« PreviousContinue »
more accessible site would be very mich better, but unfortun- percentage of possible sunshine for the week ended the 25:1 ately the Egyptian Prime Minister declines to sanction the instant was higher in nearly all districts than any obtained in necessary expenditure, which would be about £130,000. He the month of March since sunshine recorders were established, seems to have a very inadequate conception of the extra. in 1881. The duration ranged from 36 to 66 per cert. in Sco. ordinary interest and importance of this famous collection. land, 52 to 60 in Ireland, and 62 to 82 in England, while in the
Channel Islands the percentage was 91°, being a higher weekly The Göttingen Society of Sciences has recently proposed the value than hitherto recorded at any time of year. following prize-subjects :-For 1893: From Röntgen and Kundt's researches on changes in the optical properties of The Deutsche Seewarte has recently published part v. of tbe quartz in an electrical field, there seems to be a close relation observations made under its auspices beyond the sea. The between the electro-optic phenomena and elastic deformations stations now number sixteen, of which six are in Labrador, 64 of that substance by electrostatic force. An extension of this in Africa, one in each of the following places :-Korea, Açu inquiry to a large number of piezo-electric crystals of various (Samoa), Brazil, Arabia, and Persia. Four of the stations properties of symmetry seems desirable; and attention should i included in this part are new, viz. Tripoli, Baliburg (West be given to whether the phenomena are due exclusively to the Africa), Apia, and Campinas (São Paulo). The observations deformations occurring in the electric field, or also to a direct are taken thrice daily, with good instruments, and all needful action of electrostatic forces on light motion. For 1894: Between particulars are given about the stations, so that the series forte the state of a hard elastic body and that of a liquid are a series a very valuable contribution to our knowledge of the meteorology of intermediate states, producible by mixture. The properties of of remote regions. these need elucidation by experiment; and especially it should be investigated how in the case of viscous bodies the laws of We have received from Mr. S. B. J. Skertchly an accoun: 1 those movements vary, which, in the case of liquids of small a remarkable cold wave which passed over the southern pan viscosity, can be used to determine internal friction. Papers to of China in January last. Since the establishment of the Hons be sent in with motto, &c., before the end of September in kong observatory in 1884 the lowest temperature observed in each year. The prize in either case is about £25.
any previous month was 40°3, and this did not last more than
an hour, but from January 15 to 18 inclusive the thermomete7 The following are the arrangements for lectures at the Royal
did not rise above 46°, and fell as low as 32° at the sea level Victoria Hall during April :- April 11, Principal Garnett,
the 18th. Simultaneous observations collected for th. pa “Some Pioneers of Electricity," with experiments ; April 18,
from other localities show that the cold wave travelled a coe Prof. A. C. Haddon, “The Life of a Papuan Savage,” with
siderable distance from the north to the south of Hongkong lantern illustrations taken by the lecturer in New Guinea ;
The readings were :-Canton 37°, Hongkong 35, Macao 36* o: April 25, Prof. Hudson Beare, “The Printing Press” with
the 16th, and Haiphong 46° on the 17th. The comparative special reference to newspaper work.
severity of the cold is also shown by the following values de MR. G. P. BAILEY writes to us that the meteor seen on
duced from Hongkong observations for January 1884-$Saturday, March 18, by the Dundee correspondent whose com Mean minimum 56°:1, absolute minimum 41°8. Dr. Doberd munication we printed last week was observed also at Kings- reported that neither snow nor hail was seen in Hongkong, land, Hereford. Mr. Bailey was informed of it by the observer but the hills appeared to be covered with snow or hoarros, on the following day. From what Mr. Bailey can gather, the and a few hundred feet above the sea level both the grass and meteor appeared about 6.20 in a north-north-easterly direction.
branches of the trees were covered in unusually clear and trase When first seen it was evidently nearing the end of its flight, parent ice, without any appearance of crystallisation. Tand after moving towards the north-west for about three seconds Chinese, who had never seen such a sight, brought down a it was hidden by an intervening hill. The trail left behind was quantity and sold it as medicine. At Macao, however, 1 visible for about twenty minutes. When first seen the altitude
quantity of sost hail fell and lay from 3 to 6 inches in der would be about 30°.
