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On Tuesday next, April 11, Mr. J. Macdonell will begin at SHORTLY after eight o'clock on the morning of April 1 a the Royal Institution a course of three lectures on symbolism in severe earthquake shock was felt at Catania, and other places at ceremonies, customs, and art ; on Thursday, April 13, Prof. the foot of Mount Etna. It was more especially pronounced Dewar will begin a course of five lectures on the atmosphere ; at Nicolosi and Zaffarana-Etnea, where the population fled and on Saturday, April 15, Mr. James Swinburne will begin a | from their houses into the fields. course of three lectures on some applications of electricity to The weather continued exceptionally fine over England dur. chemistry. The Friday evening meetings will be resumed on ing the whole of last week, and in Scotland and Ireland the April 14, when Sir William H. Flower will deliver a discourse

weather was generally fair, although slight rain occurred at on seals.

times in a few places. The first few days of the period were THE Academy of Sciences in Turin announces that the ninth

the warmest experienced as yet this season, and 70° was reached Bressa prize of 10,416 francs, for which all men of science and in parts of England. In the suburbs of London the shade therinventors of all nations are free to compete, is now offered

mometer registered 68° or upwards on four consecutive days, and (from January 1, 1891, to December 31, 1894). The prize will this is the average maximum temperature in June ; while on be given to whoever, in the judgment of the Academy, shall

Saturday, April 1, the thermometer reached 71° in the outskirts have, within the period indicated, made the most important

of the metropolis. The general indications on Saturday were and useful discovery, or shall have published the most profound

more favourable to a change than for some time past, but the work in the domain of the physical and experimental sciences,

unsettled appearance suddenly gave way to an anticyclone, natural history, pure and applied mathematics, chemistry, phy

which reached our islands from the Atlantic, and the conditions siology and pathology, geology, history, geography, and sta again became settled, although the maximum day temperatures tistics. Any one wishing to compete must send his printed during the last few days of the period were generally somewhat work manuscripts are not accepted) to the President of the

lower under the influence of a gentle easterly breeze. The Academy. Unsuccessful works are returned, if it be desired.

mean temperature for March was several degrees in excess of At the meeting of the Chemical Section of the Franklin the average over the whole kingdom, and at Greenwich the Institute, on February 21, a resolution was passed to the effect excess amounted to 5°; while the mean of all the maximum day that the members had heard with deep regret of the death of readings, which was 57°, was higher than in any previous March their distinguished sellow-member, Dr. F. A. Genth, whose ser during the last half century. The total rainfall for March was vices as an investigator had "added lastre to American science.” also small over the whole country, and at Greenwich the aggre. A committee was appointed to prepare a suitable memoir of gate amount was only 0:38 inches, which is the smallest fall in Dr. Genth for publication in the proceedings of the Section. March since 1854. The Weekly Weather Report for the week

ARRANGEMENTS have been made for another series of ending April 1 shows that the duration of sunshine was 85 per summer excursions by the London Geological Field Class. cent. in the Channel Islands, 76 per cent. in the south of The object of these excursions, which are planned by Prof. H. England, and 72 per cent. in the east of England. G. Seeley, F.R.S., is the study of the physical geography and | We recently referred to the unsatisfactory condition of practigeology of the Thames Basin. The first excursion will take cal meteorology in Spain. The Royal Observatory at Madrid place on April 29, when the students will go from Edenbridge had for many years published results of observations taken at to Westerham by Toys Hill. Each excursion will be under various stations in the peninsula, which furnish valuable maProf. Seeley's personal direction.

terials for climatology; but daily telegraphic reports such as are A SCHEME for the organisation of the proposed University issued in most other countries were necessary to complete the for London was adopted at a general meeting of the Association general synoptic view of weather conditions. We are glad to for Promoting a Prosessorial University for London on March 23, be able to report that this want has now been supplied. The and has been submitted to the University Commissioners. It first daily weather bulletin was recently issued, containing on is printed in the Times of April 3.

one side a map showing isobars, wind direction and force, &c. ; THE Scottish Technical Education Committee-appointed and on the other the actual telegraphic observations at a number more than a year ago at a conference held in Edinburgh-has | of stations distributed over Spain and south-western Europe. issued a report, from which it seems that Scotland has still a

