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determine that on the whole no energy shall flow from velocity of propagation to gravity are not apparently one to the other when placed in contact or radiating to very well known. The difficulty is owing to the comone another,

ponent of the force at right angles to the radius vector There are many other matters treated of in the book, that would come in, owing to the aberration of the force, but if one were to take “Waterdale” at his word and and which would cause an acceleration of areas of planets judge “ whether the rest of the book is worthy or not of This might be partly neutralized by a resisting medium. careful perusal" by one's experience of Appendix II. and but hardly completely, especially in the case of comets, its supposed proof, nobody would read another word, and because the resisting force would be tangential to the unless one had a great deal of leisure to devote to specu- path, while the aberration component would be at right lative conjectures, or were well paid for it, there does not angles to the radius vector. It is possible, by assuming seem much inducement to wade very carefully through an increase of force due to velocity of approach and a it. “Waterdale” professes to explain gravitation by a decrease due to recession, to get over this latter difficulty ; sort of hotch-potch of Bjerknes' sound wave attractions but even then it is hard to explain the persistent rotation and Osborne Reynolds's theory founded on dilatancy of the earth when the surface is not moving freely as a He seems to think that any attempt to explain gravi- projectile, and when consequently the supposed exact tation is very remarkable." The author would have balance between gravitational acceleration and resistance thought tbat when the unusual occurrence of the publi- of medium does not hold. Even then there is the pos cation of a work announcing the discovery of gravity sible suggestion that cohesional and other forces, being and other original theories as important arises, that the similarly propagated in time, would prevent any possible scientific world would display sufficient interest in the effect being produced by the resisting medium, and so subject as to read and examine the arguments, although matters return to much as they were at first, and so the work might be by an unknown pen.” “Waterdale” | final answer be given to the questions, “Is gravity pro seems ignorant of the fact that the scientific world has pagated in time?” “ Does the ether offer resistance to been inundated with theories of gravity and other original motion ?" It remains much in the same position as the theories. To mention only a few of the better known question of the motion of the ether at the surface of the ones, there are Le Sage's corpuscular theory, worked out earth. very carefully by Mr. Tolver Preston and Mr. George “Waterdale” and others seem to think that fluidity Forbes. Others founded on wave motion and fluid flow, necessarily implies that a medium is divisible into hard such as Bjerknes has popularized, and which Mr. Karl | or soft particles. No ordinary mind is forced to this Pearson has devoted so much ingenuity to, though he conclusion. Most minds look upon water, for instance, takes refuge in nondynamical suggestions, such as a as a perfectly continuous medium, any part of which can fourth dimension, which might just as well be introduced flow past any other part with perfect freedom. Hard as a region in which a convenient series of strings existedness, softness, and so forth may require structure, but to hold atoms together without any action at all going on mere fluidity does not. Again, “ Waterdale" and others in our stupid tridimensional space. What the difference seem to imagine that elasticity essentially involves the is between such a theory and the good old hypothesis of compressibility of the elastic body : i.e. that it must inherent qualities seems difficult to discover. Then there consist of atoms that are themselves compressible. is the suggestion that every atom is connected to every “ Waterdale” himself invents a structure for an atom other by means of vortex filaments, though how the poor that resists deformation without its constituents being things work when they get tangled is rather a difficulty themselves compressible, and the existence of voiter here. Finally, there is Osborne Reynolds's interesting rings shows how a perfect liquid can have a real elastheory founded on dilatancy, which very possibly has a ticity to deformation given to a part of it by giving it future before it, especially if we consider that the ether motion without any part being composed of particles, or is probably full of vortices, and that vortices cannot cut | any part of it being at all compressible. one another. These theories almost all suffer from the The rest of “Waterdale's Researches” concern sug. apparently incurable defect to which “Waterdale’s”is also gestions as to how cohesion, chemical action, light, liable, that they give a rate of propagation of gravity electricity, &c., may at some future time be explicable by comparable with that of light. Parents are proverbially the structure he proposes for the ether, which is to partial to their children, and “ Waterdale” probably will all intents and purposes the same as Osborne Reynolds cherish his suggestions as very valuable, notwithstanding already has suggested, a whole collection of absolutely this and other serious objections. The confident way in hard bodies of different sizes, or, as “Waterdale* sug. which, aster pages of suggestions as to what might happen, gests, spheres of two different sizes. There is considerhe stares that a current from right to left will produce one able cleverness displayed in the way he has reasoned out effect, while one from left to right will not neutralise it is for himself such a well-known theorem as that a body quite refreshing, but is not an attractive investigation to moving in a perfect liquid will behave as if its mas, those who are accustomed to call nothing a proof that is were increased, but the labour bestowed upon such a not founded upon something better than suggestions. well-known theorem does not entice the reader to tri That gravity is propagated with such amazing rapidity and follow the vague suggestions that follow, and that as it is seems to show that it must be an action of are much the same as have been over and over again the medium to whose structure the electromagnetic given to show how every theory as to the nature of the properties of the ether are due. Such actions are known ether explains a lot of things which can on the face of to exist in a perfect liquid, and it is natural to attribute them be explained by any ether through which bodies gravity to such actions. The reasons for attributing great can move, and upon which they exert pressures. Mixed