where the wind had dristed it. The effect upon vegetation :
few hundred feet above the sea was disastrous ; nearly all the The weather during the past week has been exceptionally
trees seemed burnt up, and nearly the whole of the butterflies o fine in the British Islands, owing to anti-cyclonic conditions,
the wing were killed. This was the coldest spell known to have which extended over the whole of western Europe. During the
occurred in China for over fifty years, and it was apparently due first part, the day temperatures were much above the average,
to a tongue of cold air being pushed below the warmer stratu generally exceeding 60°, and even reaching 69° in the Midland
The atmospheric circulation at the time was anticyclonic, and and eastern counties, while the nights have been very cold, with
snowstorms were reported from the northward and eastward sharp frosts on the ground, and fog was prevalent in many parts
Hongkong in the early morning. The range of temperature has consequently been very large, exceeding 40° in the twenty-four hours The Central Physical Observatory of St. Petersburg has con on one occasion. On Sunday both solar andğlunar haloes were menced from January last the issue of a monthly meteorologia visible at many stations in the south, and the anti-cyclone bulletin referring to European Russia. It contains four page partially disappeared from western Europe ; but these indications of tabular matter, one of which includes the observations taks of disturbed conditions were only of a temporary character, at 73 telegraphic reporting stations, and the other three coatai: although the barometer began to fall irregularly. The day tem rainfall observations taken at 312 stations, all the monthly peratures became several degrees colder, owing to the persistence means being calculated according to the Gregorian caleadat. of easterly winds, but the readings were still high for the season. The tables are followed by a general discussion of the westbe A special characteristic of the week has been the dryness of the of the month, and of the various meteorological elements, 220 atmosphere, scarcely any rain having fallen in any part of the lastly, a map is given showing the mean monthly isobars, is British Islands, with the exception of a quarter of an inch therms, and distribution of rainfall. With the exception of the measured at Valencia Observatory on the 25th instant. The preface, which Dr. Wild has translated into German on a dr Weekly Weather Report shows that for the first quarter of the leaf, the whole of the work is written in Russian, whic present year there is a deficiency of rainfall in all districts, although one of the most methodical of modern languages >> amounting to nearly four inches in the west of Scotland. The not yet generally read in Western Europe, so that the usefaire
of this valuable publication is more restricted than it otherwise are not affected, just as the auditory and visual nerves are not would have been.
sensitive to vibrations of certain frequencies. An instructive record of medical experience at Davos Platz is given by Dr. Spengler in Fortschritte der Krankenpflege.
The Royal Commission appointed to investigate the con. It
dition and educa:ion of the blind, the deaf and dumb, &c., did relates to the two and a half years from November 1887 to May 1890. Cominunication is kept up with patients after leaving,
everything in its power to secure the best evidence that could
be obtained. Among those who brought forward facts as to and the statistics give, in 177 cases, 28.8 per cent. (51 cases) as
the deaf were the well-known American authorities, Dr. E. M. “cured," 14'0 per cent. as “perfectly fit for work,” 1700 as
Gallaudet and Dr. A. G. Bell. Last year their evidence was "still ill," and 316 as dead. (In 17 cases, or 96 per cent.,
printed in America, with some other matters, in a separate there is no record.) Thus, a permanent cure seems to have been
volume, and an elaborate index was prepared by Dr. J. C. effected in 42:8 per cent. of the cases. It is noted that most of
Gordon. This index has been carefully revised, and has now the patients were subject to influenza in the epidemic of
been issued by the Volta Bureau, Washington, the compiler 1889-90. Dr. Spengler gives details of the treatment followed at Davos. We note that, at the outset, till acclimatisation is
having added to its value by the preparation of various " notes
and observations." The volume may be of considerable service completed, and the patient has slept well one or two weeks, he lies much in the open air, and takes little exercise. Patients
to serious students of the subject. who come with fever soon lose it, and for this reason Dr. THE Board of Trade Fournal gives an account of Spengler has found Koch's much denounced tuberculin advan- a very interesting report prepared by M. P. Mouillefert, Protageous in certain cases, and still makes use of it. The local fessor at the National School, Grignons, on the vineyards of or valley wind at Davos is always from the north-east, so that Cyprus. He thinks that by its situation, its broken surface, its patients can enjoy the sun on the south side of the houses; and general incline, rising from sea-level to an altitude of over 6000 in this Davos has an advantage over the Engadine valley (also feet, Cyprus offers the most varied and favourable conditions lying north-east to south-west), where the valley wind is from for the cultivation of the vine. This cultivation is, even at the the south-west.
