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nount was at Stonyhurst, where it was only 2 per cent. The argues that the phenomena of the drist can only lie explained by uth-west of England enjoyed the brightest weather, as there reverting in a large measure to the diluvial theories of Sedg. e sunshine amounted to 33 per cent. of the possible amount. wick and Murchison, Von Buch and others, and that the purely

geological evidence is completely at one with that collected in the The current number of the Annalen der Hydrographie contains

author's previous work on “ The Mammoth and the Flood," and short note of a hurricane at Marseilles on October 1, which is

establishes that a great diluvial catastrophe forms in the temperate id to have been more severe than any experienced during the

| zones the dividing line between the mammoth age and our own. st thirty years. From 8 a.m. until i p.m. the wind, rain, hail d lightning were incessant, all the lower parts of the town

The Libraries Committee of the Glasgow Town Council, in ing under water, while several houses and bridges in the

the eleventh general report on the Mitchell Library, Glasgow, ighbourhood were destroyed. The weather charts for the day

make a suggestion which deserves to be kept in inind. It is to ow that the storm was caused by a small whirl which occurred

the effect that an admirable way of perpetuating the memory of the south-eastern side of a large depression, whose centre lay

a relative or friend would be to present a public library with a the south of Scotland. While the centre of the depression

separate collection of books, to be kept together and called by arcely altered its position, the whirl increased in extent, but

such name as may seem proper to the donors. “Such a me. minished in intensity, and on October 3 it had crossed Northern

morial collection," say the Committee, “would, with propriety, aly and lay over Hungary.

be composed of books devoted to any department of literature or

learning in which the person to be commemorated was interested MR. CHARLES CARPMAEL, director of the meteorological or which the donors desired to see more fully represented.” ervice of the Dominion of Canada, urges in his latest report the eed for more thorough inspection of the various stations

A VALUABLE paper on the present state of Morocco nder his control. He points out that the stations in Great

| is contributed to the current number of the Revue Scientifique, Britain and Ireland, connected with the Meteorological Office,

by M. A. Le Châtelier. He brings out very strikLondon, are constantly inspected, and that in every country

ingly the mixed character of the population of Morocco. vhere meteorology is worked out on a large scale inspection is

First he notes the fair-haired, blue-eyed type, which is dmitted as the only system whereby trustworthy and satisfactory

represented in the sculptures of some tombs of the twelfth

Egyptian dynasty. Then come the various Berber types, esults can be obtained. He recommends therefore that a ufficient appropriation should be placed at his disposal to enable

the Arabs, several elements (including the Draoua) which im to have the meteorological stations in the Dominion

have come down from remote antiquity, Spanish Moors and aspected and the observers thereof thoroughly instructed in the

Jews, and the descendants of Christian captives. M. Le luties required of them. If this is not done the data furnished

Châtelier thinks we must also take into account descendants of o the Central Office cannot, he says, be accurate.

Phenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Byzantines, and Vandals.

Mr. C. H. Eigenmann has contributed to the Proceedings of Two numbers have now been issued of the new series of the

the U.S. National Museum (vol. xv.) a paper in which he prequarterly cryptogamic journal, Grevillea, under the editorship of

sents a valuable account of the observations made by him on the Mr. G. Massee. It is conducted very much on the old lines,

fishes of San Diego and vicinity from December 11, 1888, 10 and contains many articles of interest to cryptogamists. It is

March 4, 1890. Especial atiention was paid to the spawning trange that one peculiarity of the journal should still be retained

habits and seasons, the embryology, and migration of the fishes vhich detracts very much from its usefulness as a work of re

of Southern California. A diary was kept of the occurrence of erence, the absence of any table of contents or index to each

each species throughout the year 1889 and part of 1890. Mr. eparate number.