up with these plausible suggestions are such things as and on the contrary, points of general biological interest hypothetical whirls of ether within the solar system are referred to here and there, and these go far to show that seem, to say the least of them, to require some what a good many of our elementary text-books do not elucidation as to how comets go through them in every

-viz. that the London University syllabus, “as at present sort of direction without any sensible action of the constituted," affords “considerable scope for efficient whirl on the comet.

biological study.” The student, moreover, is told that A person who has brought forth, after enormous labour this "little book is the merest beginning in zoology," and of thought, a series of theorems concerning the universe, the last paragraph, on p. 131, indicates the aspect of and who is not very familiar with the equally carefully mind with which the author regards his subject. thought-out suggestions of others naturally looks with Twenty-four folding sheets of sketches are inserted in more favour upon his own children than upon those of the text, but the figures are, on the whole, exceedingly others; but, if he is reasonable, and in a reasonable rough; and though many of them may be found useful mood, he will not be surprised nor even distressed, be- as guides, we feel that the student would do better to cause those who look at all these children with critical postpone drawing until his dissections are made, or even eyes see very serious defects in all of them, and feel copy some of the numerous good figures to be found very confident that without great changes no one of them elsewhere, than to “copy and recopy” these sketches can possibly grow into a second Newton.

first, as advised by the author.

Numerous inaccuracies and awkward expressions

occur, only a few of which can be here mentioned. The VERTEBRATE BIOLOGY.

terms superior and inferior, as applied to the great veins, Text-book of Biology. By H. G. Wells, B.Sc. Lond., ! are likely to confuse a beginner after reading the defini

F.Z.S. With an Introduction by G. B. Howes, F.L.S., | tion of the regions of the body given on p. 3. “MetaF.Z.S., Assistant Professor of Zoology, Royal College bolism” and “metaboly” occur even in consecutive of Science, London. Part I. Vertebrata. (London: W. sentences on p. 23. Peristaltic movement is said to move B. Clive and Co., University Correspondence College the food “forward” (p. 41). It is stated that the thyroid Press.)

is similar in structure to the thymus and to “botryoidal M R. WELLS'S book is avowedly written mainly for

tissue" in general (p. 26), and that the epithelium of the M the purpose of helping solitary workers to pass the

villi, with its striated border, " is usually spoken of as Intermediate Science examination of the University of leading towards ciliated" epithelium (p. 22). It is misLondon, and it would therefore be unfair to criticise it

leading to say that“ a tarsus (tarsalia) equals the carpus," from a wider point of view. The scope for originality in

and that the vomer of the dog is paired (pp. 38 and 76). such a work is naturally somewhat limited, but it is a As the term “Chordata” is adopted on p. 96, it is unpleasant surprise to come across one which is far above

fortunate that the student is told on p. 60 that vertebrata the average as regards soundness of treatment and method.

