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Memorandum with a view of assisting any single Gentleman, or Party of three or four, who wish to travel with convenience and satisfaction from BoHBAY to ENGLAND by the way of BussORA.
Previous to their departure, the following are the principal points to be attended to:
Col, Bedding, Linen, and Clothes. Of these as much may be carried as each person chuses, without any particular inconvenience or expence; but the cot and bedding had best be so contrived as to fold into a strong canvas bag, with a wax cloth cover, sufficient to preserve them from rain, and curtains ought not to be omitted, as the flies are sometimes uncommonly troublesome. If moving with light baggage is attended to, four or five dozen of linen, with a dozen of white waistcoats and breeches, a common travelling coat, and two suits, one of silk the other of cloth, with a shawl handkerchief or two, and warm bedding, will answer every purpose.
Liquors. On a supposition that the Captain of the vessel they may embark on will keep the table to Bussora, and that the journey across the Desert will not exceed thirty days, more will not be required, for each person, than four dozen of Madeira and one dozen of Spirits, or Shrub in preference, allowing even for breakage; but the package should be carefully attended to.
Tea.-Sufficient ought to be carried, not only for the journey across the Desert, but until their arrival upon the Continent, and even to England; and therefore not less than 8 or 10 pounds for each person; and if this should be found too much, it will be very acceptable at the different places through which they must pass.
Sugar Candy-A tub to each person will be sufficient for every purpose. Biscuit. That, at least, for the use of the table, should be made at Bombay in preference to Bussora, and of
the small round sort. A Bombay maund to each person will be amply sufficient.
Tables and Chairs.-These will be found real indulgences upon the De sert, and must not be omitted. The tables, of which there should be two, should be such as are used by the Gentlemen of the Army, and will bear tough usage. The chairs to have arms, and will be put together; and indeed if a spare one or two is carried, 80 much the better.
Tents. The most convenient and useful are those of eight or nine feet square, without any pole in the cen tre, and well quilted. The walls not to exceed five feet in height, and to be double corded; for, exclusive of the wind, which now and then blows hard and oversets the higher ones, particularly where the earth is loose and sandy, the Arabs are too apt to steal the ropes. Of these, each Gentleman should have one for his bed and private baggage. As a general eatingtent, one of the Bombay Rowtys will answer extremely well, and larger would only be inconvenient; and a similar one will be wanted for the servants and baggage. A couple of old tent walls will be be very useful to keep the wind from the fire, whilst the cook is employed: and a necessary tent should not be forgot.
Cooking Utensils.—A spit and racks, a gridiron, a chafing-dish, a tea-kettle, two coffee-pots, and, in case of sickness, a silver saucepan, an iron plate to bake bread, a cullender, a skimming ladle, and half a dozen of copper pots, made, like the camp ket tles, to let in to one another. The whole to pack in one chest. To these must be added a deep copper dish for the fowls, ducks, and cattle to drink out of.
well; but they are too large. Each chest, when filled, ought not to contain above four dozen of wine; and the two, with their straps, ought not much to exceed four hundred pounds: not that a camel cammot carry a heavier weight, but that their pace would be slower, and the journey in consequence prolonged. Those trunks in which finen may be packed should be covered with a coarse sort of blanketing, which is to be met with in Bussora, under the name of Libbitz.
Servants—From Bombay, with an intention of carrying them further than Bussora, the fewer the better, except a good cook, and those neither Europeans nor Coffrees: the first, unless servants by profession and accustomed to consider themselves in no other light, being of very little use and a heavy expence, not less than 501. each; and the other liable to be taken from you, on the principle that all Coffrees are Mussalmen, even if inclination should not lead them to become their own masters. At Bussora servants may be hired for a hundred piastres, or at the utmost two hundred, to accompany any party to Aleppo, who will be infinitely more useful than any others; and it will be saving in expence to engage them as far as Latichia, which is but four days journey from Aleppo.
Guns and Pistols Are more necessary for appearance than defence however, it is right to have a pair of pistols, to wear in a belt round the waist; and one good fusee fowlingpiece, as the Desert frequently furnishes good diversion in hares, and a sort of game, between the pidgeon and a partridge, called Cut-taws, of most beautiful and various plumage; and the Hibbarrar is perhaps the bird of highest flavour in the universe, and larger than a spoonbill.
