metal. The
exhibited three bred female specimens of Vanessa c-album, two chief point in the instrument was its extreme lightness, the whole
of which belonged to the first brood, and the third to the second when complete, and including the condenser and eyepiece, weigh-|
brood. One of the specimens of the first brood was remarkable ing only 2lb. 10 oz. as against the weight 7lb. 13oz. of a pre
in having the under side of a very dark colour, identical with cisely similar stand made in the usual way of brass. It was
typical specimens of the second brood. He thought the perhaps not entirely correct to say that every portion was of
peculiarity of colouring bad been caused by a retarded emergence, aluminium, because there were certain mechanical difficulties met
due to low temperature and absence of sunshine.—Mr. F. W. with which prevented some portions from being made of that
Frohawk exhibited varieties of Satyrus hyperanthus, bred from metal ; for instance, he believed it was almost impossible to cut
ova laid by a female taken in the New Forest in July last. a fine screw upon it without the thread “stripping,” and it was
Mr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., exhibited a specimen of Amphonyx also found extremely difficult to solder, so that the necessary
medon, Cr., received from Jalapa, Mexico, having a pouch-like screws in the instrument were made of brass, the Campbell fine
excrescence at the apex of its body.-Mr. C. J. Gahan comadjustment of steel ; the rack and pinion coarse adjustment was
municated a paper entitled “Additions to the Longicornia of also not made of aluminiam, and the nose-piece was of German
Mexico and Central America, with notes on some previously silver.-Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell read a letter received from Mr. H.
recorded species.”—Mr. W. L. Distant communicated a paper G, A. Wright, of Sydney, stating that a scale of Podura in his
entitled “Contributions to a knowledge of the Homopterous possession was deeply notched, and that an exclamation mark
family Fulgoridæ."- Mr. Oswald Latter read a paper (which had become detached and projected from the edge. Mr.
was illustrated by the Society's new oxy-hydrogen lantern) Wright also sent photomicrographs to sunport his statement.
entitled “The Secretion of Potassium-hydroxide by Dicranura The chairman said he could not be sure, from the cursory ex.
vinula, and the emergence of the imago from the cocoon." amination he had been able to make, that the exclamation mark
The author stated that the imago produced, probably from the referred to was to be seen.—Dr. C. E. Beevor read a paper on
mouth, a solution of caustic potash for the purpose of softening methods of staining medullated nerve-fibres, illustrating the sub
the cocoon. The solution was obtained for analysis by causing ject by photomicrographs, and by a number of preparations
the moths to perforate artificial cocoons made of filter-paper. under microscopes. The chairman said they were very much
Prof. Meldola, F.R.S., said that the larva of D. vinula secretes indebted to Dr, Beevor for his interesting paper. It was a good
formic acid, and Mr. Latter had now shown that the imago thing to be able to differentiate nerve fibres in the ways de.
secretes potassium-hydroxide, a strong alkali. He stated that scribed, but it was a pity that they could not also so differentiate
the fact that any animal secreted a strong caustic alkali was a them as to show from which part of the nervous system they
new one. Mr. Merrifield, Mr. Hanbury, Mr. Gahan, Mr. came. If this could be done he need hardly say it would be of
Poulton, and Prof. Meldola continued the discussion.-Mr. H. great value.-Prof. Bell read a paper by Dr. H. G. Piffard on
J. Elwes and Mr. J. Edwards read a paper (also illustrated by the the use of monochromatic yellow light in photomicrography. Mr. T. Charters White said that he had himself tried a similar
oxy-hydrogen lantern) entitled “A revision of the genus
Ypthima, principally founded on the form of the genitalia in the process with monochromatic light obtained by using screens and
male sex.” Mr. McLachlan, F.R.S., said he attached great solutions, but the chief difference he found was that it very much prolonged the time necessary for exposure. Mr. T. Haughton
importance to the genitalia as structural characters in deter
mining species, and he believed that he could name almost any Gill said that he had used the copper light filter for the same
species of European Trichoptera simply from an examination purpose, and had found that by its aid any good ordinary lens
of the detached abdomens of the males. Mr. O. Salvin, F.R.S., would give as good results as were otherwise obtained by using
said he had examined the genitalia of a large number of an expensive apochromatic, because it filtered off all the rays
Hesperidæ, with the view of considering their value in disexcept those which were visually strong. He had not found, in
tinguishing species. Mr. Bethune-Baker, Colonel Swinhoe, the course of his work, that the use of this light prolonged the
Mr. Lewis, Dr. Sharp, F.R.S., Mr. Hampson, and Mr. Exposure, that was to say, that with a magnifying power of
Champion continued the discussion.-Mr. S. H. Scudder comX 300 and an exposure of ten minutes, he could get a good
municated a paper entitled “New light on the formation of the trong printing image with the isochromatic plates. -Mr. G.