occur in which cartilage is absent, and that Amphioxus The author not only possesses a practical knowledge possesses the “essential vertebrate features,” is “ twisted, of the greater part of the subiect he deals with, but also | as it were," and that its“ vertebral column is deevidently takes pleasure in it for its own sake, and has a

void of vertebræ : " it is, moreover, inadvisable healthy dislike of " that chaotic and breathless cramming to use the term “hyoidean” with regard to this of terms misunderstood, tabulated statements, formu- an

animal. On p. 61“ classes” and “ orders” are lated tips and lists of names in which so many students. used in a correct and an incorrect sense in the same in spite of advice, waste their youth.” He states that

sentence. The expression, “carotid gland” requires " the marked proclivity of the average schoolmaster for

a better explanation on p. 67. The morphology of mere book-work has put such a stamp on study that, in

the cardinals, azygos, and post-caval is incompletely nine cases out of ten, a student, unless he is expressly

explained (pp. 87, 120, and 124). Several serious misinstructed to the contrary, will go to the tortuous, and takes are made with regard to the homologies of the possibly inexact, description of a book for a knowledge | urinogenital apparatus (cf., e.g. pp. 92 and 114). Misof things that lie at his very finger-tips” (p. 31); and

prints are also fairly abundant throughout.

prints are also fairly abundant throughout. again, on p. 125, that “it is seeing and thinking much

Most of these faults are, however, such as can be more than reading, which will enable" the student “to

remedied in a future edition, and the book will, we think, clothe the bare terms and phrases of embryology with

serve the purpose for which it was written very coherent knowledge.” Throughout the book the import

satisfactorily.

W. N. P. ance of actual observation is insisted upon. The present part deals with the Rabbit, Frog, Dog-fish,

OUR BOOK SHELF. and Amphioxus, and includes an account of the develop | Pflanzenleben. Von Anton Kerner von Marilaun. Band II. ment of these animals and of the theory of evolution, as Geschichte der Pflanzen. (Leipzig und Wien : Bibwell as a number of questions, most of which have been liographisches Institut.) set at the examinations of the London University. The The first volume of this excellent book was reviewed in morphological portions are, on the whole good and NATURE, vol. xxxix. p. 507. The present volume, which clearly written, and a fair amount of physiology is also completes the work, treats of the “history of plants," by introduced. A syllabus of practical work is given at the

which is meant their development, in the widest sense, end: this would in many respects bear amplifying. The

including both ontogeny and phylogeny. The former student is not warned that his time will be wasted if he 480 pages, while the remainder is devoted to the “history

subject (“ origin of descendants”) occupies the first wanders off the direct path of the examination syllabus ; ' of species.”

It is not proposed to enter into any detailed criticism in 1892 on parasites and helminthology (zoology). płys. of this volume. Some idea of the scope of the work was ology, biological chemistry, pharmacology, histalog. given in the former notice; we are glad to hear that an human and pathological anatomy, bacteriology and English translation is in preparation, and when this ap- / hygiene. The abstracts are done by experts in te pears a further opportunity will be given for a general particular subject, are short but clear and intelligible, account of the whole. In point of interest the second | and have the advantage of not being critical. volume is fully equal to the first; there is, however,

The Evolution of Decorative Art. By Henry Balinar, perhaps more room for adverse criticism of certain parts. Speaking quite generally it may be said that while the

M.A., F.Z.S. (London: Percival and Co., 18931 “biology," or natural history of the subject is admirable, It is remarkable that in these days, when the question the morphology is on the whole rather weak. The former, “origins" holds a place of commanding importance in however, is the more important for the general reader, almost every department of investigation, comparative, for whom the book is intended.