Dogs. If any of the gentlemen are sportsmen, and have greyhounds of their own, it may not be amiss to carry a couple with them; but, if they have not, they can generally be bought at Bassora for a few piastres, and will frequently assist in furnishing the table, and amusing the company.
Mode of Truvelling.-The methods bitherto practised are in the tackt revan, maahaafa, or on horse-back, upon a male or a camel. Of all these the tackt revan appears the most convenient, and is so esteemed, as you
may either sit or lie at full length, well defended from heat, cold, and rain; but, not having put it to the trial, I cannot speak from experience.
In Ives's Journal there is a very good description and print of one; and, if we may judge from the construction of the one we saw, which had been made at Bagdat for the Bishop of Babylon, who was our companion from Aleppo to Latichia, or from the specimens we had of the dexterity of the Bussora carpenters, there is no doubt that those Gentlemen who chuse to have one, should get it made at Bombay; and should have a pair of spare shafts in case of accidents. As to the maahaafa, at present in use, it is as untoward and ill-contrived a pair of cradles as can well be imagined; but it seems very clear that a pair might be so contrived as to be very convenient, and if once or twice attempted at Bombay, would soon be perfected. The whole should be constructed upon the principle of a Landau, to open and close occasionally, one-half to be on each side of the camel. The doors to open outwards, so as to step in with ease when the camel has lowered himself down to take his burden; whereas, on the present plan, you are obliged to crawl up behind, and on hands and knees labour your way in. One principal reason why a maahaafa so constructed would be preferable to a tackt revan is, that the Arab tribes in general are accustomed to them, and would not on their account be induced to stop a caravan; whereas a tackt revan is at first sight considered as an indication of a Traveller of conse quence, and would, probably, subject the person using it to the making of a present of one or two hundred pias tres, if they should fall in with tribes evidently superior in force to their guard. The things which would be most proper on such an occasion, can easily be provided at Bussora; and the Travellers ought to be provided for two or three such occasions. horse for part of the day will always be found agreeable, and therefore each Gentleman should bring a saddle with him. Horses can easily be pur chased at Bussora, to answer the purpose, for a hundred rupees, or some trifle more. Mules better endure fatigue; and, if expence is meant to be avoided, probably a mule would an
well as a deal of vexations altercations with our Shick:
1st, That he the Shick shall not permit any article of merchandize to be carried without express permission.
swer better than any other single mode. A Chaise had never been tried till we attempted it, and the convenience we found in it is very sufficient to recommend it to others. Perhaps a two-wheeled chaise may be prefera-2. That he shall not take any other ble to a four one, as the stony road for three or four days is very trouble some. Whoever is induced to bring a chaise would do well to have the top so made, as to take off occasionally; and at Bussora to purchase a pair of mules, to relieve each other daily. It should be as light as possible, consistent with strength; and a spare axle-tree had better accompany it.
Water Skins. Those used at Surat and Broach for the Buffaloes are much stronger and far preferable to those made at Bussora; and therefore two pair at least had better be carried, as well as a Bownagur Chaagul canteen for each person and each servant. These, with a few of the Bussora smaller skins, will be sufficient,as water is scarce ever further distant than the fourth day.
Coops for Live Stock.Those made at Bussora, being only slips of date trees, are very insufficient; they ought therefore to be brought from Bombay, nearly of the same size as those used on board ship, only better contrived to the camel's side and to balance exactly. One good pair that would hold three dozen, divided each by three or four partitions to prevent the fowls and ducks from pressing upon each other, in case of the coops losing their balance by the camels being unruly, as frequently happens at the beginning of the journey,
Provisions. A bag or two of Yams will be very welcome on Desert, and a dozen baskels acceptable at Bussora, a small box of essences, a bottle or two of crash, a few pickles, some preserved tamarinds and mangoes: these we found very grateful indeed after a hot march.
BUSSORA. On the arrival of the party here, if they mean to travel quick, their first attention must be the securing a proper caravan, au interpreter, a cook, and a horse for each person.