present day, of real importance, not only from its area, which PROF. ELIHU THOMSON in the Electrician gives an account
covers almost 145,090 deunums (100 deunums = 2:47 acres), of a curious case of the apparent attraction of closed circuits by
but from the value of the produce it yields, which exceeds an alternating magnetic pole. He finds that when a disc of
3,500,000 francs, and affords a livelihood to over 10,000 copper is brought near the pole of an electro-magnet traversed
families. The method of cultivation, however, and the manuby an alternating current it is at first repelled, but that if its
| facture of the wine fall far short of what they should be, and diameter is less than that of the core of the magnet, the repulsion
this is owing to the ignorance and the poverty of the people. diminishes as it gets nearer and at last becomes an attraction.
M. Mouillefert gives elaborate instructions as to the changes of The explanation given is that the currents induced in the disc,
method which he considers necessary, and expresses his belief on account of its small diameter, do not suffer as great a lag as
that if they were adopted Cyprus might become “the vineyard when induced in rings or discs which surround the pole ;
of Great Britain." One of his proposals is that a professor of hence the repulsion is feeble, so that it is at last overpowered
agriculture should be appointed who would confer with the by the attraction between the induced currents and the iron of
villagers and gradually induce them to adopt the proper system the core.
of vine cultivation. Meetings and exhibitions, at which prizes
were given, would also, he thinks, be an excellent way of At a recent meeting of the Société Française de Physique encouraging the producer to improve his method of cultivation M. d'Arsonval gave an account of his experiments on the and his produce. physiological effects of electric currents of high frequency.
In the current number of the Mediterranean Naturalist it is The currents used ranged from one-half to two amperes and were
noted that upwards of 60 per cent. of the earthquakes that have obtained as follows. The internal coatings of two small Leyden
been recorded have occurred during the six colder months of the jars were connected to the terminals of a large Rhumkorff coil,
year-the maximum number in January and the minimum number while the internal coatings were connected through a spiral of
in July. These are the results of calculations for the whole area from fifteen to twenty turns of thick copper wire. When a
of the globe. The calculations made for separate earthquake spark passes between the terminal knobs of the coil, oscillations
districts are said to be in full accord with them, and to show in are set up, and on account of the self-induction of the spiral of
some cases even a greater proportion for the cold than for the wire if the person or tissue to be experimented on is connected
warın season. This is especially the case in the Mediterranean to the two ends of this spiral it will be traversed by a current of
| area, where the number of shocks experienced during December, very high frequency. The following results were obtained :
January, and February are to the number felt during June, July, (1) The currents are not felt although they are of sufficient
and August as 5 to 2. strength to light up a lamp requiring two amperes, when held between two persons who complete the circuit. (2) The The Technical Instruction Committee of the Essex County power of feeling the effects of currents of low frequency is Council has published what it calls a “Report and Hand. diminished in all parts of the body traversed by these high book.” The volume contains a most creditable record of work frequency currents. (3) Zones are formed round the electrodes done during 1892, and ought to be of no small service to similar (which consist of wet sponges) in which all sensitiveness to pain committees in other parts of the United Kingdom. is for the time being lost. (4) A remarkable effect is observed
MESSRS. GAUTHIER-VILLARS have issued the fifteenth report on the nerves which regulate the size of the blood vessels (vaso
of the International Committee of Weights and Measures. The motor nerves), for the vessels dilate to such an extent that in some cases, when an animal was subjected to the current, the
report relates to the work done in 1891. arterial pressure fell more than a quarter of its normal value.
The fifth volume of the “Euvres Complètes de Christian M. d'Arsonval maintains that these observations show that the Huygens ” has just been published. It consists of correspondreason these currents are not felt cannot be owing to their being ence carried on in 1664-65. This magnificent edition, to confined entirely to the skin. He also suggests as the true
which we have repeatedly called attention, is being issued by the explanation that the frequency is so high that the sensory nerves Société Hollandaise des Sciences.