little should have been done to trace the evolution of ir The account of reproduction begins with the asexual back to what Mr. Balfour calls “its very simplest bezi organs of propagation, including spores, buds, andning." Mr. Balfour does not, of course, undertake lo gemmæ. This is succeeded by the much more extensive present in this small book anything like a complete rics section on reproduction by fruits, including all sexual of the subject. His aim is merely to indicate some ol processes. The great value of this part lies in the ex the main conclusions to which he has been led by bis tremely full, and in many respects original, treatment of own researches. He finds in early art three distino the fascinating subject of the pollination of flowering stages-(1) adaptive; the appreciation of curious or plants, to which nearly 300 pages are devoted. Special decorative effects occurring in nature or as accidents in stress is laid here on the phenomena of geitonogamy, or manufacture, and the slight increasing of the same br the crossing of different flowers on the same inflorescence. artificial means in order to augment their pecaliar and of autogamy, or self-fertilisation of hermaphrodite character or enhance their value as ornaments; (2 flowers. The whole account is of the greatest possible creative ; the artificial production of similar effects wbere interest, and familiar as the subject has now become, in these do not occur (imitation or copying); (3) variative: numerable fresh points of view are opened up.

gradual metamorphosis of designs by unconscious and The second part of the volume is on the history of conscious variation. Mr. Balfour brings out a durabl; species, including the whole subject of variation. Changes the significance of these stages, and it is scarcely neces produced by external agencies, such as parasitic fungi, sary to say that the Pitt Rivers collection, of which he and gall-forming insects, form the subjects of special is curator, provides him with ample means for the clear sections.

and effective exposition and illustration of his ideas. As regards the origin of new species, the author, like Prof. Weismann, attributes the greatest importance to sexual reproduction, and especially to cross-fertilisation.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. He occupies a peculiar position in so far as he believes that hybridisation has played an important part in nature

The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions et as a source of new forms.

pressed by his correspondents. Neither can be madei This second part of vol. ii. includes classification, and

to return, or to correspond with the writers of, gested

manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE a fairly full account is given of all the important groups

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.) of plants, each cohort, or “Stamm," receiving separate treatment.

Palæontological Discovery in Ausiralia. Sections on the distribution of species, and on their

MANY readers of Nature will learn with interest that I have extinction, conclude the book.

this day received a telegram from Prof. Stirling, of the to A really good index is added, which will be a great versity of Adelaide, as follows:boon to all who wish to make use of the vast store of "Made discovery immense deposit fossil remains excavate facts which the book contains. The illustrations, con several nearly complete skeletons Diprotodon besides two sisting of twenty coloured plates and 1547 figures in the thousand bones also large Struthious bird giant Wombal pa. text, reach the same high standard as those of the | ticulars letter." previous volume.

I need scarcely add that I shall await with impatience the To the book as a whole the highest praise must be

promised particulars of this discovery, which may prove to be given. No such popular account of the natural history

one of great importance.

ALFRED YEWTON, of plants has appeared before. The publication of an

Magdalene College, Cambridge, April 21. English version will be anticipated with great interest.

D. H. S.

An International Zoological Record. Bibliografia Medica Italiana By P. Giacosa, Prof.

It is much to be regretted that the praiseworthy agitation of straord. di Materia Medica e Chimica fisiologica all'

this subject, opened by Mr. Minchin (NATURE, vol. xlvi. p. 367

has not been continued. There cannot be the slightest doobi Università di Torino. (Torino-Roma : L. Roux e C.,

of the desirability of such a reform. Possibly the reason why 1893.)

the letters of Mr. Minchin and Mr. Bathers (it. p. 416) bav: This work is a collection of abstracts of the chief papers not aroused more interest lies in the fact that they both wrote as bearing on the medical sciences published by various recorders. They showed the absurd burdens that the actor Italian authors during the year 1892. Prof. Giacosa has system imposes upon the recorders; but they leit sumewhat in been aided in his work by several experts, whose names the background the advantages which the great world of are a sufficient guarantee for the accuracy of the ab

zoologists could receive. stracts, such as Profs. Marcassi of Palermo, Maggiora of

