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also old and familiar ones. — The land- predecessor, but he has heard and seen lady, in a wonderfully smart cap, looking more. Thanks to all those friends who young, comparatively speaking, and as if from time to time have sent their meshalf the wrinkles had been ironed out of sages of kindly recognition and fellowher forehead. — Her daughter, in rather feeling! Peace to all such as may have dressy half-mourning, with a vast brooch been vexed in spirit by any utterance of jet, got up, apparently, to match the these pages have repeated! They will, gentleman next her, who was in black doubtless, forget for the moment the difcostume and sandy hair, — the last rising ference in the hues of truth we look at straight from his forehead, like the marble through our human prisms, and join in flame one sometimes sees at the top of a singing (inwardly) this hymn to the funeral urn. — The poor relation, not in Source of the light we all need to lead absolute black, but in a stuff with specks us, and the warmth which alone can of white; as much as to say, that, if there make us all brothers. were any more Hirams left to sigh for her, there were pin-holes in the night of her despair, through which a ray of hope
A SUN-DAY HYMN. might find its way to an adorer. — Master Benjamin Franklin, grown taller of
LORD of all being! throned afar, late, was in the act of splitting his face
Thy glory flames from sun and star; open with a wedge of pie, so that his Centre and soul of every sphere, features were seen to disadvantage for Yet to each loving heart how near! the moment. — The good old gentleman was sitting still and thoughtful. All at Sun of our life, thy wakening ray once he turned his face toward the win
Sheds on our path the glow of day;
Star of our hope, thy softened light dow where I stood, and, just as if he had
Cheers the long watches of the night. seen me, smiled his benignant smile. It was a recollection of some past pleasant Our midnight is thy smile withdrawn; moment; but it fell upon me like the Our noontide is thy gracious dawn; blessing of a father.
Our rainbow arch thy mercy's sign:
All, save the clouds of sin, are thine! I kissed my hand to them all, unseen as I stood in the outer darkness; and as
Lord of all life, below, above, I turned and went my way, the table Whose light is truth, whose warmth is love, and all around it faded into the realm Before thy ever-blazing throne of twilight shadows and of midnight
We ask no lustre of our own. dreams.
Grant us thy truth to make us free,
And kindling hearts that burn for thee, And so my year's record is finished. Till all thy living altars claim The Professor has talked less than his One holy light, one heavenly flame!
REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES.
The O.rford Museum. By IIENRY W. AcLAND, M. D., Regius Professor of Medicine, and John Ruskin, M. A., Honorary Student of Christ Church. London, 1859.
The last ten years have formed a remarkable period in the history of the ancient and honored University of Oxford. Guided by wise and discerning counsels, it has made rapid and substantial advance. The scope of its studies has been greatly enlarged, the standard of its requirements raised. Its traditionary adherence to old methods and its bigoted conservatism have been overcome, and with happy pliancy it has yielded to the demands of the times and adapted itself to the new desires and growing needs of men. Its aristocratic prejudices have not been allowed longer to confine its privileges and its operations to one class alone of the community, and in identifying itself with the system of middle-class education, Oxford has won new claims to gratitude and to respect, and now exercises a wider and more confirmed authority over the thought of England than ever before. To us, who take pride in her ancient fame, who honor her long and memorable services in the cause of good learning, who cherish the memory of the great and good men, the masters of modern thought, whom she has nurtured, who recall the names of our own forefathers who came out from her and from her sister University with will and power to lay the foundations of our state, and whom, by her discipline, in the midst of all the refinement of books and the quiet ness of study, she had prepared to meet and to overcome the bardships of exile, poverty, and labor, in the cause of truth and freedom,- to us it may well be matter of rejoicing to witness the fresliness of her spirit and the spring of her perennial youth, - to see her
forming an essential part of the scheme of University studies. For centuries there had been an “intellectual onesidedness” at Oxford. It had chiefly cultivated classic learning. But it has now undertaken to repair the deficiency that existed in this respect, and, while still retaining all its classic studies, it has added to them a full course of training in the knowledge of Nature. “Our object is,” says Dr. Acland, speaking as one of the professors of the University, “our object is,-first, to give the learner a general view of the planet on which he lives, of its constituent parts, and of the relation which it occupies as a world among worlds; and secondly, to enable him to study, in the most complete scientific manner, and for any purpose, any detailed portion which his powers qualify him to grasp."
