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of the music, exactly copied from the original MSS. And as the language may be difficult, in it's antique guise, to many of bis readers, he gives us translations of these several pieces, in much better verses than any one can reasonably require from an hiflorian.

Some specimens of ancient French Chaunts are next given, which were found by the Abbé Le Beuf, at Amiens. We are Sorry that our limits will not allow us to extract a part of ihe Author's subsequent very amusing account of the Jongleurs, or Minstrels of these times. This is succeeded by two songs of the Chatelain de Coucy — who has left behind him some of the most elegant and affecting songs in the French language, which have been preserved in manuscripts that are near 450 years old ; and ciced by all cotemporary writers as models on the subject of love.'

These two melodies are here given in modern notes, accoňpanied as usual with their fac-similes: but, how elegant and af. fecting soever the poetry may be ; they will probably, as the Author observes, be found equally rude and doleful with the air which we have above noticed, as the composition of Anselm Faidit.

This last observation, however, cannot with justice be applied to the two specimens which the Author afterwards gives of Thibaut, the King of Navarre's music; of which the French antiquaries, and critics, at least, believe him to have been the composer, as well as the author of the poetry. The second of these melodies, in particular, which is of a light and airy cast, is peculiarly pleasing and fimple. It does not carry a single wrinkle of antiquity on the face of it; and is, accordingly, not to be distinguished, by its features, from even the most modern French air, in the gavot stile, or Vaudeville ; though its antiquity appears indisputable. These 'melodies, says the Author,

remind us of many French airs of the present century, and shew that vocal melody has 'reinained nearly stationary in France, ever since the beginning of the thirteenth century.'

We are here naturally reminded—though indeed the observation recurs to us almoft in every part of this work of the Author's unremitting industry; and of the trouble which he must have taken, both abroad and at home, in searching for, procuring, and decyphering, the curious materials which he has here collected, and explained. Those who are most conversant in the art of which he treats, will, at the same time, the most highly estimate the value of his labours, and the difficulty of explaining the musical productions of these early, and even of ftill later, times; as well as the fagacity and modesty with which this task has been performed by the Author; who never, in any of the difficulties which he is obliged to encounter, aflumes the

REV. Jan. 1783.

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air

air of being satisfied himself, when he is not able to give satis. faction to his readers.

Passing over many curious particulars, both historical and fcientific, which follow these fpecimens of ancient melody, we Thall briefly take notice of an English composicion, in parts, of high antiquity, set to words of a Itill higher date, which is preferved in the British Museum. It is a descriptive fong, beginning, “ Sumer is i cumen in" (Summer is a coming in), fet in a canon of four parts in the unison. It is written upon fix red lines, in square and lozenge black notes of three kinds. To enable the musical Reader to judge of the state of harmony in our country, about the fourteenth or fifteenth century, the Author has been at the pains of giving a folution of this ancient Canon and Catch, united, in score; as it is not only very ingeniously contrived, but both the melody and harmony are better than he has hitherto found in any composition of so early a period. There are in it, however, certain violations of rule, refpecting harmony, which induce the Author to suspect that it is of ftill higher antiquity than has been supposed. Though its defects, the Author well observes, .may not be discovered by every car, during the performance ; it is hardly clean and pure enough to satisfy the eye, in score: as many liquors may be tolerably palatable, and yet not bear a glass. Its chief merits are the airy and paftoral correspondence of the melody with the words; and its being the first example of Counterpoint in fix parts (for there are two other parts which come in occasionally) as well as of Canon, Fugue, or Carch, that can be produced ; so that it seems to form an æra in vocal harmony. He thinks it no very wild conje&ure, that this very Canon, which requires fix performers, may have been alluded to at the close of the last stanza of the burlesque metrical romance, called the Tournament of Tottenham :

Mickle mirth was them among,
« In every corner of the house
« Was melody delicious,
" For to bear precious
« Of Sıx Mens Song."

· Reliques of ancient English Poetry, vol. ii. p. 15. . After having exhibited these and other specimens of practical music, the Author returns to theory, and gives a circumftantial account of a very scarce and curious manuscript volume, containing nine tracts; which, before the reformation, belonged to the monastery of Waltham Holy-cross, in Effex, but is now the property of the Earl of Shelburne. After the Review of this volume, and of two inedited musical tracts in manuscripts, found in the libraries of our UniverGties; the Author proceeds, in his 5th chapter, to treat of the state of music from the invention of printing till the middle of the 16th century.