However this may be, it is certain that the rank and file a Modena, and Sperino of Torino. The medical reading

investigators of the present day are supporting an atteriy ob

| necessary burden, and one from which they ardently desire to le public is familiar with the excellent Jahrberichte and

freed. Any one who desires to test the sentiment has only Centralblätter published in Germany, which deals chiefly,

make inquiries among those of his acquaintance. Having my. though rot exclusively, with scientific papers by German

self agitated in this quiet way a meihod of reform that he authors. There has been a great want of similar publi

occurred to me nearly two years ago, I can hardly doubt that cations of Italian work, and Prof. Giacosa's “ Bibliografia" the concourse of opinion is strong enough to effect a radical is a welcome addition to medical literature. In it will be change, if only concerted action can be taken. found abstracts of all the chief Italian papers published Mr. Minchin and Mr. Bathers have pointed out that the

recorders at present do the same work many times over, and have a full mastery of their subject, unless they can receive aid suggest a plan by which it can be avoided. The salient feature

from a central bureau such as I have described. lies in separating the duties of recorder and bibliographer, and The expense of maintaining at several points a complete index, in having the entire mechanical work done once for all concerned such as that in the bibliographical bureau, is not such as to make in the preparation of the record. The plan is an admirable it infeasible, and I fancy it would be done in several zoological one, but why thus restrict the blessings of a competent biblio. centres. The labour of the bureau would probably assume grapher ? The scheme to which I have alluded in the preceding considerable proportions; but, inasmuch as it would in paragraph simply substitutes a bibliographical bureau for the each case save much more of the scattered and oft-repeated bibliographer, a feature necessitated by the additional duties labour of individuals, it would be quite self-supporting. For imposed upon it.

the perfect working of the scheme it is important that authors The business of recording a publication according to the should send “extras" to the bibliographer. Mr. Bathers suglatter plan may be referred to three stages. Let me suppose the gests that they would gladly do this is there were only one asking bureau constituted at a centre such as the British Museum, and for them instead of a number, as is now the case. Here Mr. show its working. The first stage of recording is conducted Bathers again writes as a recorder. I was unaware that papers wholly by the central bureau, with such aids from outside as were desired, and would not know even where to send a copy. might be found expedient. (I refer to assistants in other With the scheme I have proposed, also those who now unincountries. In the case of Russia it would be at first probably tentionally withhold their papers would contribute them; for necessary, although in general to be avoided as far as possible.] the organisation would at least be well known. In the first place the bureau would make complete lists of all Respecting further details, there is no occasion of bringing zoological papers as they are published. At intervals of a week, these forward now. I may simply add that I have had opporor of two weeks, these lists would be given to the press and tunity of seeing paper slip catalogues in use in a very large printed successively in two forms. One would constitute a scale in the Government service in Russia, and learned that they pamphlet similar to the bibliographical part of the Zoolog. gave excellent satisfaction. It may be also of interest to any who Angeig., but would give all the titles promptly. The other form may further concern themselves with this subject that the present in which the list would be printed would have the titles widely i volume of zoological publication is not far from 2000 pages spaced, would be printed on strong, stout paper, and would weekly. appear in sheets, leaving one side blank. These sheets could I have made inquiries among many of my friends in different then be cut up at will into slips of uniform size and shape to countries in respect to their interest in such a plan as I here serve further bibliographical elaboration. During the printing propose, and it has received such endorsement that I cannot of the slips it would have been the duty of the bibliographer to doubt that it affords a remedy for a real evil. I am well aware that have sorted the titles carefully, and, in the case of larger works such a plan needs to be much modified ; but I submit it in this and works with ill-characterised contents, it would surther have form. I bave already a long list of persons and institutions who been his duty to have ascertained the topics dealt with, so that have promised to subscribe to the slips, could they be obtained at the end of the period he would be able to sort and classify at a reasonable price ; among others of librarians, who would the 150 titles, which appear at present weekly.