Eigenmann's knowledge of the occurrence of each species is The Cambridge University Press has issued the Sedgwick largely based on observations of the fish brought into the mar prize essay for 1886, by the late Thomas Roberts, on the Juras kets, which he visited twice or thrice daily, and of those caught Fic rocks of the neighbourhood of Cambridge. The essay has with hook and line by the numerous habitual fishermen found been edited by Mr. Henry Woods, Scholar of St. John's College, on each of the wharves, and of those caught by the seiners, whom and Lecturer on Palæontology in the Woodwardian Museum. he accompanied on several occasions. During the early part of In an interesting preface, Prof. T. McKenny Hughes explains 1888 each individual fisherman sold his catch as best he could he nature of the problem which the author endeavoured to solve, and the data for this part of the year are not as full as for the und expresses his belief that the work is indispensable for the latter part of 1888, when practically the whole catch was brought tudent of Cambridge geology, and most valuable for all special. to two markets, where Mr. Eigenmann could see the fish as they sts in the Jurassic rocks.

were unloaded. The knowledge of the ocean fishes is largely

derived from frequent visits to ocean tide-pools, from the fish SIR HENRY H. Howorth has completed and will shortly

brought to the markets, and from a two-weeks' stay on the ublish a considerable work on which he has been long engaged

Cortes Banks. As a matter of course, hundreds of specimens of niitled, “The Glacial Nightmare and the Flood.” It begins

most species have been observed to every one preserved, and the with an account of the various theories which have been forth

present paper is to be looked upon as a contribution to the oming to explain the drist phenomena, in which the very large

economic history of the fishes, rather than to the anatomy of terature on the subject has been for the first time condensed and

the various species. With two exceptions, the types of the new abulated. It then proceeds to criticize the extreme glacial

species discovered, and otherwise interesting specimens, have Gews which have recently prevailed among geologists, and to

been deposited in the U.S. National Museum. A nearly comall in question the theory of uniformity as developed by the

plete series of types has been placed in the British Museum, and ollowers of Lyell and Ramsay, and especially to attack the

minor series in the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the otion that ice is capable of distributing materials over hundreds

California Academy of Sciences. miles of level country, and of producing many of the effects Etributed to it by the glacial school of geologists. The author

The Committee of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria rgues that the evidence points to the former existence of much have hit upon an excellent plan for interesting the more active rger glaciers than exist now, but not to an ice period when | members in definite lines of investigation. They have arranged

e temperate regions were covered with ice. On the contrary, that special meetings shall be held once a month for the carrying nese great glaciers existed side by side of fertile plains. Lastly he lon of practical work which cannot conveniently be undertaken

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at the ordinary monthly meetings. The first of these special covered, each of which was in a fairly perfect state of presents meetings assembled on August 22 in the Royal Society's Hall, tion. One of these Mr. A. S. Woodward has determined : Melbourne. We learn from the Club's journal that there was a belonging to the left side of the mandible of a species of Cas good attendance of members, those interested in microscopic equalling a wolf in size. Associated with these remains is work being principally represented. No fewer than twenty-four found several vertebræ and fragments of limb-bones of hipo. microscopes were set up. Mr. J. Shephard undertook to give a and vertebræ and portions of horns of stags; but none of thes slight sketch of some interesting forms amongst the rotisera. A presented any evidences of having been gaawed. typical form was first described, the chief points in its structure

There is some difference of opinion as to whether the proces being made clear by good diagrams, and then variations in the

of digestion is promoted or hindered by bodily exertion. He various orders from this type were briefly referred to--special

Rosenberg recently made some experiments on a small dog allusion being made to the modifications in the ciliary wreath

reference to this point (Pflüger's Archiv.). The animal was fel and the foot. Mr. Shephard had fortunately met with a large

once daily with a certain quantity of lean horseflesh, lard, 2 number of the Australian member of the rhizotic group (Lacinularia pedunculata), and at the conclusion of his remarks a slide

rice, and the amount of nitrogen and fat daily absorbed was o

termined by an examination of the excreta. There were Spl of mounted individuals was handed to each member for careful

series of experiments, each consisting of a rest period of sera examination under the microscope. Half an hour was profitably

days, followed by a working period of several dajal spent in the endeavour to make out all the points of detail

the dog being made to work in a kind of treadmill. in the specimens, during which time Mr. Shephard also supplied

some cases these efforts were made during stomachic diga full information as to the best methods of mounting and examin

tion, in others during intestinal. In both series of experimees ing these interesting organisms. Some four or five entomologists

the differences observed lay within the limits of physiologia had a quiet corner to themselves, where they compared speci

variations, the inference being, accordingly, that in a healthy dx mens and talked over some plans for future operations.