Caravan. Previous to ascertaining the sum, the following preliminaries should be carefully adjusted. Had we known this, a heavy additional expence would have been avoided, as
passengers of any denomination whatever.-3. That the number of guards be fixed at sixty; as from a most careful investigation of this subject with the several Shicks in the grand carravan, we are convinced that number is sufficient at any season of the year, they being sufficient to protect any party from robbers or wanderers; and five times their number could not give protection, were any of the great Shicks to attempt to detain them. -4. That each of the above sixty be provided with a matchlock and a proper quantity of ammunition; and that each is furnished with a camel, and carry his own provisions and water. -5. That, independent of the guard, six Arabs be furnished by the Shick for the purposes of bringing wood and water, pitching tents, loading camels, &c. Their pay should be included in the general contract; but being constantly employed in your service, they ought to be provisioned: that is, a certain quantity of rice and butter should be delivered them every evening, and as much biscuit and dates in the course of the day as they chuse to eat.-6. That, instead of bargaining for any certain number of baggage camels, the whole of the baggage meant to be carried be weighed and shewn to the Shick, and he be at liberty to carry it as he pleases. this regulation every cause of dispute is removed, and probably a heavy additional expence avoided, as was our case, though we hired at first 20 camels, then 10, and on the day of setting out from Zebere were obliged to pay 150 lumaboobs for additional baggage.-7. That a certain day be fixed for departure from Zebere; after which no halt to be permitted, except for the necessary purposes of refreshment. This is meant to prevent delays near Zebere, in order to give time for goods being sent privately.-8. That only two-thirds of whatever sum may be agreed upon be paid in Bussora, and the remainder at Aleppo, on the completion of the journey and contract.-9. That the whole of the con tract be regularly drawn up and executed in duplicate, one to remain at
Bussora, and the other to be produced at Aleppo; and the more form that is observed in this, the better, as the Arabs will ndeavour to saddle Travellers with expences; and therefore a particular provision should be made,, that all fees, or presents, to all other tribes whatever, shall be defrayed by the Shick, or deducted out of the third to be paid at Aleppo.
Clothes of the Country-Are no wise requisite, as it is impossible to conceal your being English; nor would it answer any good purpose to attempt it, except in case of passing by any of the Tribes whilst the caravan is in motion; for, if you halt, your tents and baggage will instantly distinguish you; and for this purpose a black camelin and a coarse shawl for a turband are quite sufficient.
Provisions. It is scarce possible to draw up any certain list, without knowing the number of the party, their servants, &c. However, very lit. tle inconvenience will attend the want of it here, as the lists of the articles carried by former Travellers are kept at Bussora, and an express caravan need not be provided with more than five weeks' provisions at the utmost. The following are the principal points to attend to:-Salt beef and tongues: these are excellent in their kind; and what we brought are not yet expended, though in the last week of our quarantine. Potted meat: what we had, was not sufficiently pressed down, which occasioned the loss of it. Sheep: these we purchased frequently, and were never without them; they were excellent, and accompanied the camels tolerably well; but an express caravan should not trust to the meeting with them.-Fowls and Ducks: the
latter in preference, as bearing fatigue better. Lime or Orange Juice: very necessary and refreshing; at least a dozen bottles.-Vinegar: at least a carbhay.-Coffee: a maund will answer every purpose.-Dates: are of great use to the Arabs, and therefore two or three additional frails had better be carried.-Wheat-flour: is preferable to Bussora biscuit, and is easily made into tolerable bread upon an iron plate. Grain for the Horses: a full allowance, and to be delivered out carefully by measure; the want of which, to our party, would have been of consequence, had we not forGENT. MAG. July, 1814.
tunately, at Hect, upon the banks of the Euphrates, and again at Tyba, met with supplies; which an express caravan ought not to trust to. Other necessaries. tinder-box, steel and matches; two Aleppo lanthorns; a hatchet or two; a wooden triangle for the large skins of water, and another for the smaller ones; candles, a dozen or 15lbs. ; tent pins, long and of durable wood, a spare bag full, and a couple of spare mallets; small water skins, enough to complete for four days, 12 to 20; be very careful that they are new; piastres in halves and quarters, not above 100; a hooka or nargil, with tobacco and tongs, and spare reeds must not be forgot, as a fresh chillum is a real indulgence. The occurrences in our journey across the Desert have nothing very remarkable in them, and yet they may be of service, particularly in shewing the inconvenience of accompanying a grand caravan. (To be concluded in a future Number.)