The bulletin is published by the Central Meteorological Instigreat deal to do before she can be said to possess a satisfactory tute, which was established some little time since under the system of technical instruction. At a recent meeting the Com

direction of Prof. A. Arcimis, to whose persistent efforts we are mittee passed the following resolution :-“That, in the opinion chiefly indebted for this new contribution to our knowledge of of the meeting, it is desirable that the whole subject of higher current weather and technical education should be dealt with in a comprehensive The Meteorological Institutes of Hamburg and Copenhagen Measure, and that the opportunity be not lost when the provi- have issued their synoptic daily weather charts of the North sion for secondary education is being inquired into in all parts Atlantic Ocean for the year ending November 1888. These of Scotland, to formulate a scheme for organising education charts contain the best materials for studying the various tracks beyond the elementary, and reducing in some degree the com and positions of the high and low pressure systems over the plications now existing, and the waste resulting from the Atlantic; it is at once seen from them that in different parts of various authorities that now have a connection with various the ocean the storms take different routes, some follow a direct parts of the educational system of Scotland, and that the easterly track, others a more northerly course, while chairman (Lord Elgin) be requested to take the necessary some form and others die out in mid-ocean. The great steps to bring the subject under the attention of the Govern difficulty in storm prediction at present is to determine ment." At the same meeting the future action of the Com. the routes that storms will take; a serious study of the condimittee was under consideration. It was felt that in present cir. tions shown on such charts may eventually lead to the desired cumstances it would be very desirable to continue its existence if end, by enabling us to establish characteristic types of weather possible in some more definite shape, and a sub-committee was | which accompany various depressions. instructed to inquire under what conditions it might be brought Mr. W. H. GreenE and Mr. W. H. Wahl have elaborated into connection with the National Association for the promotion a new process for the manufacture of manganese on the comof secondary and technical education, and, if the sub-committee mercial scale. A paper by them on the subject was read before thought fit, to submit a form of constitution to the next meeting. | a recent meeting of the Chemical Section of the Franklin

Institute, and is printed in the Section's Proceedings for the Lake of Constance. Towards the end of the Pliocene, March.

the beginning of the quaternary period, owing to considerat A SIMPLE contrivance for determining the refractive index depressions, the Straits of the Bosphorus were formed, and the of a liquid without the use of a circular scale or a hollow glass

water of the Mediterranean pressed into a basin formeriy are prism, is described in Wiedemann's Annalen by Mr. H. Ruoss,

nected with the Arctic Sea. Thus the passage of a new feest. of the Stuttgart Technical High School. The liquid is poured

was made possible, which gradually, under favouring conditions, into a rectangular vessel, closed on one side by a plane-parallel displaced the older. The Caspian was separated before the

blate a small plane mirror is half immersed in the new forms had spread so far, and we find in it fifty-four spece liquid, and mounted so that it can be placed exactly parallel to

of fishes, which are neither in the Sea of Aral nor the Blsa the plane-parallel side. A telescope is directed towards the Sea, and only six species which it has in common with thosz mirror from outside, about 4 m. distant, its axis being normal to two others. the glass side. To this telescope is attached at right angles a FROM recent researches on transference of material in plants scale 3 m. long. On looking through the telescope the image (represented, e.g, by transference of starch in the potato). Her of the scale in the mirror appears broken into two by the sur. Brasse is led to present the following view of what goes a face of the liquid, the lower image being formed by rays which The assimilation of carbon in the sun's rays is manifesed have undergone refraction and reflection in the liquid. The directly in deposition of starch in the chlorophyll graina divisions on the cross-wire measure the tangents of the angles of Through action of diastase in the leaves, and at a temperatur incidence and resraction respectively, which, since both the sets lower than that of its formation, this starch is changed in of rays after reflection are parallel, determine the refractive reducing sugar, which spreads by diffusion from its place index of the liquid. A correction has to be applied for the formation into all the tissues of the plant. In certain pasta, thickness of the plate-glass, and it is best to make the angle of and especially in the tubers, the sugar is continuously tran incidence as large as possible. Before taking the readings, the formed. The tubers, with regard to dissociation, act like : instrument should be adjusted by making the cross-wire coincide cold wall in vaporisation of a volatile liquid in an enclosed with its two reflections in the mirror and the plate, and placing

space. The sugar-content of all cells of the plant seeks to enter the scale in a parallel and horizontal position with its reflected

| into equilibrium with that of the cells of the tubers, in church zero on the cross wire. With these adjustments and corrections the content is less, because a change of sugar into starch taks the apparatus is capable of giving very accurate results. The place, and the coefficient of this change is bere less than the angles can be measured to within 5", and a large number of

of the converse change in the leaf, the temperature of the tubo readings may be taken with different inclinations of the mirror.