the utilization of food is quite independent of whether the At the ordinary monthly meeting of the Field Naturalists' | animal rests during digestion or is energetically at work Club of Victoria, on September 12, the feather boots of a native Whether this applies to man could only be determined rain-maker from M'Donnell Ranges were exhibited. It is be. direct experiment. Herr Rosenberg thinks it probable, hoe. lieved among the natives of certain tribes in Central Australia ever, as observations on people with heart disease appear to that droughts are caused by the swallowing up of all moisture by show that the absorption of food is to a certain extent indepea rain-devil. If this personage can be captured and made to dent of the circulation and distribution of the blood. disgorge, rain follows at once. The feather boots are worn by

The characteristic mantle of ascidians, consisting of a groasa the native rain-maker in order that he may steal noiselessly and

mass with cellulose and embedded cells, has been me unawares on the author of the drought and consequent misery. Mr. A. W. Howitt is having drawings made of these boots,

studied, especially with regard to the origin of the cells. Toe

most favoured view is that it is produced by the ectoderm, thr: which he considers to be one of the most valuable and interest.

it is a thickening of the outer epithelium. Recent researches ing additions to aboriginal ethnology yet brought to light.

by Kowalevsky, however (described to the St. Petersburg An interesting paper on the anthropology of Spain, con- Academy) give reason for believing that the mantle-cells in tributed to the “Anales” of the “Soc. española de Historia from the mesoderm. Studying the metamorphosis of Phalluza Natural " by Luis de Hoyos Sainz and Telesforo de Aranzadi, | mamillata, he observed certain mesoderm-cells applying them has now been published separately at Madrid. The paper is selves to the ectodermal epithelium, penetrating it and entering accompanied by three excellent maps, in which, by means of the mantle, which (secreted from the ectoderm) was before various degrees of shading, the authors bring together a number quite transparent. These cells also move freely about in the of most interesting conclusions. One of these maps shows the mantle, and this anceboid movement is further in favour al cranial types which prevail in different parts of Spain.

their mesodermal nature. A similar process occurs in verde In the November number of the Mediterranean Naturalist, brates, viz., the passage of lymph-cells (leucocytes) through Mr. John H. Cooke gives an interesting account of his recent

epithelium to the surface of a mucous membrane, or the surface discovery of Ursus arctos in the Malta Pleistocene. The late

of the body (in fishes); the mucous layer is comparable to the Admiral Spratt and the late Prof. Leith Adams found among

ground mass of the mantle. But in vertebrates the cells a: the cavern deposits of the Maltese Islands a remarkable land

length disappear; whereas in ascidians they persist. Besida fauna, including elephants, hippopotami, land tortoises, gigantic

their share in the growth of the mantle, they have an importa dormice, and aquatic birds. From the fact that many of the

function as phagocytes. In compound ascidians certain ind

viduals are every now and again perishing, and these dying remains of elephants presented the appearance of having been fiercely gnawed, it was concluded that carnivoræ had lived parts are known to be absorbed by the mantle-cells. Also, in in the district; but, notwithstanding the most diligent search

coming foreign bodies, such as bacteria, the cells attack and extending over a period of twenty years, the only tangible

seek to destroy. Numerous bacteria are always present in the evidences in support of the inference were these gnawed bones.

mantle of tunicata. Moreover, experiments were made bs Mr. Cooke has now solved the problem. His discovery was

introducing bacteria through fine glass tubes inserted in be made in the spring of the present year, when, with the aid of a

mantle; the mesoderm-cells collected round these tubes, entere money grant from the Royal Society, he carried out some ex

them, and fought with the bacteria. Kowalevsky attache cavations in the Har Dalam cavern, a subterraneous gallery

great importance to this function, and supposes the above-metsituated in a gorge of the same name in the eastern extremity of

tioned passage of wandering cells to the surface of epithelia te Malta. Aster having excavated six large trenches and obtained

be explained as a means of protection against the intrusion i some hundreds of bones of Hippotamus pentlandi, Elephas | agents of diseas

agents of disease. mnadraensis, Cervus barbaricus, and numerous other animals, MR. L. STEJNEGER gives in the fifteenth volume of the Pro he had the satisfaction of discovering an entire ramus of the ceedings of the U.S. National Museum an interesting preliminary lower jaw of a bear, Ursus arctos with its canine and molars in description of a new geous and species of blind cave salamander situ, as well as five other canines belonging to other individuals from North America. The discovery of a blind cave salaman of the same species. Afterwards four other canines were dis- der in America is regarded by Mr. Stejneger as “one of the