use them to save copying in making out the "card catalogues" Thereupon the second stage of recording would be begun. | in vogue in America. This support was obtained when the Each reviewer would receive at once slips indicating the papers scheme was but little elaborated, and when there was almost no concerning him, together with a page-number in the case in prospect of success. I am confident that were the undertaking which his topic is only incidentally dealt with. Thus the once begun the support would be very great. It needs organised mechanical labour of the reviewer would be reduced to al action such as the various scientific bodies can give it. Let the minimum. Not merely, however, the reviewers could be thus British Association appoint a committee and invite others to join informed, but also any specialist whose field of work sufficiently them in sorming an International Commission, or let them recoincided with one of the divisions of the Record to induce him spond should the call come to them. Let all considerations of to subscribe to the series. Thus, for example, a worker on the national pride be set aside. Surely England, with her enormous development of the vertebrate nervous system would find his library and museum facilities, will receive her share. wants admirably met. The second stage of recording would be

Leipzig, Germany, April 16. HERBERT H. FIELD. carried on wholly by the reviewers, who, however, in addition to writing reviews as at present, would also index the topics of the paper in a more detailed way than would be possible for the

Lion-tiger and Tiger-lion Hybrids. bibliographer in his first hasty survey; or this work might be left SINCE the date of my previous communication on the above to the bibliographer, who, in what I have called the third stage, subject (see NATURE, p. 390) I have had some correspondcollates the reviews which have been returned to him. The ence with Mr. John Atkins, son of Mr. Thomas Aikins, reviewer should also note any incidental observations of interest the result of which has been not only to clear up several 10 other reviewers which the bibliographer may have over- discrepancies which I pointed out as occurring in the prelooked.

viously published accounts by Sir Wm. Jardine and Mr. In stage 3 the bibliographical bureau becomes a bureau of Griffiths, but moreover it enables me to present for the publication, and it is believed that with such an organisation the first time a detailed account of what, so far as I can ascertain, Record for the year could be very promptly issued. At the are the only authenticated cases of the interbreeding of a lion and same time, however, the bureau would be able, by the use of tigress. I am aware of the classical references to the reputed the slips at its disposal, to embody the indexes furnished by the breeding of the leopard and lioness ; but that part of the subject reviewers (or, possibly better, made out by the bibliographer I do not propose to discuss now. In the first place I should from their abstracts) in a permanent slip index, which would state that the proprietor of the menagerie, when the first hybrids grow with the years and become a record of inestimable value. were seen, was Mr. Thomas Atkins, not “F.” or “J. This part of the plan alone, I see, has been independently Atkins” as quoted previously. Mr. John Atkins came into advocated by Mr. Cockerell (NATURE, vol. xlvi. p. 442); but, in possession later on. The parents of the hybrids were the same asmuch as he overlooked the indefinite multiplication made all through for ten years, from 1824 to 1833, during which possible by the use of printed slips, he failed to note the highest period six litters were born. The lion was bred in Mr. Atkins's use which the bureau can serve. To my mind this consists in menagerie from a Barbary lion and a Senegal lioness. The informing the individual investigator of every work which con tigress was born in the Marquis of Hastings's collection in Cal. cerns his speciality by sending him the proper slips.