Messrs. J. B. BAILLIÈRE ET Fils, Paris, have issued the Notes from the Marine Biological Station, Plynuit first volume of a work entitled " Eléments de Paléontologie," | Last week's captures include the Nemertine Linmas eina by Félix Bernard. No fewer than 266 figures appear in the i (=longissimus) and the long-spined sea-urchin (Erkinas eur. text. The same publishers have issued in their “ Bibliothèque | In the floating fauna the principal change bas consusda, Scientifique Contemporaine" a book on "Les Lichens,” by great reduction in the numbers of Echinoderm larvæ adobe A. Acloque. He deals with the anatomy, physiology, and gradual disappearance of Aurelia-ephyræ, as well as in the # morphology of the lichenic organism.
pearance of numbers of Arachnactis (larva of the Actinin
anthus), of the Leptomedusa Irene pellucida (Clan su Messrs. GEORGE BELL AND Sons have issued the second
Haeckel), and of a few Porcellana larvæ. In addition to the volume of Mr. George Massee's “British Fungus-Flora," a small Obelia medusa and the Appendicularian Oikonewodni classified text-book of mycology. The work will be completed have been abundant, and young Ctenophores and Manaran in three volumes.
have been occasionally present. The Hydroid Eugentras
ramosum, the Nemertine Amphiporus pulcher, and the end PROF. B. Kotô has contributed to the Journal of the College
Port unus arcuatus are now breeding. of Science, Imperial University, Japan (vol. v. part 3) a learned paper on the Archæan formation of the Abukuma Plateau. ! The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during The paper is illustrated with several plates.
past week include a Mozambique Monkey (Cercopitiau
thus, 8 ) from Zanzibar, presented by Mr. C. E. Reynols, MESSRS. BAILLIÈRE, TINDALL, AND Cox have published a Macaque Monkey (Macacus cynomolgus) from India, presas second edition of Veterinary Captain F. Sinith's “Manual of by Mr. J. W. Jones ; a Coypu (Myopotamus coypus) from .. Veterinary Hygiene.” The only important alterations in the America, presented by Mr. Arthur Hunt; a double-bus e book are those in the chapter on ventilation.
Sand Grouse (Plerocles bicinctres) from Senegal, prestal
Mr. H. H. Sharland, F.Z.S. ; three Common Pealovl s A VALUABLE “Catalogue of American Localities of cristatus, o 8 ) from India, presented by Mr. W. Yeni Minerals,” by Prof. E. S. Dana, has been reprinted by Messrs. Grimshawe; ten - Fishes (Giradinus gupoyi) from Trieda John Wiley and Sons from the sixth edition of Dana's “System presented by the Marquis of Hamilton ; a Hawfinchi of Mineralogy."
thraustes vulgaris), four Bramblings (Fringilla mentinerea
British, purchased ; a Hog Deer (Cervus porrinus) forn in The Wagner Free Institute of Science proposes to issue a
Gardens, reprint of T. A. Conrad's monograph of “ The Medial Tertiary Fossils of the United States," if subscriptions for 150 copies can be obtained. The original plates would be reproduced by a
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN process of photo-engraving, and a brief introductory chapter
Comet HOLMES (1892 III.).-Prof. Keeler, in spects and a table would show the present state of the nomenclature of
the hypothesis that this comet has been produced by a cs. the species contained in the work.
between two asteroids, says that the character of the species
| has little to support this view. He accounts for the brgtics STARTING with an observation by Herz, that the cathode on January 16 by supposing that an increase in the ponben rays causing phosphorescence can pass through thin metallic reflecting particles in the space surrounding the come toor pled plates, Herr Lenard has recently made some interesting experi | i.e. by an increase of density, which might result from a ca ments (described to the Berlin Academy) with an arrangement
traction following the previously observed expansiune si in which the rays from a small aluminium disc (as cathode) were
comet, or, which is more in accordance with the observi
from fresh emanations from the nucleus (Astronomy said projected on a thin aluminium "window" (0.003 mm. thick), !