abdominal pouch in Parnassius," Mr. Elwes said he had based Massee's paper on Heterosporium asperatum, a parasitic fungus,
his classification of the species of this genus largely on the vas, in the absence of the author, taken as read.
structure of this abdominal pouch in the female. Mr. JennerEntomological Society, November 2, Frederick DuCane Weir remarked that a similar abdominal pouch was to be found jodman, F.R.S., president, in the chair. -Mr. S. Stevens in the genus Acræa, and Mr. Hampson referred to a male and xhibited, for Mr. J. Harrison, a beautiful series of Arctia female of Parnassius in Mr. Leech's collection, in which the ubricipeda var, radiata, which had been bred by Mr. Harrison pouch had come away from the female and was adhering to the his year.-Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker exhibited specimens of male organs. Polyommatus dispar var. rutilus, taken in England by his father bout sixty years ago. He stated that it was generally believed
PARIS. at this form of the species was confined to the Continent, but Academy of Sciences, October 31.-On the geometry of is specimens proved that it formerly occurred in England. position, by M. H. Poincaré. -Observations on M. Berthelot's Ir. C. G. Barrett exhibited dark varieties of Acronycta leporina, I ommunication regarding the fixation of nitrogen, by M. Th.
Schlesing. Reply, by M. Berthelot.-On the laws of com BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED pressibility of liquids, by M. E. H. Amagat. Deformations
BOOKS.-A Text-book of Magnetism and Electricity: R. W. Stewar of the piezometers were investigated and allowed for in these (Clive). - Public Health Problems: J. F. J. Sykes (Scott). -An Elementar experiments, and the pressures carried as far as 3000 armo.
Manual op Applied Mechanics : Prof. A. Jamieson (Griffin). --Mind =
Matter, 3rd edition : Rev. J. Tait (Griffin).- Arthur Young's Tour in Ire spheres. The liquids operated upon were ether, alcohol, carbon
land, 2 vols.: edited by A. W. Hutton (Bell).- Text-bork of Elementan bisulphide, acetone, the ethyl halides, and chloride of phos. Biology: Dr. H. J. Campbell (Sonnenschein).-The Volcanoes of Jap phorus. In every case the coefficient of compressibility was Part 1, Fujisan: J. Milne and W. K. Burton (Low).- Strange Survival found to decrease regularly as the pressure increased. At 3000
S. Baring-Gould (Methuen).- Finger Prints: F. Galton (Macmillan
Modern Mechanism : edited by P. Benjamin (Macmillan)-Catalogue atmospheres that of water was reduced by nearly one-half its
Ea tern and Australian Lepidoptera Heterocera in the Collection of the ordinary value, that of ether by two-thirds. This diminution Oxford University Museum : Part I, Sphinges and Bombyces : Col. C again is greater the higher the temperature. The ratio of the
Swinhoe (Oxford, Clarendon Press). - An Introduction to the Study
Botany : A. Dendy and A H. S. Lucas (Melville).-Hydrostatics and Ele difference of the coefficient to the corresponding difference of
mentary Hydrokinetics : Prof. G. M. Minchin (Oxford, Clarendon Press
New Vegetarian Di hes: Mrs. Bowdich (Bell).-British New Guinca: 1 temperature, 44, increases rapidly with the temperature, and
P. Thomson (Philip).-Autres Mondes: A Guillemin (Paris, Carre)
Stéréochimie : J. H. Van't Hoff (Paris, Carré).-Théorie Mathématique de decreases rapidly as the pressure increases. The value of
la Lumière, II.: H. Poincaré (Paris, Carré).- Traité de Mécanique :