cutta, and was purchased when about eighteen months old by The value of such a service can hardly be exaggerated. It Mr. T. Atkins from a captain, to whom she had been given by relieves the individual of endless labour : it gives a completeness to the Marquis. Being of the same age as the lion, she was his knowledge of the literature that no individual endeavour could placed together with him in the same cage, and two years attain ; and finally, it saves him the annoyance which indefinite afterwards she proved to be in cub. titles occasion him in using the ordinary means of seeking for The following statement regarding the successive litters has papers relating to his subject. So long as a fundamental ob been revised by Mr. John Atkins, and as he has preserved notes of servation on the development of the Wolffian Duct can be the facts which are recorded, they may be accepted as authentic. published under the title, “Observations on the Lymph,” so I need hardly add that but for his ready and full response to my long as the bulletins announce “Contributions to the Develop queries this account could not have been written. ment of the Vertebrates,” we have no right to expect authors to First Litter:-Born October 24, 1824, at Windsor, two males and one female. Reared by terrier bitch, all died within a year. I small dast-particles, in the direction of decreasing temperature. They were exhibited to King George IV. at the Royal Cottage, by the extra energy of the gas-molecules on one side Sex Windsor, on November 1, 1824.

papers by myself and the late Mr. Clark in NATURE (especially Second Litter.-Born April 22, 1825, at Clapham Common; Jaly 26, 1883, April 24, 1884, vol. xxix. p. 417, and Jan there were three cubs, sexes not recorded. Reared by the 22, 1885), and in Phil. Mag., 1884, Proc. R. I., &c.; also by Mr. mother, as also were all the subsequent litters. They only lived i Aitken, Trans. R.S. Edin., 1884. And see the remarkable a short time.

theoretical paper by Prof. Oiborne Reynolds on " Dimensioni Third Litter.-Born December 31, 1826 or '27, at Edinburgh, | Properties of Gases," Phil. Trans., 1879. one male and two females. As stated in the previous paper, 1 Dust gets bombarded out of hot air on to all colder sarfaces the year is given as 1827 in the handbill of the menagerie The details of this effect are specially given by Mr. Aika is from which I quoted, and the other references seem to sup. i NATURE, vol. xxix. p. 322. The badly-conducting plaser of port that date ; but Mr. John Atkins says it is given as 1826 in ceiling is no doubt fully healed by contact with the air belce a printed catalogue in his possession.

except in places where the conducting power of wood or ina Fourth Litter.-Born October 2, 1828, at Windsor, one keeps it comparatively cool ; hence the picking-out of the pa: male and two females.

tern. Solid deposit from warm air on to cool surfaces can occur Fifth Litter.- Born May, 1831, at Kensington, three cubs, without any actual smoke; 4.3: it can be noticed abre incand sexes not recorded. They were shown to the Queen, then Prin escent lamps.

OLIVER LODGE cess Victoria, and to the Duchess of Kent. The whole group per formed in a specially constructed cage at Astley's Amphitheatre, and in 1832 were taken by Mr. Atkins for a tour in Ireland. TO

The Use of Ants to Aphides and Coccida, a separate account of this tour reference has been made in my. I HAVE just had an opportunity of seeing Dr. Rymises' in previous paper.

teresting work, “Darwin, and after Darwin," and fiad therein Sixth Litter.-Börn July 19, 1833, at the Zoological Gardens, 1 (p. 292) the production of honey-dew by Aphides addaced as a Liverpool, one male and two females. One, the male, lived difficulty in the way of the Darwinian theory. I have not put for ten years in the gardens. Tne young male lion-tigers when any particular attention t Aphides, but have lately been much about three years old had a short mane something like that of interested in the allied Coccidæ, which, since they product a. an Asiatic lion; the stripes became very indistinct at that age. similar fluid attracting ants, may be considered to offer i

Mr. Atkins informs me that there is a badly stuffed specimen parallel instance. Both Coccidæ and Apbides suffer from many of one cub which was about a year old in the Museum at Salis. predaceous and parasitic enemies, and there seems to be no doub bury, and from Mr. Harmer's letter (see NATURE, p. 413) there that the presence of numerous ants serves to ward these off, and ai is one also in Cambridge.