physics for March). in a thicker metal plate at the opposite end of the tube. The A propos of the same hypothesis, Prof. C. Young quote lateral anode was connected to earth, and a large inductorium whether, if the asteroids were formed by a series of “Esposa was discharged through the tube. These cathode rays passed
breaking up first the original planet and afterwards the per through the window, and made the air faintly luminous, with
from it, this might not be an event of that sort--IN ETKA
from an asteroid. We continue the ephemeris for the sea bluish light, brightest at the surface of the window. There was a strong smell of ozone. Phosphorescent bodies, bodies brought
12h. Paris Mean Time. near the window, glowed, having the same colour as in vacuo.
h. in. S. At about 2.4 inches distance the phenomenon ceased ; it also March 30
3 20 48-7
+ 36 1 ceased when the cathode rays were deflected with a magnet, or
22 387 when a screen of sufficient thickness was interposed. But
24 28 9 owing to diffuse spread of the rays the phosphorescent action
... 13 extended into the shadow of the opaque screen. This field of
IT 4 observation beyond the window could be enclosed and evacuated,
31 511 and the higher the vacuum, the greater was the distance at which
333 420 . zó 253 phosphorescence took place, and the sharper and brighter were
WolsinGHAM OBSERVATORY, Circular No. 34 --The the rays-indicating in the author's opinion) that these cathode Es-Birm 180 6h. 15.5m. + 47° 43' was found to be 10 rays are a process in the ether. Herr Lenard tried other gases 20 and is variable. On March 18. a red III. Type de, besides air, and found varying penetration by the rays. When | mag, was seen at 3b. 235m. 58 and may be v coal gas was let pass between the window and the phosphorescent
Not in D.M. Places for 1900. body the latter brightened. When the field of observation
| JUPITER AND HIS SATELLITES, Writing from any (enclosed) was filled with hydrogen at atmospheric pressure, the Peru, Prof. Pickering communicates 10 A y and phosphorescence extended thrice as far as in air at the same physics for March an account of the very valuable and in pressure (viz. to about 8 inches). Oxygen and carbonic acid
observations that he made during the past favourabue were less penetrable than air. “One may say that hydrogen
tion of the planet Jupiter. A minute study of the
surface gave him the impression that his surface. CE * molecules cause less turbidity in the ether than those of oxygen,
" uniform white mass of cloud," over which is rele and the latter less than those of carbonic acid."
gauzy and thin veil "of a brown material, resemame
ture our cirrus clouds. Where this veil occurs in denser masses are only some of the expressions that were in use to define there are the belts, and the phenomena of white spots is nothing different relations between heavenly bodies and the horizon at less than holes in this veil itself exposing the uniform white a given time, and only quite recently has the importance of layer below. During this period of observation the great red such terms as these been pointed out. In a late publication of spot was extremely faint and seemed to belong to the white the Astronomischen Gesellschaft, Bd. xx. Dr. Walter F. Wislicenus portion beneath, being apparently seen through a hole in the has worked out a set of tables for the computation of the yearly gauzy structure. Since October 8 last, when Prof. Pickering risings and settings of stars, and the special problems which can commenced a series of measures with the 13-inch telescope of | more easily with their help be solved may be stated as : (I) the diameters of the satellites, some most interesting results Given , e, a, 8 the latitude, obliquity of ecliptic and coordinates have been forthcoming. It was on that day also that he ob. of a certain star for a certain year to find the longitude of the served one of these small bodies first as an elliptical figure, and sun at the time of the heliacal rising. (2) Given d, e, for a then afterwards as a circular one, and later he had the good certain date, and a for the heliacal rising of an unknown star to fortune to watch and observe the disc as it gradually began to find a and 8. (3) Given e, a, 8, for a certain date and also the assume the elliptical form. After this observation it was found | value of x at the time of the heliacal rising to find o the place of that the other three satellites had at some time been reported observation. as representing an elliptical disc, the shortening taking place equatorially, thus they would seem to revolve about their minor axes. To make quite sure that this was the case and not the result of some optical delusion, Prof. Pickering seems to have
GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. instituted various experiments, but the elongations, as he says, FRENCH exploration towards Lake Chad is being carried on "nevertheless remained persistent in the same direction.” The steadily and successfully. The latest results have been obtained first satellite then is a prolate ellipsoid revolving about one of by M. Maistre, who set out from the Mobangi in July, 1892, its minor axes in a period of 13h. 3m., while the other three traversed the south of Bagirmi through the Shari valley, and assume at regular intervals the form of ellipses, these periodic entered Adamawa by a route never before traversed by Euro. changes being produced by the rotation upon their axes. peans, ultimately descending the Niger, where the expedition