Jamet (Paris. Carré) - In Savage Isles and Settled Lands: F. S. Bades also diminishes rapidly as the pressure increases ; but
Powell (Bentley).-S anford's Contoured Map of the County of Londoe
(Stanford).-Naked-Eye Botany : F. E. Kitchener (Percival) -Geometrica! whilst for alcohol it grows decidedly with the temperature, for
Drawing : A. J. Pressland (Percival). - Practical Physics, Part 1, Physical ether it seems sensibly independent of it. It is probable Processes and Measurements; the Properties of Matter : Prof. Barrett and that the ratio passes through a maximum at a certain tempe
W Browo (Percival). -Beetles, Butterflies, Moths, and other Insects: A
W. Kappel and W. E. Kirby (Cassell).-The Principal Starches used 2 rature.- Observation of the comet Barnard (October 12), made
Food: W. Griffiths (Cirencester, Baily).--Charles Darwin : F. Darwin at the Algiers observatory with the equatorial coudé, by M. F.
(Murray).—University College, Nottingham, Calendar, 1892-93 (Notting Sy.- Elliptic elements of the comet Barnard, by M. Schulhof. ham, Sands) - Proceedings a d Transactions of the Royal Society of Discussing the probabilities of the new comet being identical
Canada, 1891 (Montreal, Dawson). with, or a part of, the comet Woll, which was subjected to PAMPHLETS.-Report on the Operations of the Department of Land considerable perturbations by Jupiter in 1875.-On the equa.
Records and Agriculture, Madras Presidency, 1890-91 (Madras). -Entwurf
einer Neuen Integralrechnung : Dr. J. Bergbohm (Leipzig, Teubner)tions of dynamics, by M. Ř. Liouville.- On the solution of
Leaves from the Book of Nature : L. Piers (Ridgway).--Fossil Mammals of
the Wahsatch and Wind River Beds, Collection of 1891: H. F. Osborn and magnet on mercury under the action of an electric current, by
J. L. Wortman.- Present Problems in Evolution and Heredity: H. F. M. C. Decharme. If a light magnetic needle be floated on a
Osborn.-Revision of the Species of Coryphodon: C. Earle. bath of perfectly pure mercury, and conductors carrying a
Serials.-Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, November (Loss
| mans). --Festschrft zur Feier des 150 Jaehrigen Bestehens der N current be dipped into the mercury at different places, the
enden Gesellschaft in Danzig am 2 Jar..' 1893 (Danzig).-Schriften der needle will, before assuming the position of equilibrium accord Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig, Neue Folge, Achten Bandes ing to Ampère's law, go through a series of excursions, rendered Erstes Heft (Danzig).-Notes from the Leyden Museum, vol. XV. Na 1
(Leyden. Brill).- lournal of the Chemical Society, November (Gurney and necessary by the difficulty of its motion, perpendicular to its
Jackson).-Mitteilungen des Vereins für Erdkunde zu Halle a/s 2802 (Halk length. If the current crosses the mercury in a direction per a/s).--Medical Magazine, November (Southwood), pendicular to the length of the needle for instance, with the negative pole of the current on the left of the south-seeking pole, the needle will move away parallel to itself, will turn round, and return to take up the normal position.-On the
PAGE temperature of maximum density of mixtures of alcohol and water, by M. L. de Coppet. The lowering of the freezing Experimental Biology. By C. LI. M. ....... 25 point in solutions of alcohol is sensibly proportional to the
| British Fungus Flora By M. C. C. ...... quantity of alcohol, in confirmation of Blagden's law. But the