consequently beneficial. There is an iateresting Crocid, Icosys From the account quoted by him it would seem improbable | rosa, which I find oa Prosapi: here, ant oa more than on: that that particular specimen, had it survived, could have bred. | occasion I have been unable to collect specimens without beio, As a matter of fact I learn from Mr. Atkins that none of them stung by the ants. At the present moneat son: of thse ever did breed, though he does not know of any reason why Iceryæ are enjoying life, which wali certainly have perished at they should not have done so.

my hands, but for the inconvenieace presented by th: numbers Mr. Atkins thinks that the cubs of the earlier litters died from of stinging ants. over-feeding ; when he adopted a different treatment he had no Belt and Forel have also written on the protection of Coccids difficulty in rearing them.

by ants ("Naturalist in Nicaragua ; * and Bull. Soc. Pand, In my previous paper, in the quotation from Griffiths, the 1876). Maskell has given an accoqot of the honey.dew organ word “superfineness" should read “superficies."

of Coccidæ, from which it appears that it is something more This record, it may be noted, while correcting so ne errors in than a mere organ for the excretion of waste prodacts. This the previously published accounts, also extends over a period | author also figures some of the fungi which grov oa honey des, subsequent to all of them.

V. BALL | and it may well be that these also serve to prevent the attacks of Science and Art Museum, Dublin, April 15.

enemies. When, as we sometimes see in Jamaica, the leaves i appear to be coated with soot (& tertaris rudimsiz is the fungas),

it cannot be so convenient for coccinellid larva, Chrysopa larva, Soot-figures on Ceilings.

&c., to crawl about on them in search of Coccidz. As the subject of dust-images was recently considered in some ; Jamaica, April 3.

T. D. A. COCKERILL. interesting letters in NATURE, I wish to record an example of a soot-image which was far more detailed and remarkable than any I have yet seen. The example is to be found on the ceiling

Blind Animals in Caves. of the billiard-room in the Golf Club House at Felixstowe. | Is his last letter (p. 537) Mr. J. T. Cagniagha states te Abundant soot has been deposited abyve the lamps by which the , the “early stages" of the European Protees have not yet been table is lighted, and this is distributed so as to map out on the obtained. This assertion is incorrect. Iq 1888 and 158. ceiling not only the outline of the joists, but that of the laths and the oviposition and development have been described by even of the nails by which the ends of the latter are secured. | E. Zeller (Zool. Ans., 1888, Na. 290, and Joirese, Ve The mark corresponding to the nail-head is certainly much larger Nalurk. Württ., xlv., 1889, p. 131, plate ül), who gives a

coloured figure of the larva, and particularly refers to the development of the eyes. As early as 1831 iken's "li." 1831, p. 501) Michahelles remuked that the eyes in young specimens are more distinct and somewhat larger than in the adult.

G. A. BOULENGER.

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OBSERVATIONS IN THE N'EST IVDIES. than the latter. I made rom memory a rough sketch of the

'L
H .

ERE we are back at Nassau for the third time, and appearance, which is reproduced in the accompanying woodcut. !

11 thinking you might be interestet to hear of my I may be mistaken in the position of some of the light and dark cruises, I send you a short sketch of our trip. The first shades. If the example is as new to others as it was to me it time we left Nassau we entered the Bahama Bank at would be interesting to have a photograph of the ceiling before Douglass Channel and crossed the bank to North Elegit is again whitewashed.

E. B. l'OULTON thera, where we examined the Glass Window" and the Oxford, April 17.

northern extremity of Eleutbera, we then sailed along the This phenomenon is often observed, though not often so

west shore of the island close enough to get a good view clearly as in the case noticed by Mr. Poulton. It is due to the of its characteristics as far as Rock Harbour at the same cause as produces the dust-free space seen rising from hot

| A letter from Alexander Ajakir bodies in illuminated smoky air, viz. m peculiar ('rovokaalan

Ir.

D r Slana Yacht

WIM Duck. Nassau, March, :$9; Prize is se (or rather Osborne Reynoldsian) bombardment of suffently 1 Science for April, and communicated to the long the store.

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