nost important and interesting herpetological events of recent by Wilton P. Rix;" The Chemical Technology of Oil Boiling, pears." The discovery is primarily due to Mr. F. A. Sampson, with a Description of a New Process for the Preparation of who, in July last year, found the adult animal as well as a larva | Drying Oils, and an Oil Varnish," by Prof. W. Noel Hartley, n the Rock House Cave, Missouri, and forwarded both to the F.R.S. ; "The Mining Industries of South Africa,” by Bennett U.S. National Museum. Mr. George E. Harris afterwards H. Brough ; " Ten Years of Progress in India," by Sir William went to great trouble in order to procure additional specimens. Wilson Hunter; “Australasia as a Field for Anglo-Indian ColUnfortunately, he has only succeeded so far in obtaining larvæ, onization,” by Sir Edward N. C. Braddon, Agent-General for but Mr. Stejneger hopes to be able to secure more adults. A Tasmania ; “Indian Manufactures,” by Sir Juland Danvers, more detailed anatomical description of this interesting animal late Public Works Secretary, India Office ; “ Caste and Occupas postponed until then, as he has not felt justified in mutilating tion at the last Census of India," by Jervoise Athelstane he type specimen beyond what was necessary in order to ascer Baines, Imperial Census Commissioner for India; “Mexico, ain the character of the vertebræ. The present preliminary Past and Present,” by Edward J. Howell ; "Newfoundland," lescription is, therefore, only prepared in order to call attention by Cecil Fane : “New Zealand,” by W. B. Percival, Agentto the discovery and to supply the diagnosis by which the ani- | General for New Zealand. The following courses of Cantor mal may be identified.

lectures will be delivered on Monday evenings, at eight o'clock :

Prof. Vivian Lewes, “The Generation of Light from Coal DR. MORRIS Gibbs contributes to Science an interesting paper Gas(four lectures, November 21, 28, December 5, 12); Dr. on the food of humming-birds. He has carefully dissected many

| J. A. Fleming, “The Practical Measurement of Alternating humming-birds, both old and young, but has never found any.

Electric Currents” (four lectures, January 30, February 6, 13, thing to convince him that the birds live on insects. It may be

20); Prof. W. Chandler Roberts-Austen, F.R.S., "Althat at times when flowers are scarce some species of insects are

loys" (three lectures, March 6, 13, 20); Lewis Foreman captured, but Dr. Gibbs is satisfied that in season, when flowers

Day, “Some Masters of Ornament" (four lectures, April are abundant, the ruby-throat of Michigan lives on honey.

10, 17, 24 ; May 1); C. Harrison Townsend, “ The History In a recent investigation of the action of accumulators, Herren and Practice of Mosaics” (two lectures, May 8, 15). A Neumann and Streintz have shown (Wied. Ann.) that lead has special course of six lectures, under the Howard bequest, the power of absorbing hydrogen. In one case the metal was will be delivered on the following Friday evenings at eight used as an electrode, and charged with electrolytic hydrogen; o'clock : Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., “The Development and in another it was melted, and a current of hydrogen passed Transmission of Power from Central Stations" (January 13, 20, through it. Care must be taken that the charged metal is not 27 ; February 3, 10, 17). in contact with air, as the oxygen of the latter then unites with

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the the hydrogen; and this, the authors think, is why previous

past week include a Squirrel Monkey (Chrysothrix sciurea) observers have not been able to prove an occlusion of hydrogen

from Guiana, presented by Mrs. K. Betts; a Brown Capuchin by the lead plates of accumulators. The authors examined other

(Cebus fatuellus ?) from Brazil, presented by Miss L. Blackmetals, and they give the following numbers for the gas absorbed

burn ; a Himalayan Bear (Ursus tibetanus) from Burmah, per unit volume of metal :-Lead, 0'15 ; palladium, 502-35 ;

presented by Major W. H. Cunliffe ; a Herring Gull (Larus arspongy platinum, 29-95 ; platinum black, 49'30 ; gold, 46°32 ;

ack, 49'30 ; gold, 40*32 ; | gentatus) British, presented by the Rev. Sidney Vatcher ; a silver, 0'00; copper, 4:81; aluminium, 2'72 ; iron, 19:17;

Goshawk (Astur palumbarius) captured at sea, presented by nickel, 16.85; cobalt, 153'00. When the same pieces of metal