With respect to the second satellite, the shape of which, by reached Akassa on March 25. The health of the expedition the way, is put down as that of an ellipsoid of three unequal was good, and in the earlier part of their work friendly relations axes revolving about the middle one, and whose period of were kept up with the natives. In Adamawa, however, there rotation is 41h. 24m., a curious observation was made in were hostile encounters. December last. Just about the time of occultation, the equatorial diameter being “decidedly shortened,” the satellite
MR. MACKINDER concluded his course of educational lectures
for the Royal Geographical Society last week by a masterly retained its shape until almost in contact with the limb, when
discussion of some of the geographical aspects of British history. suddenly "the major axis of its ellipse changed its position
The effect of the position of the British Isles on their history angle through thirty degrees, becoming parallel to the limb of
was summarised concisely in the statement that Britain stands the planet.” With regard to the other two satellites Prof. Pickering mentions many new facts relating to colour, size,
out of the continental world, yet looks into it through its south
east window, and looks not merely into the world, but into the rotation, &c., too numerous to refer to here, but we may say that he has been led to the conclusion that all the four satellites
great historic avenue of the world's life. Naturally, therefore,
the centre of Britain's national and commercial life has been are nothing more than condensed swarms of metorites, like
drawn eccentrically to the south-east corner. This accounts for Saturn's ring. In the case of each-satellite he gives an ephemeris
the inevitable position of London. The configuration of the which indicates the time at which each presents its maximum
country, with its natural zones of highlands and lowlands, led elliptical phase.
with equal clearness to the distribution of peoples and interTHE HORIZONTAL PenduLUM.-In a volume of 216 pages ests, which caused the historic opposition of England and entitled “Das Horizontal Pendel und seine Anwendung zur Scotland. Beobachtung der absoluten und relativen Richtungs - Aen: MR. AND MRS. Theodore BENT, after some delay at Massowa, derungen der Lothlinie," Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz brings on account of tribal wars, reached Adowa on the way to Aksum together all his observations made in the years 1889-92 at the in the middle of February. At Adowa there are Himyaritic observatories at Wilhelmshaven and Potsdam, and also in ruins of some importance, which Mr. Bent proposes to study Puerto Orotava on Teneriffe. Besides containing a long dis
| besore going on to Aksum, where he hopes to have several weeks cussion on the observations themselves, a very useful collection of active archæological research. with short notes of the literature on this subject is added. The pendulum, which was of an isoceles triangle shape, carried a
In a recent report on the triangulation of the north-west porsmall mirror at the middle part of the shortest side, the move.
tion of South Australia, published by the Government of that ments of which were photographically recorded with the help of
colony, the work of the surveyors during the last few years is sensitised paper and an oil lamp. In addition to numerous
briefly summarised. From 1888 to 1890 16,000 square miles seismical appearances, three distinct periodic pulsations were
were surveyed in the form of a belt, about fifty miles wide, recorded. The first he says is with great probability due to
stretching from the Anthony Range to the western boundary of the different positions of the moon, and after supplying the
the province, a distance of 320 miles. Up to the end of the terms containing lunar factors he finds a close agreement
1892 season 11,300 square miles of additional land were surbetween the observed and calculated values--the observations
veyed. The work in many places was extremely arduous on indicating the existence of a tide with a coefficient of o".or.
account of want of water, a supply for the camels having someWith regard to the daily period, he finds that these movements
times to be carried for more than forty miles, and for more than are by no means local, but quite general over the earth's sur
a year no rain whatever fell. face; the real cause of these motions do not seem to have been fully brought home, as the magnitudes of the amplitudes seemed to differ considerably locally ; but in a note Dr. Paschwitz
THE INSTITUTION OF NAVAL mentions that the action of the moon on the daily period is in
ARCHITECTS. all cases of great importance. The third and last movement, that of the motion of the zero-point, seems to be totally de
THE annual spring meeting of this Institution was held last pendent on meteorological conditions.