being less. Owing to this inequality, there is a transferenx A set of five measurements for water in sodium light, for

of starch from the leaf into the tuber, in which it passes througi instance, gave a refractive index of 1'33276, which coincides

the intermediate stage of sugar. In a similar way Herr Braux with Walther's value to the fourth decimal place, and is subject

would explain the transference of nitrogenous and mineral to a probable error of o'Oooo3.

plant materials, and their storage in special organs (Cortos At the magnetic observatory of Potsdam some interesting Rendus de la Société de Biologie). improvements have been made in registration of the needle's

MR. E. LOMMEL has succeeded in fixing photographically the variations, a brief account of which is given by Herr Eschenhagen (Met. Zeits.). He uses a greater length of abscissæ than

equipotential lines due to a current flowing through a conduct usual (20 mm. per hour), and obtains a fine curve by cutting off

ing sheet. A current of 20 amperes was sent through shees the border rays by means of a paper screen on the lens, by de.

of copper O'5 mm. thick and of various forms. The sbees termining exactly the chemical focus, and by use of a very

| were covered with sensitive paper strewn with iron filings small mirror. The slit is 0-25 mm. In the case of great mag

which arranged themselves along the lines of magnetic funde

due to the current, or, what amounts to the same thing, tite netic disturbances, trouble sometimes arises from the movable

lines of equal electrical potential along the conductors. The light point going beyond the recording surface, even where, as in Potsdam, this has a width of 190 mm. (7.6 inches), so that the

configurations thus obtained were fixed by holding a lighted most interesting parts of disturbances may be lost. An attempt

match for a few seconds above the paper, yielding on develop

ment a beautiful representation of the flow through the corres was made to remedy this with prisms of a certain angle of re.

sheets. Two of these figures are reproduced in the last nube fraction, but there are objections to this plan. A more simple

of Wiedemann's Annalen. One of them represents the flow and effective method was hit upon; the magnetic mirror is made

through a ring formed by two concentric circles, the curren in three parts, or facets, inclined to each other at an angle of

being conveyed by wires soldered to two diametrically opposite 3°. It is enclosed in a bell-jar, in which the air is kept dry and

points. The other exhibits the equipotentinl lines in a rectangle tree from sulphur vapour. The mirror gives three beams, of!

with a hole in the middle and wires soldered to two oppoarte which usually only the middle one is concentrated in a fine light

corners. A consideration of the various ways in which die point on the drum. During a strong disturbance, and just

presence of a strong magnetic field affects the configuration of before this light point leaves the drum, another point appears

the lines observed has led the author to a possible explanatice of on the opposite side, which takes up and continues the record.

the “ Hall effect." This phenomenon is only produced by mas These and other improvements will be described in detail ere long in publications of the Observatory.

by the normal component of slanting lines. If in a rectangalir ACCORDING to recent researches by M. T. J. van Beneden current sheet made of diamagnetic material two points !! on the fossil Cetacea found in the regions of the Black Sea, the equal potential, but on opposite edges of the sheet, be 09 Caspian, and the Sea of Aral, the basin of the Black Sea con nected with a galvanometer, no current will be indicated and tains all those forms which to-day characterise ocean fauna the sheet is brought into a strong magnetic field. According » (Balænides, Ziphioides, Delphinides, and Sirenides); and Weber's theory of diamagnetism, currents are then generald taking also the region of rivers now flowing into that sea into in the molecules opposite in direction to the amperian carrenih account, it is probable that the whole of Central Europe at the These molecular currents give rise to a resultant current roari end of the Miocene period was traversed by numerous arms of the edge of the sheet, strengthening the ordinary current « the sea, the Black Sea reaching to Vienna, Linz, and even to one side and weakening it on the other. This state of thig

will be indicated by a deflection of the galvanometer needle and is followed by a record of observations, by Mr. Thomas a distortion of the lines of flow, usually designated by “nega. | Jamieson, relating especially to grass and clover roots. tive rotation.” In the case of a paramagnetic body the