Capt. F. Manley; an Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) were repeatedly used, the occluding power generally fell off ;

from Africa, presented by Mr. J. L. Teage ; two — Buntin the case of the noble metals this is thought to be due to

ings ( - ) from North Africa, presented by Lord Lilford, increased density ; but why the occluding power of iron and F.Z.S. ; eighteen Filfola Lizards (Lacerta muralis var. filfolencobalt should be reduced to one-half or more was not explained.

sis) from the Island of Filfola, eighteen Wall Lizards (Lacerta Nickel and copper retained their power. With regard to the

muralis var. tiliguerta), an Ocellated Sand Skink (Sepsocel. high power of cobalt, the authors tried that melal in a volta.

latus), a Moorish Gecko (Tarentola mauritanica), a Turkish meter, but curiously it showed no hydrogen polarization when

Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) from Malta, presented by Capt. the charging circuit was opened.

Robert A. Threshie ; a Common Kite (Milvus ictimus) from MESSRS. WILLIAMS AND NORGate's Natural Science Cata. Spain, received in exchange ; five Dingos (Canis dingo), born Logue (No. 9) includes classified lists of books and periodicals

in the Gardens. on mathematics, astronomy, meteorology, physics, electricity, chemistry, microscopy, optics, mechanics, engineering, tech

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. nology, &c., in French, German, and other foreign languages.

THE NEW COMET.-The weather has prevented observations THE opening meeting of the one hundred and thirty-ninth of the new Comet. Its brightness is about that of the nebula in ession of the Society of Arts was held yesterday (Wednesday)

Andromeda, and it has been suggested that it is a return of evening. The following arrangements have been made for

Biela's Comet. he ordinary meetings :-November 23, “The Disposal of

COMET BROOKS (AUGUST 28). — The following is a continuahe Dead," by F. Seymour Haden; November 30, “The

tion of the ephemeris of Comet Brooks for the present week, Copper Resources of the United States," by James Douglas ;

extracted from Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3L2 :December 7, The Chicago Exhibition, 1893," by James

12h. Berlin M.T. Dredge; December 14, “The Utilization of Niagara,"

R.A. app. Decl. app. Logr. Log A. Br. 1892.

h. m. S. y Prof. George Forbes, F.R.S. The following papers, Nov. 17.... 10 25 3 ... - 2 35'2 or which dates have not yet been fixed, will be read :

18... 29 40 3 347 Transatlantic Steamships," by Prof. Francis Elgır; “The etection and Estimation of Small Proportions of Inflain

35'3 ... 0·0674 ... 999568 ... 20:51

6 36'2 able Gas or Vapour in the Air," by Prof. Frank Clowes ; 22... 48

7 37'5 The Purification of the Air Supply to Public Build 23... 53

8 39'0 gs and Dwellings,” by William Key ; “Pottery Glazes : 1 24... 10 58 20 ... 9 40:8 ... 0'0540 ... 99483 .. 2270 eir Classification and Decorative Value in Ceramic Design,” | The unit of brightness occurred on August 31.

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The motion of this comet will be noticed from the above hurried owing to the importance of the matter therein, . ephemeris to be very rapid in a southerly direction, amounting although sufficient observations have not been taken in 2000 to about 1° per day.

for a very rigid investigation, Prof. Kapteyn hopes to eli niza

many of the difficulties and accidental errors by the discuss THE LIGHT OF PLANETS. –The question as to whether the of clichés of different regions of the sky, differing in galaise light of planets is capable of casting shadows must have, latitudes, made at equal altitudes, on similar plates, with en especially during the last few months, been in the minds of lengths of exposure. many, and perhaps many observations have already been made, but unfortunately not published. With regard to this question,

THE CANALS OF MARS. -The late opposition of Mars, a L'Astronomie for November contains two notes, the first of the re-observation of the doubling of ihe canals has brought which, communicated by M. Marcel Moye on August 30, forward many theories relative to this very curious phenomen: relates to the planet Mars. His observations were made just There seems to be no doubt now that this doubling is not i before the meridian passage and in a room where the light of to instrumental deficiencies, or even to an optical delas the planet could enter the open window. In this way white caused by the fatigue of the eyes ; but that it is a real obsere paper invisible in the corners of the room was easily dis- | fact and therefore requires a rigid explanation. Omitting tinguished when placed on the wall opposite the window, while now well-known hypotheses suggested up till quite lately, one could see well the shadows between the fingers of the hand ; most recent is that put forward by M. Norman Lockyer se placing a newspaper in the light of Mars only the place of the

which is recorded in NATURE, vol. xlvi. p. 448. Mr. Lebca iable and the number of the words could be recognized, but not also (NATURE, vol. xlvi. p. 611) points out the likeness of the read, as was the case with Jupiter. M. Moye concludes then markings to the cracks produced in glass broken by torsia that Mars certainly casts shadows, less strong than those of adding that the chief characteristic features in the Mars' lines Jupiter but still appreciable.