Such an object brings the University into full sympathy with the present tendencies of education in our own country. With us, scientific pursuits and the study of Nature are receiving greater and greater attention and engrossing a continually larger share of the interest, the time, and the talent of students. There already exists, and there is danger of its increase, in many of our best institutions of learning, and many of our most educated men, an intellectual onesidedness of a contrary, but not less unfortunate character, to that which long existed at Oxford. The temper of our people, the wide field for their energies, the development of the so-called practical traits of character under the stimulus of our political and social institutions, the solitary dissociation of America from the history and the achievements of the Old World, the melancholy absence of monuments of past greatness and worth, -- these and many other circumstances peculiar to our position all serve to weaken the general interest in what are called classical studies, and to direct the attention of the most ambitious and active minds far too exclusively to the pursuits of science. And when to these circumstances peculiar to ourselves is added the influence of those general causes which have had the effect of leading men throughout the civilized world
One of the most marked features of the advance that has lately been made is the full recognition of the Natural Sciences as
to give of late years more and more of work of Messrs. Deane and Woodward; thought and study to the investigation of and this style was chosen because it was Nature and to the pursuits resulting there- believed, that, “in respect of capacity of from, it is not strange that learning, so- adaptation to any given wants, Gothic has called, should, for the present at least, find no superior in any known form of Art," — itself but poorly off in America, and that and that, this being so, "it was, upon the the essential value of learned studies for whole, the best suited to the general archian even and fair development of the intel- tectural character of Mediæval Oxford.” lectual faculties should be far too little re. “The centre of the edifice, which is to garded. The danger that arises from a contain the collections, consists of a quadtoo exclusive devotion to scientific pursuits rangle,” covered by a glass roof. The is pointed out by Dr. Acland in a passage court is surrounded by an open arcade of which deserves thoughtful consideration, two stories. “This arcade furnishes ready coming as it does from a man distin- means of communication between the sevguished not more for scientific eminence eral departments and their collections in than for his wide and cultivated intellect. the area.” “Round the arcade is ranged “The further my observation has extend- upon three sides the main block of the ed,” he says, "the more satisfied I am that building,”— the fourth side being left unno knowledge of things will supply the place occupied by apartments, to afford means of the early study of letters, – literce hu- for future extension. Each department of maniores. I do not doubt the value of any science is provided with ample accommohonest mental labor. Indeed, since the dations, specially adapted to its peculiar material working of the Creator has been needs. The building, as it stands at presso far displayed to our gaze, it is both dan- ent, is in its largest dimensions about 330 gerçus and full of impiety to resist its en- by 170 feet. Its erection has formed an nobling influence, even on the ground that epoch not only in the history of Oxford, His moral work is greater. But notwith- but also in that of Gothic Art in England. standing this, the study of language, of It is the first considerable building which history, and of the thoughts of great men has for centuries been erected in England which they exhibit, seems to be almost according to the true principles of Gothic necessary (as far as learning is necessary Art. It is a revival of the spirit and at all) for disciplining the heart, for ele- freedom of Gothic architecture. It is no vating the soul, and for preparing the way copy, but an original creation of thought, for the growth in the young of their per- fancy, and imagination. It has combined sonal spiritual life; while, on the other beauty with use, elegance with convenhand, the best corrective to pedantry in ience, and ornament with instruction. It scholarship, and to conceit in mental phi- has proved the perfect pliancy of Gothic losophy, is the study of the facts and laws architecture to modern needs, and shown exhibited by Natural Science.”