Messrs. E. AND F. N. SPON have issued a convenient rotation will be positive.

little volume of waistcoat-pocket size, containing electrical tables

and memoranda, by Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson and Eustace SEVERAL correspondents have written to us with regard to

Thomas. The type is small but clear, and there are some Mr. Hilderic Friend's letter on “Luminous Earthworms”

illustrations. (NATURE, March 16, p. 463). Several of them record observations which seem to them to confirm his statements. Mr.

MESSRS. CROSBY LOCKWOOD And Son will publish in a few R. I. Pocock, of the British Museum (Natural History), points days a new work by Mr. J. D. Kendall, of Whitehaven, on out, however, that the property of phosphorescence exists in a “ The Iron Ores of Great Britain and Ireland,” giving an account highly.developed state in certain terricolous, nocturnal animals, of our present knowledge of the origin and occurrence of such which, although both luminous and vermiform, are certainly ores, and the means of reaching and working them. Some of neither glowworms, nor yet earthworms. "The power of the more important iron ores of Spain are also noticed in the producing adhesive phosphorescent matter from pores opening volume. upon the ventral surface of the body has,” says Mr. Pocock, Dr. E. SYMES 'THOMPSON will deliver lectures on the nose "been recorded from different quarters of the globe, in the and mouth at Gresham College on April 11, 12, 13, and 14, at case of several genera of centipedes of the family Geo six o'clock. philida ; and since no special affinity is traceable between all

Until comparatively recently bacteriologists have regarded the forms that are known to be sometimes luminous, it is

the macroscopic appearances to which organisms give rise highly probable that the presence of appropriate glands for the

when grown on potatoes as affording valuable assistance in dissecretion of the matter in question is, or has been in the past,

tinguishing between otherwise very similar microbes. One notable characteristic of the whole group. About a dozen species of

instance of this is the alleged different behaviour of the typhoid Geophilida occur in the south of England. All may be

bacillus and the closely allied B. coli communis when inoculated described as worm-like, and some of them are known to be

respectively on to potatoes. But more recent research has phosphorescent. Curiously enough, the specimens that have

shown that as a diagnostic agent the potato is extremely untrust. been not uncommonly brought to the Natural History Museum worthy, and this has moreover been conclusively demonstrated in is phosphorescent phenomena are referable to a species, the case of just these two organisms. Further evidence on this Linotenia crassipes, which is the most earthworm-like of all, so

subject has lately been brought forward by Krannhals, “Zur as colour is concerned. An example of this | Kenntniss des Wachsthums der Komma bacillen auf Kartoffeln ” pecies was, I venture to suggest, the luminous earthworm' (Centralblatt für Bakteriologie, vol. xiii. p. 33), and the results vith the story of which Mr. Friend opens his account of the he has obtained in the case of the cholera organism are very ubject. This centipede is about one or two inches in length; | instructive. When cholera declared itself at Riga last August, ind, although it is impossible quite to acquiesce in the state Krannhals, as Prosector and Bacteriologist at the city infirmary, Dent that it is 'worm-like in all respects,' nevertheless I think was deputed to demonstrate officially to the city medical authoriI more than probable that a lady, finding one in the dusk of ties that it really was cholera which had broken out. The vening, when it could be but dimly seen, would summarily culture tests employed exhibited all the typical appearances escribe her idea of its appearance by some such expression as associated with the cholera organism with the exception of its hat used."