week in the hall of the Society of Arts on Wednesday,
Thursday, and Friday, March 22, 23, and 24. There was a fair THE RISING AND SETTINGS OF STARS. -At the present number of papers on the agenda, of which the following is a day there are many who are interested in the calculation of star list :places, times of rising of stars, &c., for times very remote, On the present position of the cruiser in warfare, by Rearsuch as, for instance, in the solution of such problems that have Admiral S. Long. "Merchant cruisers considered with reference arisen with regard to the orientation of temples, occultations, to the policy of maintaining a reserve of vessels by annual subeclipses, &c. Where we now use the meridian, our early ventions to shipowners, by Lord Brassey. Some considerations incestors adopted the horizon, and it was to this plane that relating to the strength of bulkheads, by Dr. F. Elgar. On the they relerred many of their astronomical measurements. rred many of their astronomical measurements. The
The measurement of wake currents, by George A. Calvert. On the heliacal rising and setting, and the cosmical rising and setting new Afonasieft's formulæ for solving approximately various
problems connected with the propulsion of ships, by Captain not, such work as this is directly within the scope of the E E. Goulaell, Imperial Russian Navy. Some experiments on Institution, as set forth by the original design upon which it is the transmission of heat through' tube-plates, by A. J. based, Darston, Engineer-in-Chief of the Navy. Some notes on the Lord Brassey, who occupied the chair, advised that the testing of boilers, by J. T. Milton, Chief Engineer Surveyor, council should memorialise the Board of Trade in order tha: Lloyd's Registry of Shipping. On an apparatus for measuring the Government might take the matter up. No doubt if such a and registering the vibrations of steamers, by Herr E. Otto step be taken, a committee will be formed, and those members Schlick. On the repairs of injuries to the hulls of vessels by who have taken a prominent position in the discussion of these collisions, stranding, and explosions, by Captain J. Kiddle, | matters would no doubt be willing to act-in fact they could not RX. On approximate curves of stability, by W. Hök. Some | very well refuse. It is to be hoped also that Mr. Bryan. experiments with the engines of the s.s. Iveagh, by John Inglis. although not a member of the Institution, will be included Oa the cyclogram, or clock-face diagram, of the sequence of in the list. It is very desirable that practical consideration pressures in multi-cylinder engines, by F. Edwards.
should be kept strictly in view in such a matter as this, bat in Admiral Long's paper was the first taken, and was a useful order to be practical, the investigation should be based on a contribution to a subject which is more of a military than an scientific foundation. There are several naval architects who are engineering or constructive interest. Lord Brassey's paper, on matheinaticians in the best sense of the word. Mr. Bryus , the other hand, is chiefly of interest to the shipowner from a however, a mathematician first, and that of a very high order, commercial point of view, although a very wide imperial matter having distinguished himself at Cambridge. His grasp of meis encompassed within the scope of the paper. Lord Brassey chanical subjects has also proved considerable, as evidenced by maintains that this country cannot maintain her supremacy in the original work done at the Cambridge Philosophical 201 first-class ocean liners of high speed, and carrying small his contributions to the British Association. His paper co quantities of cargo, in face of the foreign competition sup the buckling of the thin plate will be remembered in this conported by state subsidies. Our own post office contribution nection, and since then he has turned his attention to a study of for carrying mails is insufficient for the purpose of enabling the buckling of plates. His inclusion in the committee would be British shipowners to compete with those of foreign states. In a guarantee that any experiments made would include the whole the humbler class of ocean cargo steamers we can hold our own, subject and not be simply girder tests. as proved by the figures quoted. The matter is well worthy of Mr. Calvert has take up a very interesting subject for invethe attention of statesmen. Admiral Long's and Lord Brassey's tigation. The measurement of a steamer's wake is a problem papers were discussed together, and occupied the whole of the that has been looked on by many as practically insoluble, ba: Wednesday morning sitting.