Thç The Author has reason to congratulate himself on his being arrived at an æra much more agreeable than any of the past: having now cleared his way to good composicion ; we mean, with respect only to harmony and contrivance, which, in this period, were indeed carried to a very high pitch of excellence. His progress, likewise, has hitherto been retarded by the scarcity, as well as the obscurity of his materials ; lurking in the darkest and most unfrequented recesses of libraries, mixed with the dusty and obscure remains of Monkish literature. His principal difficulty now is, that of properly selecting from the plenty with which he is surrounded ; and great appears to have been his labour in this respect: for the music of this æra being preserved in fingle parts, these must be transcribed, and scored, or placed under each other, that the eye may perceive and compare their feveral relations at one glance, before their beauties or defects can be discovered : and this, the Author observes, is rendered a very flow process, from the difficulty of obsolete notation, and, the want of bars. Being determined,' says he,' to speak of no music with which I am unacquainted, or of which I am unable to furnith specimens, I have transcribed, in fcore, many volumes, not only of the same age, but sometimes of the same Author, in order to select the best productions I am able, for my work ; or at leaft to qualify myself to judge of each composer's abilities and resources.' - The best of these compositions are here given, in score, engraved on a considerable number of copper-plates, and constitute a very valuable part of this work : as they form a collection of select specimens of the compofitions of the best musical writers of this learned age; and must be highly accepte able (together with the Author's occafional and inftru&ive comments) to those who are qualified to perform, or even to read, and meditate on, the latent beauties discoverable in these specimens of their ingenuity and contrivance.

The Author, however, previously relates the successive refinements of harmony,-the new combinations which it gradually received, and the introduction of difcords, by certain 'bold musicians,' before men' had the courage or genius to invent new melodies ;' and then proceeds to investigate the first principles of Canon and Fugue ; ' as the lives and labours of the prie mitive fathers of harmony were spent in establishing them. He juftly observes, however, that many of the rules of fugue were frivolous, and often followed with such rigour and pedantry as merited reprobacion; for all rules in music, deduced from any other principle than effect on the ear, are absurd. If that fenfi, wbich this art was invented to delight, be satisfied, what tiile has the eye to take offence, though a Dharp, flat, or other acci. dent, interrupt the apparent symmetry of intervals ? D 2

The

Bremner fler ved; a copy of the Tor rather Talli:7.

: The first of the great harmonists of this æra, the mafter of the still greater Jusquin de Prez, was John Okenheim, a Netherlander; of whom none of the musical writers of the 16th century forget to mention the Motet, in thirty fix parts, which he composed, but which is not come down to us. A song, however, of our countryman, Bird (or rather Tallıs] in forty parts, is still preserved; a copy of it being now in the poffeffion of Mr. Bremner in the Strand. While he is treating on this subject, the Author observes, that if there had been more frequent rehearsals of the Miferere of Leo, in eight real parts, which was. performed, under the direction of Anfani last year, 1781, at the Pantheon, by more than forty voices; he conceives, from such of the movements as were correctly executed, that the effects of the whole would have been wonderful, and greatly have sure passed all the expectation which the high reputation of the compofer, and the uncommon magnitude of the enterprise, had excited. There can be little melody,' the Author adds, in any of these multiplied parts; but to make them move at all, without violation of rule, requires great meditarion and experience.' .

Jusquin de Prez is represented to us by the Author, as the type of all musical excellence, at the time in which he lived.' • The laws and difficulties of Canon, Fugue, Augmentation, Diminution, Reverfion, and almost every other species of learned contrivance, allowable in ecclesiastical compositions for voices, were never so well observed, or happily vanquished, as by Jufquin ; who may juftly be called the Father of modern harmony, and the inventor of almost every ingenious contexture of its constituent parts, near 100 years before the time of Palestrina, Orlando di Lallo, Tallis or Bird, the great musical luminaries of the 16th century.'-Rabelais mentions him at the head of all the fifty-nine Voyeulx Musisiens whom he had formerly heard. Among musicians, he was the giant of his time; and his compofitions seem to have been as well known, and as much practised thoughout Europe, at the beginning of the 16th century, as Handel's were in England, about forty years ago, . . In the mufic-book of Prince Henry (afterwards Henry VIII.), now at Cambridge, there are several of his compofitions; as likewise in a very beautiful manuscript in the British Museum, But the most capital collecrion of bis works, and of cotemporary Contrapuntifts, which, the Author believes, is now subfifting, is likewise preferved in the British Museum : and as these productions are not only precious from their age and scarcity, but likewise from their intrinsic worth, he has been exceedingly and properly ample in his extracts and accounts of them. In his examination of them, he was so drawn on, and amused, by this Author's ingenious and curious contrivances, that he scored se