development on potatoes, upon which it obstinately refused to

grow. Suspecting that this might be due to the acidity of the MR. J. E. HARTING,writing in the April number of the Zoologist,

| polatoes, slices were prepared and artificially rendered alkaline. ays that during a recent visit to Greece he lost no opportunity On these the bacillusgrew abundantly and moreover at from 16°-19° f interrogating the natives as to the birds and beasts to be met C., whereas it has hitherto been stated to be capable of only rith, and was everywhere struck with the ignorance displayed developing on this medium at from 30°-40° C. On the acid o this subject, and the general indifference which prevailed slices the same negative results were obtained as in all the 'specting it. It was not until he reached the great plain of

previous experiments. In consequence of this discovery Krannhals arissa, wbere a plague of field voles has been for some time conducted a large number of investigations on the behaviour of the anifest, that he encountered those who could impart some cholera bacillus on acid and alkaline slices of potatoes respecformation on at least one small indigenous mammal, namely, tively, and whereas he never failed to obtain vigorous growths lat which was causing such mischief and pecuniary loss to the on the latter even at the low temperature, he was only in very sident land owners. That it was a vole (Arvicola) of some few instances (4 out of 136 experiments) able to induce its It was certain ; but as to the precise species some difference of development on non-alkalised slices. But on testing those acid inion had been expressed. Mr. Harting gives much very slices on which growths had appeared, it was found that they teresting information as to the animal's habits.

exhibited a distinct alkaline reaction. This alkalinity, moreover, A PAPER on the foundations of the two river piers of the

had nothing to do with the growth of the bacillus, for sterile ower Bridge, by Mr. G. E. W. Cruttwell, was read at the

slices prepared in the same manner were tested both immediately st meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers before Easter.

on preparation and after they had been preserved some days, was stated that the materials in the two piers, from

and the same astonishing result was obtained, i.e. that the undation line up to a level of four feet above Trinity high

slices of potato originally acid had during keeping become uter (a height of 60 feet), consisted of 25, 220 cubic yards of

alkaline. Krannhals is led to suggest that in reality the cholera ment concrete, 22,400 cubic yards of brick-work in cement,

organism is incapable of growing on acid potatoes and that in d 3340 cubic yards of Cornish granite ; making a total of

those cases where it is stated to have developed on such, the ,960 cubic yards.

medium unknown to the investigator must have, as in his experi

ments, changed from acid to alkaline. It is important that in THE Agricultural Research Association for the north-eastern | future, therefore, the reaction of the potato should be noted both anties of Scotland has issued its report for 1892. A general at the time of inoculation and later, when describing the growth tline of some of the past year's results is presented, and this ! of organisms on this medium.

Notes from the Marine Biological Station, Plymouth :-Last storms on the earth may be connected with certain classes of week's captures include the rare Nudibranch Hero formosa, sunspots. specimens of the spiny shrimp (Crangon spinosus), and of the starfishes Porania pulvillus and Henricia (Cribrella) san.

Paris OBSERVATORY IN 1892,-From the appual report ca

the condition of ihe Paris Observatory during the year 1892, guinolenta. In the floating fauna Plutei, large and small, have

which was presented 10 the Council in January last by M. now quite taken the place of the Auricularia and Bipinnaria Tisserand, the Director, we gather the following bries notes : larvæ, which were so plentiful a few weeks ago. Arachnactis is Commencing with a short reference to the late Director, still obtainable. The unmodified ephyræ of Aurelia are now l'Amiral Mouchez, and to the great loss both to the Observatory very scarce : most of them are passing through various phases

itself and to astronomical science in general, M. Tisserand

informs us that, at the suggestion of M. O. Struve, the of their metamorphosis into the definitive medusa-form ; and,

presidency of the Comité permanent de la Carte du Ciel has instead of being plentiful everywhere, are now restricted to passed to the present Director of the Paris Observatory. This special localities.

choice has been received very favourably, and been confirmed

by all the members of the committee. Let us here tender oc: The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the congratulations to M. Tisserand, who, without doubt, will, ir past week include a Bonnet Monkey (Macacus sinicus, 8 ) from his capacity as president, bring such a grand work as nearly 23 India, presented by Mr. J. Pitcher ; a Bengalese Cat (Felis

noglese Cat i Elie possible to perfection. In fact, he has commenced by increasing

the personnel du Bureau de Mesures des Clichés at the Obserbengalensis) from Manilla, Philippine Islands, presented by Mr.

vatory, and constructing a new machine for the measures, while D. M Forbes, F.Z.S. ; three Peafowls (Pavo cristatus, 889) he hopes soon to publish a fascicule of the Bulletin de la Carte de from India, presented by Mr. T. Guy Paget ; a Leadbeater's Ciel, which will contain the method of reducing the measure, Cockatoo (Cacatua leadbeateri) from Australia, presented by and of the definite computations of the positions of the stars. Mrs. W. Everett Smith ; five Black-headed Gulls (Larus ridi.