are there produced. In Comptes rendus (No. 18) for October In the note on the light of Venus M. Léon Guiot tells us M. Stanislas Meunier relates another possible cause, and illisthat on August 29, when about to get up to observe Jupiter, he trates the phenomenon experimentally. The experiments was astonished at the brilliancy of the light that entered his as follows :-He takes a polished metallic surface and on window. Observing his watch, which was hanging on the wall, traces a series of lines and spots, representing as nearly a he was actually able to trace its shadow on the wall, for he says possible the Martial surface as seen by us, and illuminates it 2 that all was visible as in the light of the moon; one could even by sunlight. He then stretches at some distance (a few uil read the newspaper. It was about this time that Venus was metres) from it a fine transparent piece of muslin. Looking constantly seen with the naked eye in full daylight.

at the surface through this medium he finds that all the lips

and spots are doubled, and, “ se germiner par suite de l'appars STELLAR MAGNITUDES IN RELATION TO THE MILKY WAY. | tion, à côté de chacune d'elles, de son ombre, dessinée sur la - Prof. Kapteyn is the author of an important memoir, which is mousseline par la lumière que le métal a réfléchie.” A fac published in the Bulletin du Comité International Permanent observed by M. Schiaparelli is that the canals when doabled pour l'execution photographique de la carte du ciel, relative to are not always exactly parallel, and that sometimes there is 23 an observed systematic difference between the photographic and "aspect de nébulosité.” These and other peculiarities are visual magnitudes of stars depending on their distance from the according to M. Meunier, reproduced by simply undulating Milky Way. Prof. Kapteyn first noticed that a difference the muslin. His explanation is that the solar lighi is reflected existed in 1890, but in the present paper he presents a pre from the planet's surface very unequally, that from the cof liminary account of the results he has obtained. The clichés tinents exceeding that emitted by the deeper parts, seas : which have been under examination were exclusively those canals. Although the atmosphere is a limpid one, we are made at the Cape Observatory for the chart mentioned above. unable to see its motions ; but if, as he says, the ærial envelope In this discussion he has adopted the two following laws : includes a transparent veil of fog at a suitable height, a contras (1) that increasing the time of exposure in the proportion of would be produced, as was the case with the muslin, by the I to 2.5, the fraction of a magnitude gained is o 7, and (2) the production of shadows “ qui pour une vil placé ailleurs ques atmospheric extinction of actinic rays rises to 21 above the le prolongement des rayons réfléchis, à côté de chacune des visual rays. Since there is an undoubted difference between the surfaces peu réfléchissantes, une image pareille à elle.” 1 photographic and visual magnitudes, denoting this difference by explanation of the phenomena of shades by reflection if valid the symbol Am, the author commences to investigate whether this should of course hold good for the planet Venus when property quantity is ever equal to zero, that is when the photographic situated, and that it is not observed on the Moon is ook and visual magnitudes are equal, and if so to find the locus of another proof that our satellite has no atmosphere. these points. Charting the points down on a map and connecting them up by means of curves, the latter are found to follow in a striking manner the path of the Milky Way. Table II. gives the values of Am obtained from several clichés, and the positive values lie without exception between these two

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. curves, while the negative ones are situated without. Taking The Revue Française states that a subterranean town, laid i into consideration both bright and saint stars, that is stars from out with regular streets in a series of great caverns, near Kark. the 4th to the roth magnitude, the author finds that there on the right bank of the Amu-daria, has recently been explored a strong relation depending on their galalactic latitude exists ! Pottery and metal work were found amongst the ruins, and from between them, whether they be even very near or distant from the coins and inscriptions seen the town must have bees the Milky Way, and the same systematic variation of Am occupied at least as early as the second century B.C. apparently holds good, being represented by the formula

By the new constitution of the United States of Brazil the Am = a + KB

seat of government is to be transferred from Rio de Janeiro to

a site upon the central plateau where an area is to be marked representing the galalactic latitude and K = - On'0099 off as a federal district. A scientific mission under Senor

