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FESTIVAL of Wit,

187 HISTOIRE de l'Acad. Royale des Sciences, FIELD of Mars, 269 &c, Paris, for 1779,

625 Ficges's Excife Officer's Vade Mecum, HISTORY OF William Pitt, Earl of Chat

90 ham, • Flowers of Literature,

349 - of Discoveries; &c relative to FOLEY's Life,

358. Ruffia, FOREIGN LITERATURT, 69, 159, - of Ali Bey,

529 260, 351, 436, 553 - - and Memoirs of the Roral SoFORSOEK Atvila, &c.

72 - ciery of Medicine, at Paris, for the Year FRAILTILS of Fashion,

1779) FRIL and Impartial Examination of the HisTORICAL Sketch of Medicine, 466 Preliminary Articles, 178 HOGARTH, Anecdotes of,

526 FREE Parliaments,

374 HOLDER'S System of French Syntax, 281 Farl's Tyrocinium in Hofpitiis Curiæ, 458 HOLLAND'S Serm n at Pudsey, 287 FRISNOY. See MASON,

HOOKE. See APOLOGY. FRISI, Abbé, his Philos, Treatises, 436 HOUEL, M. bis Travels through Sicily, FULL Detection of Popery, 190 &c. No. I. and II.

167 Full and faithful Report of Debates on

No. III. &c. 595 the Peace, .

265 HUNTER's Ancient Coins, 434 FULLERTON'S Sermon before the Synod HUNTINGFORD'S Introduction to the of Aberdeen, 551 Writing of Greek, Part I.

300 Part II.

ib. ELLIBRAND's Poem on Sir J.

Metrica Monoftropbica, 50g I Clarke,

355 Hymn to the Sun, GIRARD's Sermons, Vol. II. Glory of the Heavenly City, 95 TAckson's Letters on various Subjets, GMELIN-Hifcire des Decouvertes fairs

par divers Savons Voyageurs, &c. 350 JENKINS's Letters on Penticross's Dir. GOUSSIER's Cosmological Syftem of Na. course,

191 tural Philosophy, 260 IMPORTANT Debate, &c.

372 GRANT on the Influenza,

INADEQUACY of Parliamentary Reforme GRIIN's Poetical Parts of the Old Test. ation,

265 transated,

INDIES, East, Tracts relative to, 87, 267, GUARINI'' Paftor Fido translated, 218

. 363, 400, 535 GUIDE CO Health, Beauty, Richee, and INGLETTELD, Capt. his Narrative of ihe Honour,

Lors of the Centaur,
he Centaur

187 - to Stage Coaches, &c.

INQUIRY conc, Military Force, &c. 449

INSTRUCTIONS for Shepherds, &c. 264 LJALL's Moral Tales,

346 INTRODUCTION to Polite Literature, 280 1 HARGRAVI's Edition of the State Jones'. Probation Sermon, 463 Trials,

255

Sermon before the Sons of the HARRISON's Letter to Stevenson, 280 Clergy, HARVEY's Letters to Lady Frances

T ENNICOTT's Sermon on the Sabe 1 bath,

- 283 HARWOOD on Contentment,

KERGUELEN's Two Voyages to the HASTINGS': Narrative of Transactions

Southern and Indian Seas, 636 at Benares, .

87

07 KING's Thoughts on the Difficulties, &c. HATSILL's Precedents of Proceedings in

in which the Peace has involved us, 371 the House of Commons,

193 - Knox's EfTays, Moral and Literary, aew Hawks's Address to the King and Para

Edition,

303 liament,

280 HEBREW Grammar. See WILSON. T ACEPEDE, Count, his General and Heroic Epiftle to Sackville, 335 L and Particular System of Natural Hill, Rev. Mr. his Sermon at Kelio's

Me hie Sermon at Kelio's Philosophy, Meeting,

LANDAPP, Bihop of, his Letter to the - Richard, Esq. See LUDLOW,&c. Archbihop of Canterbury, 431 HINDOSTAN, See RENNEL.

LANDEN'S Appendix to Observations on HINTS for supplying the Public with Sca- Converging Series,

289 men and Soldiers,

533

LAVATER. John GASPARD, bis EfTay HISTOIRE de la Vie privée des François, on Pbyforgnomy, &c.

615 Le Ciel ouvert à tout l'Univers, 375 Pby fique, Morale, Civile, et Po. LE CLERC, M. bis Nat. Moral, Civil, litique de la Ruillie Ancienne, e Moderne, and Political History of Ancient and

Modern Russia,

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priety, to be claffed among the works of nature, fince gardening is nothing else but Nature dressed and ornamented by art.