The large equatorial Coudé has this year been subjected to 2 bundus), a Common Gull (Larus canus) European, presented by

minute study by M. Læwy from the point of view of its optical

qualities, and of the possibility of improving it still more. The the Rev. E. M. Mitchell; three Rhomb-marked Snakes (Psam

experiments have as yet been restricted to the mounting of the mophylax rhombeatus), a Hoary Snake (Coronella cana) from mirror, and it seems ihat important results may soon be forthSouth Africa, presented by Messrs. H. M. and C. Beddington ; coming. The spectroscopical department, under the directico three Spring boks (Gazella euchore, 8 & 9 ) from South Africa,

of M. Deslandres, has, as we are informed, quite assumed a a Raccoon (Procyon lotor) from North America, a Green

definite form since its foundation in 1890; the work done

is tabulated under the three headings—sun, stars, and laboratory Monkey (Cercopithecus callitrichus) from West Africa, de

work. As we have previously referred in these columns to posited ; two silver-backed Foxes (Canis chama), a Cape Buce most of the work here accomplished, such as, for instance, the phalus (Bucephalus capensis) from South Africa, purchased ; a researches of the velocities of stars in the line of sight (250 stars Short Death Adder (Hoplocephalus curtus) from Australia,

will here be included), photographs of protuberances, facakz, received in exchange ; four Great Cyclodus (Cyclodus sigas)

new hydrogen radiations, &c., further notice will be unneces

sary. With the Equatorial de la Tour de l'Ouest, the programme born in the Gardens,

of observations has been the same as in previous years, measures of the positions of comets, nebulæ, and double stars having beer obtained. Among the observations here recorded as many

136 were made of Comet Swist (1892), 41 of Comet Denning OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

(1892), while 250 nebula and 120 double stars have bees

measured. All the above were made by M. Bigourdan. M. COMET SWIFT (a 1892). - At the Boyden Station, Arequipa, Faye also made 77 observations of comets. With the Cercle Peru, during the visibility of this comet, all the photographic Méridien du Jardin under the special service of M. Lewy, the telescopes were turned towards it, with the result that a fine total number of observations amounted to 16.686 ; 453 obser. series of photographs were obtained. In the Bache 8-inch vations were made of the sun, moon, and planets. M. Par photographic doublet, filly-six pictures (20 millimetres 10 the and Prosper Henry bave been occupied in obtaining degree) were taken, sixteen of which are of the first quality" ; clichés of ihe international chart and of the catalogue ; photoin the 2.5-inch photographic doublet (3.8 millimetres to the graphs have also been taken of the late nova in Auriga, Jupiter, degree) twelve satisfactory plates were taken, while in the

anu Comet Holmes. The Bureau des Mesures des Clichés du 13-inch refractor and 20-inch reflector several additional Catalogue, under the direction of Malle. Klumpke, has been negatives were collected. An examination of the negatives, very busy. At this part of the report a brief description of the especially of those belonging to the first series, indicated two

measuring machine is given, and in a paragraph on " reflexions important facts, as Mr. A. E. Douglass (Astronomy and Astro sur le catalogue et la durée de son exécution," we are told that, physics for March) informs us. (1) That the tail of the comet

is simply the 1200 or 1400 clichés which are demanded for the was composed of luminous masses receding from the head at a work in each of the eighteen observations are obtained ** ou measurable rate, and (2) that the form of the tail depended peut espérer d'y atieindre en cinq ou six ans au plus." For largely on some varying force acting at the head. The former measuring the clichés with one machine, and two persons to of these results was deduced from measurements of the distance observe and write the results, 130 clichés could be done in a of prominent points (8 points were here used) from the nucleus. 1 year, but it would take about 10 years to measure the cliche and the acceleration he obtained amounted to 477,000 miles per attributed to one observatory, with one machine and two pet day. In discussing the second fundamental results, he deals with