Cruls has been appointed to examine the region where the three Om'oolo.

rivers, Sao Francisco, Tocantins, and Parana, take their rise at In seeking for an explanation of the difference, Prof. Kapteyn

an elevation of over 3,000 feet, with the view of finding a suit investigates each possible cause singly. His conclusion, to

able site for the new capital, state briefly, amounts to this, that, if one considers the stellar MR. D. J. RANKIN communicates to the Scottish Geogra phia magnitudes given in the “Uranometrique" and in Gould's Magazine an account of his journey up the Zambesi in 1890-91. "Catalogue of Zones" (it is from these two sources that he has with a map of the country between ihe Zambesi and Shire. obtained the visual magnitudes) to be correct and not subject to He found the Zambesi freely navigable for light-draught systematic errors amounting sometimes to as much as half a steamers as far as the Acababassa Falls, more than 300 miles magnitude, then it must be concluded that the light of the stars from the sea, the Lupata narrows presenting no difficulty. situated in the Milky Way or in its vicinity is much richer in Between Lupata and Acababassa extensive coal deposits occur. actinic rays than those at considerable galalactic latitudes. We and these are sure to become valuable. Beyond the falls after may remark that the publication of this paper has been purposely a portage of about thirty miles, the Zambesi is again navigable

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10

Zumbo, and thence sor a distance of 300 miles up the Loangwe so that if all the planking were stripped off the vessel would er.

remain water tight. The planking is first a ceiling of pitch A NOMINATION to the geographical studentship of £100 in

pine, alternately 4 and 8 inches thick, then outside two layers • University of Oxford will be made at the end of Hilary

of oak, 3 and 4 inches thick respectively, and over all is an m, 1893. Particulars of the appoinıment may be obtained

“ice-sheathing" of from 3 to 6 inches of ihe hard and slippery m Mr. Mackinder, the Reader in Geography.

greenheart. The sides are thus from 28 to 32 inches thick of

solid wood. The decks are equally strong, and the cabins are Two sudden deaths of men known in connection with planned so as to be isolated by store rooms and coal-bunkers nor exploration and geographical writing are announced. from the sides, while non conducting materials such as cork, r. Theodore Child, author of " South American Republics”. felt, and reindeer hair are introduced between the walls or d other works, died of cholera at Ispahan, and Lieutenant decks and the rooms to guard the crew from cold. ederick Schwarka, who has travelled extensively in Alaska, The vessel is sharp fore and aft, and both propeller and rudder mmitted suicide in Portland, Oregon.

may be listed in wells so as to avoid risk of fouling the ice. The MR. PRATT, whose departure for the head-waters of the rudder is deeply immersed when in action, so that thoating ice nazon was announced in this column at the time, has been I will not touch it. Both stem and stera overhang greatly, and mpelled to relinquish the expedition on account of ill-health, are heavily plated with iron to crush and cut through thin d is now in this country.

ice. The length of keel is foi feet, and the length of deck over Ar the first meeting of the Royal Geographical Society the

| all is 128, while the greatest beam (exclusive of ice sheathing) is

ly the 36 feet, and the depth 17 feet. These proportions are very un. rtificates of 106 new members, including 15 ladies, were read.

read usual, but were adopted as the result of experience in other his is the largest number seeking admission into the society hich has yet been proposed at one time.

ships. With light cargo she will draw 12 feet, and fully loaded 151, the displacement being about 800 tons. She is rigged as a three-masted schooner, with square sails on the foremast, and

has an engine of 160 indicated horse-power. The crow's nest DR. NANSENS ARCTIC EXPEDITION.

on the maintopmast is 105 feet above the water-line, so as to

give a wide horizon for the look out. Two large decked boats R. FRIDTJOF NANSEN opened the session of the Royal are carried, in either of which the whole crew of twelve men

Geographical Society on Monday night by a description could live if the ship were lost. Dogs, sledges, ski, several fhis plans for crossing the north polar region, and received a most small boats, canvas for building extra boals on an emergency, nthusiastic reception from a crowded audience. His scheme in and provisions for five or six years are taken. A pendului olves two separate considerations : (1) the direction of the pre-l apparatus is included in the scientific outfit, which is otherwise ailing polar currents, and (2) the means by which these currents very complete. The ship is fitted with electric light; the dynamo ao be utilized for transporting an expedition. All attempts to may be worked by a windmill when coal can no longer be spared, rach the pole by Smith Sound, by the east coast of Greenland, or as a last resort it can be driven by a capstan arrangement nd by the north of Spitzbergen have been complicated by con adapted for four men, thus supplying healthy exercise and useful ary currents; the few expeditions by way of Bering Sea, work to one-third of the crew, and abundant light to the reIthough equally unsuccessful, have had the currents in their maining two-thirds. ivour.