There are few, if any objects of taste, more interesting than architecture; by which are not meant here the five well-known orders only, but edifices of all kinds, and more particularly those which we inbabit. Strength, conveniency, and elegance, are what chiefy confitute the propriety of buildings. What is the precise degree to which ornaments in architecture ought to be carried, is a problem, the solution of which hath teazed the most diftinguished artists. It ha:h been already observed, that Nature hath ornamented many ani. mals so highly, that we wantonly conclude these decorations to be mere sports. But the instinctive affections of animals are so far removed beyond our powers of investigation, that decisions relating to the design and utility of such ornaments, ought not to be given with. out the utmost reserve. Be chat as it may, we are, in many cases, profuse in ornamenting, without regard to utility, believing ourselves to be authorised in this from the belt examples, those of Nature. . It is not an eafy matter to know where to flop, when we investió gate the laws and analogies of Nature, when we take lessons from her æconomy, or when we apply thele to the arts. Some architects have entertained an opinion, that the principles and symmetry of their art are deducible from the proportions of the human body. In all the members of architecture, trength or beauty are intended. As to the human body, besides the endowments of strength and beauty, Nature hath not only ficted it for much motion, but hath rendered exércise necessary for its preservation and well-being. This necessity of absolute reft in the one, and of motion in the other, renders it probable, that, if there be any analogy at all between the proportions of the human body and those of architecture, it must be so faint as to be unfatisfactory to a judicious artit. The arts, however, have been so much indebted to Nature, that the ought invariably to be confulted, when innovations in the arts are intended. In the present case, it is not from the animal kingdom, or from bodies posseffing an internal power of spontaneous motion, that we can take directions. The tops of trees are frequently ponderous and bulky, and are always supported by trunks of a strength equal co their load. Aftately oak, with a fufficient length of trunk, tapering gently from the ground to the loweit branchings, might well bave led mankind, ac first, to support heavy piles of building by fimilar columns. This is, at least, as natural a supposition, as that the accidental growth of the Acanthus about a baket, ihould direct to the foliage of the Corinthian capital.

. Since many of the ornamental parts which belong to the differens orders of architecture, neither contribute to the Itrength of buildings, nor to conveniency, these decorations make part of the third branch, that is, of elegance; and we see in architecture, perhaps more than in any of the other arts, an application of ornament, which, though wholly unconnected with utility, is universally allowed to prove an ample source of beauty. In such cases, it doch not appear that we can frame any definition of elegance more satisfactory, than that cer. tain proportions please the eye, as particular notes of music are me. lodious to the eas. Nor can we eres hope to investigare che nervous

Syftem

system so scientifically as to lay open these mysteries. We know that harth sounds, as scratching a place with a knife, or rubbing one roogh fone against another, are remarkably irksome to some people ; while others are in no ways affected with such founds. The tumultuous din or gobling of a turkey cock seems to us to be quite contrary to true melody; and yet the female of that bird may, from a particular organization of nerves, find these notes enchanting music. The male swallow, while the female fits on her eggs, flies about the building, filent every where till he come opposite to the neft, where he sets up a loud screaming, harsh to us, and perhaps to the female turkey, though, for aught we know, so musical and delightful to the female swallow, as to have a share in solacing her during her tedious and painful period of incubation.

• Another important question in architecture is, whether the mem. bers of any or all the orders, can admit of considerable changes in their proportions, without violating architectory laws? The inveftigation of this problem is the more difficult, that we have no other standard for the proportions of these ornamental parts, which are in no respect conducive to the strength or convenience of the building, but tbat internal sense which we denominate Taste. Though the Romans adopted the Grecian architecture, it appears, from the remains of ancient edifices in Rome, that they did not adhere rigidly to particular proportions. We may judge of this from the great Amphitheatre, the loweft circle or ftory of which hath been defcribed by some of the most distinguished architects as Doric, and by others as Turcan. The fourth or highest circle, too, hath equivocal members, fo as to have passed with some as of the Composite, and with others as of the Corinthian order. It is to be regretted, that so little of the architecture of the Aogustan period hath escaped the wrecks of time; fince Vitruvius lived till about the beginning of Augustus's reign, and others who succeeded that architect, mult probably have acquired a refined taste in that art. The theatre of Marcellus, and the portica of the Rotunda, are fine fpecimens, the one of the Doric, the other of the Corinthian order. But there, with some other more matilated fragments of the Augustan age, are not sufficient to let us know, what latitude the masters of that period affumed in varying their proportions. Be that as it may, the architects of the present times would perhaps do well to adhere religiously to the rules laid down by the more celebrated masters, who have appeared in Europe fince the restoration of the fine arts. Excess in rehnement is known Sometimes to have led to deformity, and feldom fails to presage a decline from true taste.

• Horace, in Ode xv. B. 2. complains, that the Romans, in his time, were more attentive to private buildings than to the temples of the Gods. The ingenious authors of a late publication on architectare have animadverted on the poet for making such a complaint, fipce Auguftus himself had greatly orpamented the city with public edifices. I know it will not be disagreeable to you, if I conclude this letter with an attempt to vindicate your favourite author. In this I am so little at a loss, that I think the charge may be answered in three different ways. First, when we consider the good sense and polite manners of that poet, his extenkve knowledge of mankind,

*

his liberal education, and more particularly, his intimacy with the Emperor, we cannot persuade ourselves that he would so far forget bimself as to glance at the character of any person then high in power, much less that he would arraigo the public conduct of Au. guftus.