TO THE Titles, AUTHORS' NAMES, &c. of the Publi

cations reviewed in this Volume.

N. B. For REMARKABLE PASSAGES, in the Griticisms and

Extrails, see the INDEX, at the End of the Volume,,

P. 400

citatio

69

448

540

Belfat Volunteers

to the Prince

DDRESS to the People of England, BARRY'S' Acc. of his Series of Picturre; A on the Reform. of Parliament, 85 &c. to Mr. Gratian,

88 BARTHOLOTTI · Exercitatio Politico. to the People,

363 Theologia, - to the Landed Gentlemen of BAYLEY's Entrance into the Sacred Lana Scotland,

guage,

189 from the Members of the Con- BEAUCHAMP, Lord, his Letter to the fitutional Body,

- 87 to the Prince of Wales, 545 BEAUTIES of Administration, 183 ADTICE to the Officers of the British Bees. See BROMWICH. Army,

BELLAMONT's Letter to Shelburne, 268 ALGAROTTI's Letters, Military and Po- PERESFORD's Narrative of his Marriage litical,

with Miss Hamilton,

90 Ali Bay. History of,

BERGMAN-Opuscula Phyfica, &c. i6g AMERICA, Traås rel. to, 86, 88, 183, BERLIN, Memoirs of the Royal Acade. - 124, 267, 324, 351 362, 363, 371, my of Scieoces there, for 1780, 15% 449, 536, 5376

- farther Account of, 630 ANATOMY. See LIEBURKUNN. BIBLIOTHECA Modenese, 438 ANDERSON's History of France, Vols. IV. BIBLIOTHÉCA Topographica Britan. and V.

412
nica,

928 ANDRES, Abbé, on the Origin and Pro BIOGRAPHICAL Anecdotes of Hogarth, refs of Literature, &c. 437 enlarged,

526 ANDREWs's Inquiry into the Manners, BISCARIS, Prince of, his view of the &c. of the two lait Centuries, s6 Antiquities of Sicily,

Agalyfe of the Duties of So. Black's Hiftorical Sketch of Medicine, cial Life,

222 Anglia Rediviva,

327

BLAIR's Lectures on Rhetoric, &c. 489 ANTICIPATION of the Crifis,

453

BLAZING Star, APOLOGY for Hooke's Oblervations on BLOCKHEADS, an Opera,

270 the Roman Senare,

359 Bowle's Edition of Don Quixote, 421 ARCHÆOLOGICAL Dietinnary, 537 BRISTOL, Bp. of, his 30:h of January Aaco, Coant de, on the Vis Comica, 437 Serreion before the Lords,

461 on che Influence of Com BRITISH Museum, Cat. of MSS. in, 389 merce, &c.

438 BROMWICH's Experienced Bee-keeper, Ars Scribendi fine Penna,

543 Art of Pleasing,

BROTHER, Abbé, his Edit. of Phædrus, ATALIST's Adswer to Priestley, 129

590 AUTHENTIC Copy of the Provisional BROUGHTON's Encbiridion Baranicum, 538 Articles of Peace,

178 Brown's Reports, comple:ed, 538 Copies of Dirto, ib. BROWNI's Times, a Satire,

540 - in French and BURNEY's History of Mufic, Vol. II. English, by Authority,

concluded, Arcou gu's Catalogue of MSS, in the Burton Wood, a Novel,

457 Britith Museum,

389 BUTTER on ihc Infantile Remittent

Fever, DALrove's Philos. Dissertations, 8 D BANK of England's. Vade Mecum, ALLANDER'S Military Maxims, 247

545 L CAPRICIous Lady, a Comedy, 270 BATATARIAN Jbquest,

CARRA's New Principles of Natural Phi. BARNABY Brittle, a Farce, 270 losophy,

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