sons working incessantly. The report contains also all the the general characteristics of the tail and the special phenomena meteorological work and that done with the minor instruments, within half a degree of the head, separately. The tail he concluding with the usual lists of personal publications, obser describes as "a bundle of slighily divergent straight streamers, vatory publications, changes in the personnel, &c. branching from each other and joined to the head by one, two, or three well-marked lines.At the southern part of the tail THE LARGE NEBULA NEAR & PERSEI (N. G. C. 1499).the photographs showed the appearance of a curious twisting Dr. F. Scheiner, in Astronomische Nachrichten (No. 3157) effect, while a number of saint streamers, in many cases not describes briefly this great nebula near Persei, seves joined to the main part of the tail, were also visible. The curve photographs of which he has been able to obtain. Darin: of the natural tangents of the position angles for the date on November and December last, employing an objective of which they left the head, is, as plotted out by Mr. Douglass, | 4-inch aperture, he took fine photographs, with exposure quire irregular, and suggests “non-periodic outbursts from the varyirg from 1 10 6 hours. The longest exposed plates showed head of the comet or variations in the repulsive force of the thai lhe size of this nebula has been considerably under-rated sun"; where the tail swings to one side there are "large jets in and that it comes nearly up to that of Orion and Andromees. the opposite direction as if the whole resulted from some in. This nebula, it will be remembered, was discovered by Pro. crease in activity in the head." He suggests that this activity Barnard with a 6-inch objective, and the position which may be connected with solar disturbances, just as magnetic I gave, 3 h. 54'0 m. R.A. + 36° 1' Decl. (1855'0), referred sa

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the more northern part. Dr. Scheiner's photographs show that GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS IN its extension southward is very considerable, but, owing to its

NAVIGATION. dimness, was not seen by Prof. Barnard. The form of this Debula, a copy of which is given in this number, is inclined to 1. F we suppose the two angles P, S of a spherical triangle SPZ be spirally, although not so apparent as that of Andromeda,

to be together less than two right angles, a plane triangle and, curiously enough, it lacks a bright nucleus, as in the

SZP,2, may clearly be drawn such that P = P and S, = S. latter.

The sides of the spherical triangle PS, PZ, SŽ being respectively

denoted by P, c, z, those of the plane triangle may be taken in MINOR PLANETS.— The work of discovering minor planets the following ratios :seems, at the present time of the year, to be in a very flourishing condition, although rather restricted to two observers,

P,S, = tan ip, according to the current number of Astronomische Nachrichten

P, 21 = $ tan $(c + s) + } tan 1(c - %), (No. 3157). Charlois with 10 and Wolf with 2, bringing the

S,24 = tan )(c + 2): - 1 tan 1(c - 2), present notation up to 1893 x, is a good number for the first quarter of the year, and if this average be kept up we shall These results may be easily verified. joon be driven io indulge in the Greek or German alphabet, or Hence S,2. + P,2= tan :(( + ), both.

and

P2, - S,21 = tan (c - x).

From these equations we infer hat Z, is the intersection of an GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

ellipse and hyperbola which have the same soci P, and Sj.

Suppose now that the line SP, contains, say, 100 divisions, MR. JOHN BARTHOLOMEW, of Edinburgh, whose reputation and that a system of ellipses, having S, and P, as foci, with is one of the foremost British map-makers is world-wide, died | major axes 101, 102, 103 . . . and a system of hyperbolas in March 30, at the age of 61. His career will be remembered | whose axes are 99, 98, 97 ... are drawn on one side of s an epoch in the history of the perfecting and popularising

| S, Py; then, by finding , m, from the equations f English maps. Trained in Edinburgh and afterwards nder the late Dr. Petermann, in London, Mr. Bartholo

m2 = 100 tan llc + x) cot ip, iew succeeded his father in a cartographical business in

mg = 100 tan 1(c - 2) cot 10, dinburgh, which he steadily enlarged and improved, paying

we should be able to localise the point mim, as coming between ttention not only to excellence of mechanical production, but ) the improvements of methods of representation. But the

two successive ellipses and also between two consecutive hyper

bolas in the diagram. ading characteristic of Mr. Bartholomew's work was his

2. The usefulness of such a diagram lies in its application to boscientious endeavour to produce the most accurate topo.

problems in navigation. For p may be taken as the north polar raphical delineation. The general use of maps coloured

| distance of the sun, the complement of his altitude, and c the fographically in this country is mainly due to the efforts of

colatitude of the place of observation. Having determined le Edinburgh Geographical Institute, of which he was the

, m, and thus localised Z, in the diagram, the angle ZPS ad. Mr. Bartholomew gradually withdrew from active work

is ihe hour angle which may be suitably measured. account of failing health, and his son, Mr. J. G. Bartholomew,

If we interchange p and c in the diagram, thus making P, and is taken his place in the Geographical Institute.