• It may be next observed, that we are uncertain whether the pre. fent arrangement of the Odes corresponds with the chronological or. der of their compoGrion, and, consequently, whether the Ode in question might bave been composed before Auguftus had leisure to attend to public buildings, which he had not till after the death of Anthony ; and at that time Horace was thirty-four years of age. This poet, we have reason to believe, had diftinguished himself by bis compositions when he was ac Atheos. Without a recommenda. tion of this kind, it is not probable that Brutus would have at once raised a tax-gatherer's son to the rank of a military tribune. Horace was not introduced to Mæcenas till two or three years after this ; and yet the first Ode, Satire, and Epifle are inscribed to that ftater. man. It is certain, that Horace's journey to Brundufium was fix, or perhaps seven years before the death of Antony; and he then composed his fifth Satire, Either of these answers would suffice to an un. prejudiced mind. But the truth of the matter is as follows: Au. guttus, from his being firft at the head of an army, was for many years involved in a continued succellion of dangerous wars. As fooa as he had it in his power, and during the following part of his life, he spared no expence in decorating the city with public edifices, while his own house on Mount Palatine, and his villas, were con. Structed after a plain and fimple manner, having furniture corresponde ing to the frugality of the buildings. By this moderation in his pria vate expence, he meant to see an example to the richer citizens of Rome, whose extravagance in erecling superb houses in Rome, and all over Italy, and in ornamenting these, exceeded all bounds. This private magnificence, and enormous expence, was productive of the worst effe&s; for it not only incapacitated the citizens to contribute in rearing and supporting the temples, as had been the cufo tom of their ancestors in the times of fimplicity, but was an induce. ment to rob the provinces , as the proconsols, and others bearing offices ebere, had it in their power. Horace, therefore, in this Ode, seconds she Emperor in his efforts to correct a dangerous vice; whild the poet, in a delicate manner, offers incense to him, in apa plauding his temperance and moderation in conducting his private affairs.'

Speaking of the necessity of a common language among learned men, . It is to be regretted,' says he, that our femi. naries have, for some years back, relaxed in the use of the Greek and Latin; and it is not a little to the honour of fome

ftudents in the universities, both of Great Britain and of France, who, seeing the inconveniencies attending the neglect of these languages, have of themselves formed associations for their improvement in them; and that some of these young men have inus acquired a readiness in speaking and in writing Latin with considerable elegance. In what universities such associations

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are formed, we know not; we are of opinion, it is not in our own, as they would certainly be unnecessary. The inferiority of present times to the past, has been one of the idle topics of declamation in almost every period of the world. There is every reason to believe that ancient literature is as much studied at our English universitie, particularly at Oxford, as it has ever been fince letters werr revived. And even though Cambridge, from the preference which is there given to mathematical learning, cannot, perhaps, boast so many classical scholars as her Gites, the has still a sufficient number to rescue her from the imputation that is implied in the passage avuve quored. It reminds us of a news paper reformer, who appeared a few months ago; who, in new-modelling the University of Oxford, propoled che elablidhment of a profcrtorship of common-law; having never heard, we suppose, of the Vinerian Pror forship, nor of Dr. Blackstone, nor of bis commentaries, nor of the present able and ingenious Professor, Dr. Wooddeson!

It may be necessary to observe, that these letters seem dea figned rather for the perural of those whose literary taste is yet forming, than for such as are already intimately conversant with literary subjects. It must not, however, be supposed, that they are incapable of furnishing amusement, or even instruction; to the more enlightened student. For though the author certainly poffeffes po great powers of originality, either of thought or compofition, his ideas, if not always brilliant, are mostly just; and his language, though not elegant, is usually clear and unaffected : even where it is the lealt easy or graceful, it is neither harih, nor (if some trivial provincialisms be excepted) impure. In Thort, though this writer may possibly be thought, like many other of the Scotch metaphysical book-makers, too fond of defining the indefinite, and dividing the indivisible; his work nevertheless, abounds with much good sense, and useful information.

ning, than for the perulai bferve, thadde

ART. IV. Letters Military and Political. From the lialian of Counc

Algarotti, Knight of the Order of Merit, and Chamberlain to the King of Prussia. 8vo. 5 s. Boards. Egeston. 1782. THIS translation is not accompanied with any introduction l or preface; and no history is given of the original work. Yet the English Reader had a title to expect some information concerning the genuineness of the performance*, the time of its publication, and the probable views of the Author.

With regard to the Letters themselves, they certainly had a good claim to the honours of our language. They compre

* We bave, however, no doubt of its authenticity. Rev. Jan. 1783.

hend

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