The duration of the voyage cannot be estimated, as it will Taking into account all the available data, it appears that the entirely depend on the rate of drifting, which must vary conolar current between Greenland and Spitzbergen carries south siderably from year to year, but judging from the movement of vard between 80 and 120 cubic miles of water every twenty-four the Jeannette relics, two years ought to suffice. ours. The Gulf Stream drist may carry 60 or 70 cubic miles of water a day into the polar basin north of Nova Zembla, about o or 14 cabic miles daily: robably flw in through Bering Strait, 1 ind possibly about one cubic mile a day of fresh water pours in

I! A REMARKABLE CASE OF GEOMETRICAL in the average from the great Siberian rivers. This comparatively

ISOMERISMI. mall addition of fresh water must account for the salinity of the

AN exceptionally interesting memoir is contributed to the jreenland outflowing cu rent being somewhat less than the 1 current number of Liebig's Annalen by Prof. Wislicenus verage salinity of the North Atlantic. Tneoretically there of Leipzig, who has latterly identified himself so earnestly with vould thus appear to be a current running from near the New the subject of molecular configuration. It has been suspected Siberian Islands towards the north of Greenland

for some years that there are two isomeric unsaturated acids of The existence of such a current is strongly indicated by the the composition CH,.CUOH. One of these substances exists Irift of the Jeannette from 71° 30' to 77° 15' N. after being caught in the free state in the roots of Angelica archangelica and has o the ice, this drift being northwestward from Bering Strait. therefore received the name of angelic acid. The other comAgain, articles lost on the sinking of the Jeannette in the latter pound is found along with angelic acid in Roman oil of cumin vosition off the New Siberian Islands were found on an ice-floe and has been termed tiglic acid. These two acids, moreover, lear Julianehaab, in the south of Greenland. A throwing-stick, behave so similarly in almost all their reactions with other subof a kind made only by the Eskimo of Alaska, was found a few

stances that the conclusion has been rendered inevitable that ears ago near Godthaab, on the west of Greenland. Siberian

they must be represented not only by the above formula, but by riftwood is stranded regularly on the casts of Greenland, and

,,CH, ven on the north coast of Spitzbergen. These facts can only the same constitutional formula, CH.CH:C . That e accounted for by the theory of an ocean current across the

COOH olar basin. The evidence of the relative thickness of ice in the two acids are not identical, however, was indicated by ifferent parts of the Arctic Sea, and of the occurrence of Sibe

certain slight differences of behaviour, and Prof. Wislicenus felt an diatoms in the mud of ice-floes between Greenland and

convinced that the two were in fact geometrical- or stereoceland is strongly confirmatory

isomers, the difference consisting in a different arrangement of Dr. Nansen intends to make the northwesterly current trans

their various radicle groups in space. He considers it probable ort him across the middle of the polar basin, and s) give him an

that the nature of the difference may be represented in one pportunity for making scientific observations nearer the pole

plane by the following formulæ : lan has ever previously been done. He will sail next June via le Kara Sea for the New Siberian Islands, thence work a way

CHQ-C-H

H–C–CH,
i far north as possible; when stopped, he will run into the ice,
od await the time when he will be drifted into the open sea

CH3-C-COOH and CH3-C-COOH.
Angelic acid.

Tiglic acid. gain between Greenland and Spitzbergen. He has had a ship ailt in Norway expressly for the voyage. Her form is such as Judging from previous experience of the behaviour of other

cause the ice, on closing round, to list her out of the water, geometrical isomers of a similar nature, it appeared probable that id she will rest upright on its surlace. This vessel, named the the halogen addition products of the two acids would exhibit ram (i.e. Forward), is built of very long-seasoned timber, and differences so marked as to determine definitively the separate more strongly put together than any other vessel of her size. nature of the two acids. Under the direction of Prof. Wislicenus, he frame timbers are of great thickness, and set close together, therelore, one of his pupils, Herr Pückert, undertook the investi

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