its power of entire adaptation to the reOxford, having thus fully acknowledged quirements of new conditions. In its dethe need of enlarging her system of edu- tails no less than in its general scope it cation, at once set about preparing a home exhibits the recognition by its builders for the Natural Sciences within her pre- of the essential characteristics of the best cincts. The building of the Oxford Mu- Gothic Art, and shows in the harmonized seum is a fact characteristic of the large variety of its parts the inventive thought spirit of the University, and of special in and the independent execution of many terest from the design and nature of its minds and hands presided over by a single architecture. It is not merely intended will. Gothic architecture in its best defor the holding of collections in the dif- velopment is the expression at once of law ferent departments of physical science, but and of liberty. The exactest principles of it contains also lecture- and work-rooms, proportion are combined in it with the and all the accommodations required for freest play of fancy. Its spaces are divided in-door study. To provide the mere shell mathematically by the rule and the square, of such a building, the University granted its main lines are determined with absolute the sum of £30,000. The design that was precision, – but within these limits of selected from those which were sent for order the imagination works out its free competition was of the Gothic style, – the results, and, because limited by mathemat
ical laws, reaches the most perfect freedom of beauty.
But the system of Gothic decorations, “which,” says Mr. Ruskin, “ took eight hundred years to mature, gathering its power by undivided inheritance of traditional method,” is not an easy thing to revive under new and difficult conditions. A single example of what has been at tempted in this way in the Oxford Museum must suffice to show the spirit which pervades its construction. The lower arcade upon the central court is supported by thirty-three piers and thirty shafts; the upper arcade by thirty-three piers and ninety-five shafts. “The shafts have been carefully selected, under the direction of the Professor of Geology, from quarries which furnish examples of many of the most important rocks of the British Islands. On the lower arcade are placed, on the west side, the granitic series; on the east, the metamorphic; on the north, cal careous rocks, chiefly from Ireland; on the south, the marbles of England." The capitals and bases are to represent differ ent groups of plants and animals, illustrating the various geological epochs, and the natural orders of existence. Thus, the column of sienite from Charnwood Forest bas a capital of the cocoa palm; the red granite of Ross, in Mull, is crowned with a capital of lilies; the beautiful marble of Marychurch has an exquisitely sculptured capital of ferns; — and so through all the range of the arcades, new designs, studied directly from Nature, and combining art with science, have been executed by the workmen employed on the building.
To complete the beauty of the court, massive corbels have been thrown out from the piers, upon which statues of the great est and most famous men in science are to be, or are already, placed. These shafts and capitals and statues have been, in great part, the gift of individuals interested in the progress and successful completion of such a building. The Queen presented five of the statues ; and her example has been followed by many of the graduates of the University and lovers of Art in England.
Mr. Ruskin ends his second letter in the little book before us with these words: “ Although I doubt not that lovelier and
juster expressions of the Gothic principle will be ultimately arrived at by us than
any which are possible in the Oxford Museum, its builders will never lose their claim to our chief gratitude, as the first guides in a right direction; and the building itself, the first exponent of recovered truth, will only be the more venerated, the more it is excelled.”
Such is the way in which Oxford, having a Museum to build, sets to work. She lays down a large and generous plan, and erects a building worthy of her ancient fame, worthy to increase the love and honor in which she is held, - a building that adds a new beauty to her old beauties of hall and chapel, of quadrangle and cloister. She does not mistake parsimony for economy; she does not neglect to regard the duty that lies upon her, as the guardian and instructress of youth, to set before their eyes models of fair proportion, noble structures which shall exercise at once an influence to refine the taste and the sentiment and to enlarge the intellect. She acknowledges the claims of the future as well as of the present, and does not erect that which the future, however it may advance in constructive power, will regard as base, mean, or ugly. She recognizes the value to herself, as well as to her sons, of all those associations which, through the power of her adorned and munificent architecture, shall bind them to her in ties of closer tenderness, and of strong, though most delicate feeling. Her building is to have an aspect that shall correspond to the nobility of its function,- that shall impress the student, as he walks along the hard and dry paths of science, with some sense, faint though it be, of the beauty of that learning which is furnished with so goodly an abode. The influence of a fine building, complete in all its parts, is one which cannot be estimated in money, cannot be investigated by any practical process, but which is nev. ertheless as strong and precious as it is secret, as constant as it is unobserved.