Mr. Calvert has attacked it in a practical and philosophical On the Thursday, the second day of the meeting, a paper manner. He has towed a large vessel, 260 feet in length. by Dr. Elgar was the first on the list, and is the outcome measuring the velocity of the wake by means of towing lor of some remarks made by the author in a speech during the This vessel was towed from Holyhead to Liverpool. Unfortadiscussion of Mr. Martell's paper of last year upon a similar nately the experiment was not so successful as might have beea subject. Dr. Elgar refers to the report of the Board of Trade hoped. The speed of the vessel varied during the voyage and Committee upon the spacing and construction of water-tight the logs only showed the average. The action of the rudder bulkheads in ships, saying that this report raises broadly and also affected the stream-lines. There were other sources of pointedly the question of how the strength of a large area of error. The author therefore was reduced to model experiment, perfectly flat thin steel plating, which is supported at the edges the vessel he used was 281 feet long, and 3•66 feet draaghi. and subjected to normal pressure, may be determined by calcu- | Across the stern was fitted a framework upon which several fire lation. This, the author says, is the simplest form of the ques- | vertical wires were stretched, extending from the deck to some tion thus raised. In applying it to the case of a ship's bulkhead distance below the keel, each of these wires, and the apparatus we require to deal with a continuous area of plating whose connected with it, being exactly similar to its neighbours. U poa thickness is uniform, but with an area made of separate plates the wires at the level at which the weight measurement was of varying thickness, and connected with riveted joints, which required a horizontal tube, 1 inch internal diameter, was carried has stiffening bars riveted across in parallel lines at equal dis- | by a universal joint near its forward open end. The end of tances apart. Dr. Elgar pointed out that what is required is this tube was in communication with another tube, closed at its further experimental data upon which to base a theory of use to upper and lower ends, and hung by truonions to one end of 3 ship-designers in determining these points. In the discussion weighted lever. One of the trunnions being hollow formei : which followed Dr. W. H. White, the Director of Naval Con. connection through the rubber tube to the under side of a gauge struction, and assistant controller, supported the author's con- | glass inside the model, so that through this system of jointed tention, as also did Mr. Martell, the chief surveyor of Lloyd's, tubes there was free communication between the gauge glass and and Mr. Bryan, of Cambridge. The two former, who, it is the water outside. On the after end of the tube four thin radin. Deedless to state, are influential members of council, advo- feathers were fixed, and as the weight of that end of the cated that a research committee should be formed for the pur system of tubes was accurately balanced by a lever, the hocpose of investigating the matter and accumulating experimental zontal tube necessarily assumed a position parallel to the direc data. Sir Edward Harland, who was chairman of the Board of tion of any current in which it might be placed, and its open Trade Committee before referred to, opposed this suggestion forward end was consequently always presented normally to the on the ground that the Board of Trade Committee had current. made experiments sufficient for the purpose, and until those In order that the attitude of the submerged tube might be experiments had been proved to be defective he thought that | noted by the observers in the boat, the vertical tube carried a any further sums spent would be largely wasted. We do not light rod, the top of which indicated the inclination in any think the meeting was in accordance with Sir Edward's views. direction of the tube ; four or five of such horizontal tuhes were As Dr. White pointed out, the experiments made under the fitted at one time, each on its vertical wire, and having its cossupervision of Sir Edward Harland were more of the nature of nections as described, and another such tube with similar cos. experiments on individual girders, rather than on plated sur nections was carried by an outrigger reaching out into faces, supported by stiffeners, the stiffeners being treated as water that was practically undisturbed. Records were taken by the girders. As Mr. Bryan said, what ship-builders really means of a photographic camera. If the water into which these want is a rule based on scienti6c investigation by which they horizontal tubes advanced were at rest, or if its velocity through can be guided in cases where there is not absolute experimental out were uniform, then the water in the gauge glasses, rising data. We gnite agree with Mr. Bryan that this subject wants | higher and higher as the speed increased, would still stand at the to be lifted out of the region of empiricism which has always same level in all the glasses. Assuming that the tube carried by Surrounded it. There is, however, not much prospect of the the outrigger was always advancing into undisturbed water, the committee of the lastitution being formed, not on account of its the water in the gange glass connected with that tube would being unnecessary, but because there are not sufficient funds at serve as a datum line from which, at that instant, the relative
be disposal of the Institution Dr. White was anxious that elevation or depression of the water in any other gauge glass could "Le members should be asked to express formal approval of the be measured, indicating to its corresponding horizontal tube pes, t be taken in carrying out this investigation, in order to that the water through which it was passing was either follows
sug ben che hands of the conocil. We think, however, that or meeting the boat. The wave of the boat was a disturbier Ir pengakening of this nature is requisite, for, if we mistake element which had to be allowed for. The data being appraised