Kensington, July 8. SHALL feel obliged by the insertion of the following correction of riana, which had before escaped me. some errata in the Bibliotheca SpenceIt is hardly necessary to premise, that in a work of such extent an variety, a considerable number of little inaccura correctness constitutes the chief merit cies must present themselves; but, as of every bibliographical production, I am of course willing to hope that these inaccuracies are neither flagrant nor numerous in the one under consideration. The errata, above alluded to, are as follow:
P. 65, line 26 : for κρητησ read κρητος. P. 109, line 23: for Tov Meλavos read μέλας το
Two observations may be fairly subjoined; not for the sake of exculpation (for I will always thankfully receive fair criticism, and acknowledge my regret for gross errors) but as arising out of the nature of the case itself. First; In the earliest impressions of Greek Authors, the contractions are
frequently difficult to decypher, and the accents are so often blurred that it is difficult to copy them correctly. Secondly; If the extracts and descriptions in De Bure's Bibliogr. Instruct. were as minutely examined as have been those in the Bibl. Spence riana, the deficiencies and errors would be found to be in a tenfold deI could have
gree more numerous.
"scribbled the margins" (as Warburton expresses it) of my own copy of that justly-popular foreign work, almost from beginning to end. It is not however meant, by this latter observation, to cast unmerited censure upon the reputation of De Bure, or to defend the errors of one work by mentioning those of another. Far otherwise:- all that I wish the candid Critic and experienced Bibliographer to admit, is, that in researches of the nature of the volumes under consideration, the attention cannot be al
ways kept alive with the same ardour, and the most resolute diligence and enduring patience will sometimes abate and be subdued. In Bibliography if in any other pursuit-it may fairly and emphatically be said: "Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be ‡." Yours, &c. P.S. Until pointed out to me by Mr. Roscoe, I was not aware that the article PLOTINUS had been introduced
T. F. DIBDIN.
a second time: (see vol. II. p. 275. vol. III. p. 463.) It will however be seen that the mode of describing the
The Genitive Case has been here strangely substituted for the Nominative. Pope's Essay on Criticism, v. 253,
edition, here referred to, is pretty much the same in both instances arising from a similarity of feeling on examining it for the purpose of description.
July 9. HE Cathedral Church of Rouen (engraved in your last Frontispiece) was built by the hands of our countrymen in the 13th century; and, in despite of the opinions of Mr. Hawkins, champion for foreign art, history of Architecture, that, in rewho "thinks,” though writing on the gard to the splendid religious fabrics of this Island, there is no use" in bringing them into discussion, I most cordially subscribe to such strong conviction. By consulting the accounts of Rouen, in a 66 Description of the Earth," published 1605, we read, that "the Cathedral is dedicated to the Virgin Mary," the choir wherehath three towers of a vast height, of is lined round with copper: it particularly that of Reuve, and that of the Pyramid; the spire of which steeple only (being made of wood and covered with gilt lead) hath 200 steps,
and the whole edifice above 600.
On the great gate (presume West centre entrance) is a triumphal arch in
honour of King Henry IV. with emblems of his conquest over the Holy League. The body of the Church is supported by 21 pillars, in which, and in the chapel, are to be seen the magnificent tombs of Cardinal d'Amboise, and of the antient dukes and archbishops; as also, the monument of John duke of Bedford, who was Regent of France under our King Henry VI.
Considering the present external features of the structure, much doubt is entertained relative to the correctness of the date 1055, (see p. 633.) as turrets, and centrical tier of compartthe grand tier of windows, with the ments between the two West towers, brings us to Wells cathedral; centrical entrance to Lichfield Cathedral
side ditto to Lincoln Cathedral; pyramidal finish over centre entrance to window entirely French; left-hand Salisbury cathedral; circular centre tower to Ely Cathedral, its termination French; right-hand tower to York, finish (a crown) French; ailes of nave transepts, and centre tower, to York Cathedral; its spire French,