South African Shells. By (BV) ........ lowering of the temperature of maximum density is not pro Our Book Shelf:portional to the percentage of alcohol. For weak solutions Williams: “The Framework of Chemistry" there is no lowering, but rather an elevation of the temperature Lubbock : “The Beauties of Nature, and the Wonders of the maximum. - On the dissociation of barium dioxide, by
of the World We Live in " M. H. Le Chatelier.-On a limited reaction, by M. Albert Hall and Knight : “ Algebra for Beginners" .. Colson.-On the fixation of free nitrogen by plants, by MM. Zieben : “ Introduction to Physiological Psychology" Th. Schlesing, jun., and Em. Laurent.--Purification of drain Letters to the Editor :waters by ferric sulphate, by MM. A. and P. Buisine.-Ex The Volucella as Examples of Aggressive Mimicry.periments on bread and biscuit, by M. Balland.-Ptomaïnes Edward B, Poulton, F.R.S. extracted from urines in erysipelas and puerperal fever, hy M. The Geology of the Asiatic Loess. —Thos, W. Kings A. B. Griffiths.-Hermerythrine, a respiratory pigment con
mill; Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S. tained in the blood of certain worms, by M. A.-B. Griffiths.
Optical Illusions. (With Diagram.)-R. T. Lewis. Morphology of the skeleton of the star fish, by M. Edm. Perrier. A Remarkable Rainfall. - Alfred O. Walker .... 31
- The secreting apparatus of the Copaifera, by M. Léon Guig. On a “Supposed New Species of Earthworm and on the nard.-New observations on sexuality and parasitic castration,
Nomenclature of Earthworms."- Dr. C. Herbert by M. Ant. Magnin.- A possible cause of the doubling of the
H urst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canals of Mars ; experimental imitation of the phenomenon, by Ice Crystals.-C. M. Irvine ......... .. M. Stanislas Meunier.- Devonian and permio-carboniferous of Lunar Craters.-M. H. Maw ........... the Aspe valley, by M. J. Seunes.- A short account of the A Fork-tailed Petrel.-Newman Neave . ..... voyage of the La Manche to Iceland, Jan Mayen, and Spi'z- The Origin of the Year. III. (Illustrated.) By J. bergen during the summer of 1892, by M. Bienaimé. The Norman Lockyer, F R.S... ....... .. maps of Jan Mayen were found to be very accurate, those of Technological Examinations ........... Spitzbergen much less so. The barometric changes in Iceland, Robert Grant. By R. C.............. Jan Mayen, and the Faroes agreed strikingly with those of Notes. Great Britain and Scandinavia, while those of Spitzbergen were Our Astronomical Column:of a particular order. Pendulum observations gave g=9.82345 A Bright Comet . .... for Jan Mayen, and 9 82866 for Spitzbergen.-Eruption of Etna Crimet Barnard (October 12)..
12) ....... of 1892, by M. A. Ricco.— The analysis of complex odours, Comet Brooks (Augus' 28) .......... by M. Jacques Passy. Proceeding from very small doses, say Occultation of Mars and Jupiter by the Moon of amyl alcohol, two different perfumes will be perceived to
Motion of the Solar System increase and then diminish in succession, finally giving way to Some Reminiscences of the Maoris. By Rev. an odour which soon becomes disagreeable as it increases in
Colenso, F.R.S. ......... strength. The transition from perfume to unpleasant odour is Uganda .... ................
... very general in volatile substances. --Immunity against cholera Scientific Serials . .............. conferred by milk, by M. N. Ketscher.-A new apparatus for Societies and Academies ... ...... hypodermic injections, by M. G. Bay.
Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received ....
the tett 44