2, the foci, the point to be localised is S, from the equations Mr. THEODORE Bent (see p. 519) has been able to reach ksum, where, however, he only remained for eight days, on

nly = 100 tan :( + 2) cotic, count of tribal wars. The party had to retire abruptly

ng = 100 tan ( - ) cot șc. cause of a threatened fight, in which they were very nearly The difficulties attending this mode of representation will prempelled to take sides, but fortunately the report of an ad. sent themselves in another form in $4. It is sufficient to notice nce of Italian troops to their relief solved the difficulty, and i here that this use of the diagram has the advantage of giving ey reached the coast in sasety. Despite the shortness of the | two useful angles-SP 21, the hour angle, and S,2,P, the orking time, some good archæological results have been azimuth. tained.

3. The merit of both these modes of representation consists The March number of Petermann's Mitteilungen contains al in their being each a single diagram, applicable at any time of luable paper on North-west Patagonia by Dr. J. von Siemi. | year, though in northern latitudes more favourable to accurate izki, with a map showing the results of his surveys and

measures in summer than in winter. Their demerit consists in loured to bring out the pastoral possibilities of the region. His the preliminary calculations of mi, m2, or », no. This, howite in 1891-92 led up the Rio Negro and Rio Limay to Lake ever, might be minimised by supplying, along with the diagram, thuel Huapi and thence northward through the grassy valleys

tables of the values of m for two arguments 0 and o given by i bare slopes of the Cordillera to the Upper Biobio valley,

m = 100 tan } coto lence the expedition passed to the coast of Chile.

The whole amount of preliminary calculation would then consist The Royal Geographical Society has given a grant to Dr. H. in adding and subtracting p and 2, and looking out m, and mo. Mill to defray the expenses of a careful bathymetrical survey

I shall now investigate the nature of a diagram which requires some of the larger English lakes. The work, which will be no preliminary calculation. ried out next summer, would be greatly facilitated if use could Returning to the spherical figure SPZ, let us suppose SP to had for a few days of a steam launch upon any of the lakes. be fixed while the sides PZ, SZ vary so that Z describes a curve ndermere, Coniston Water, and Wastwater will probably be on the sphere. The corresponding point 7, will describe a cornded in the first place, as they are the most interesting from responding locus on the plane. For example, if L describes a limnological point of view.

small circle with P as centre, the locus of Z, will be given by A PAPER on the Geography and Social Conditions of the Iberian

tan c = tan{(c + x) + (0 - 3); insula read at the Maich meeting of the Berlin Geographical

Piz iety by Prof. Theobald Fischer is 'published in abstract in

I - P,2,2 + 3,2% April number of the Geographical Journal. The paradoxi. character of the peninsula in the variety of its conditions has | Now, if we draw a perpendicular Z, N to the side ,S, we shall g been known. The great central plateau with its broken have untain border sloping steeply to the sea throws the bulk of

P,S,' - S,2;? = P,N? - S,N? population towards the coast-line. In the border zone of

= lan p(2P,N - tan $P); peninsula comprising 45 per cent. of its area, more than 66 cent. of the inhabitants are settled. The only large city in

.: P.2, = tan c tan 4p(cosec p - P,N). central plains is Madrid ; all the rest of the plateau is This shows that the curve described by Z, is a conic section of apied by wheat-growers and sheep-rearers ; the mining, eccentricity tan c tan 10, with focus at P, and directrix perpent-growing and industrial interests being all confined to the dicular to PiC, at a distance cosec p from P. nard slopes. There are few parts of Europe in which the Similarly, tbe curves corresponding to small circles about S, "sical conditions so plainly dominate the whole character of are conics with a common directrix and with focus at Sy, their puntry.

curvatures being turned the opposite way from those about Pj.

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