It would seem that there could be no country in the world where buildings of the noblest kind would be more desired than in America, for there is none in which they are so much needed. But such is not the case. As men who have lived long in darkness become so accustomed to the want of light as not to feel its absence, so the absoluteness of the want of fine buildings in America prevents that want from being generally felt. Heirs of the intellec
tual wealth of the past, we have no inheri- correspond with the worth and grandeur tance of the great works of its hands. No of the collections it is to hold and the studmaterial heirlooms have been transmitted ies that are to be carried on within it? • to us. We are cut off from any share in What patient thought, what stores of im
the monuments on which the labor, the agination, what happy adaptations do its affection, and the possessions of former walls reveal? These questions are easily generations were expended. The precious answered. Convenience of internal arand enlarging associations connected with rangement has been sought without resuch works, which bind successive gener- gard to external beauty, without considerations of men together with ties of mem- ation of the claims of Art. The architect ory and reverence, stimulating the imagi- has, we must suppose, been obliged to connation to new conceptions, and nerving the form his plans to the most frugal estiwill to large efforts, have nothing to cling mates; but we cannot help thinking, that, to here. The land is barren and naked; generous as the State has been, it would and, moreover, no effort is made to relieve have been more worthy of her, had no such the future from the want which the pres- necessity existed. The building for the ent feels so keenly. With wealth ample Museum is one which can never excite enough for undertakings of any magni- high admiration, never touch any chord tude,—with intelligence, more boasted than of poetic sentiment, never arouse in the real, but still sufficient for the conception student within its walls any feeling save of improvement, we exhibit in our civiliza- that of mere convenience and utility. Its tion neither the taste nor the capacity for bare, shadowless walls, unadorned by car. any noble works of Art. The value of ven columns or memorial statues, will beauty is disregarded, and the cultivation stand incapable of affording support for of the sense of beauty is treated as of lit- those associations which endear every tle worth, compared with the culture of human work of worth, covering it with what are styled the practical faculties. praise and remembrance, as the ivy clings Our wealth is spent in the erection of ex- to the stone, adding beauty to beauty, travagant stores and shops,- in the deco associations which make men proud of ration of oyster-saloons, hotels, and steam their ancestors and desirous to equal them boats,- in the lavish and selfish adornment in achievement. The University at Camof drawing-rooms and chambers. In the bridge, just entering on the second quarter whole breadth of the continent there is not of its third century, has not a single builda single building of such beauty as to be ing that is beautiful, perhaps we might say an object of national pride, and few which none that is not positively ugly; and we alwill have any value in future times, ex most despair of a future when our people cept as historic records of the poverty of shall become enlightened and magnanisentiment and the deficiency of character mous enough to appreciate noble architecof the men of this generation.
ture at its true worth, as the expression of Our oldest and best endowed University the greatness of national character, as an has, like Oxford, lately engaged in the erec enduring record of faith and of truth, and tion of a Museum, which, though more as an essential instrument in any system limited in its general object, has yet a of education that professes to be complete. scope of such large and generous proportion as to make it a work of even more
1. Forty-Four Years of the Life of a Hunthan national interest. It is undertaken
ter; being Reminiscences of MESHACH on such a scale as to fit it not merely for
BROWNING, a Maryland Hunter; roughpresent needs, but for the increasing wants
ly written down by Himself. Revised of later times. The State has contributed
and illustrated by E. STABLER. Philato it from the public treasury, and private
delphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1859. citizens have given their contributions lib
pp. X., 400. erally towards its support. The building
2. Ten Years of Preacher-Life: Chapters has been rapidly carried forward, and the
from an Autobiography. By WILLIAM portion undertaken is now near comple
HENRY MILBURN. New York: Derby tion. How does it compare with the Ox
& Jackson. 1859. pp. 363. ford Museum ? What provision has been made that in its outward aspect it shall BENVENUTO CELLINI was right in his