Page images

Roman sentinels, 400

Rome, and other places, 47

SABBATH, traces of the, in Ashantee, 386

Safety, the Christian's, 112

Salvation by grace, 141

Sanctification, justification and, 359

Satan's empire, 152
Satisfaction, the only source of, 240
Saviour, the, 277
Sayings, worldly, 437
Schools for the most depraved of the London

population, 133, 193

Scoffers, the, 314

Scotticisms, 389

Scripture illustrations from Chinese customs

and literature

Oblation of first fruits, 13

Delights of the sons of men, 71

The ant, 113

The sower, 233

The balance, 317

The garner, 329

The pipe, 396

The reapers, 433

the properties of, 35

undesigned coincidences of, 105, 163,

Sea, appearance of the, 314

Self-conceit, 392

Self-righteousness, folly of, 416

Selfish motives in religion, 175

Serpent, the, 309

Shark and the pilot fish, 358

Shawls, Cashmere, 461

Sickness, advice on recovery from, 153

Silk worm, the, 337

Singular conversion, 432

Sir John Soane's museum, 127
Sketch in Africa, 313
Socialism and Mormonism, 892
Sounds from the rocks, 275
Sponges and zoophytes, 5, 51, 117, 148, 186


past and present state of the, 236
Religion, power of, 87

natural and revealed, 240

on selfish motives in, 175

Resolution, a good, 440

Rhone, the valley of the, 360


St. Michel, Mout, 202
Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain, 106
Starling, the, 331
Strange boast, 367
Sunflower, the, 222

Undesigned coincidences of Scripture, 105,

163, 307
Usefulness, 294

Vacant place, a, 315
Varieties of the human race, 365
Visits to the widow L- 206
Voltaire, death of, 458

TEA, 80
Temper in which knowledge should be

sougbt, 284
Tbankfulness and discontent, 451
Thames tunnel, the, 189
The world we live in, 391
Tbeatre, evils of the, 115
Time, trifling with, 390
Tradition introduces “ another gospel,” 171
Traveller, the uncomfortable, 387
Travelling, ancient and modern, 152
Tree cactus, the, 472
Trinitarian taith, a, 356
Truth, 352
Turkish honesty, 312

WAR, 320

eagle, the, 200
Watering places, 168
Watt, James, 1
Wells, Artesian, 62
White men and Indians, 227
Willow, the, 258, 301
Windsor Castle, 253
Winter not monotonous, 454
Woollen cloth, 79
World, on giving up the, 270
Worldly sayings, 437

UNCOMFORTABLE traveller, the, 387

Yoke of Christ is




........ 201


Page Monument of James Watt 1 The Kasr

57 Sponges and zoophytes-42 engravings, Female ornaments in the east ... 97

6, 52, 53, 54, 117, 118, 120, 148, 149, Egyptian bieroglypbics 111, 112, 247 150, 151, 186, 187, 188

The birch ......

130 Oblation of first-fruits

13 Remarkable bower-building birds of English history

Australia -
King James hawking

The satin bower bird

136 Great hall of a nobleman's house in

The spotted bower bird

........ 161 the time of James i. ...

41 | The railroad Bramsbill, Hants 81 Netley Abbey

210 Preaching at Paul's Cross 121 The balt of an eastern caravan

257 The Cross in Cheapside .......... 177 | The willow

258 Custom House in the time of

Hop grounds.....

281 Charles 1.

217 Serpent worship-two engravings 309 The Star Chamber 241 | The silk worm and its changes

337 Cornbill.......

297 Curious nest of an African bird..... 377 Old Somerset House.. 321 The water melon

384 General view of Whitehall 361 Persian king..

401 Nottingham Castle

417 | Icebergs... The poplar 35 | Coal mine,


..... 441 THE




FOR 1 8 4 2.


From Chantrey's Monument of Watt in Westminster Abbey.

traverse the stormy bosom of the ocean, THERE are three great discoveries more safely perhaps, and certainly with which must always have a peculiar pro- more punctuality, than the caravan perminence in the past history of the world. forms its journey across the desert. Next The polarity of the needle, first observed in utility to the mariner's compass, must by one whose name and birth-place are be placed the art of printing, the introalike unknown, gave man the power to 1 duction of which, into England, is due to

JANUARY, 1842.


I am

you blame

William Caxton, who was born, according | mother took him to Glasgow, and left him to his own statement, in the Weald of on a visit to a friend. On returning to Kent. With these discoveries, may pro- that city, some weeks after, this individual perly be associated the power of steam, said, “You must take your son James the full developement of which is traced home again; I can no longer bear the to the genius of James Watt, of whom a excitement in which he keeps me. slight sketch will now be given.

worn out with want of sleep. Every This remarkable man was born at evening, before our usual hour of retiring Greenock in Scotland, in the early part for rest, he adroitly contrives to engage of 1736. His father taught him writing me in conversation; then begins some and arithmetic, and his mother gave him striking tale, and whether it be humorous his first lessons of reading. When his or pathetic, the interest is so overpowerhealth permitted, he attended the gram- ing, that all the family listen to him with mar-school at Greenock, and when at breathless attention. Hour after hour home, he amused himself as he pleased. strikes unheeded, but the next morning That his parents did not act injudiciously I feel quite exhausted. You must really in allowing him to follow thus far his own take home your son.” inclinations, will appear from the follow- The activity of mind thus displayed, ing circumstances. One a gentle- continued to be manifested. Watt made man who had called on Mr. Watt, ob- progress wherever he went, and derived served his son, then six years old, stretched advantage from all circumstances. The on the floor, and drawing with a piece of banks of Loch Lomond developed his chalk various intersecting lines.” “Why,” taste for the beauties of scenery, and the he said, “ do you allow this child to idle delightful pursuits of botany. As he away his time in this manner ? send him rambled over lofty mountains, he did not away to the public school.” Mr. Watt fail to observe the inert crust of the replied, “You may find, sir, that you are earth, and became, in consequence, a mistaken: before

me, examine mineralogist. Entering the cottages of attentively what my son is about.” The the poor, he studied their characters, and visitor did so, and saw that he was trying acquired familiarity with their superstito solve a problem in geometry; and in tions and traditions. When confined by putting various questions, was surprised illness to his father's house, he chiefly at the intelligence and simplicity of his occupied himself with chemical experiWell might he say,

" This is ments. His acquaintance with general no common child."

physics was in this interval derived from Young Watt early showed a talent for Gravesande’s Elements of Natural Phimechanical art. He first made children's losophy; and like many invalids, he toys, and constructed a small electrical greedily devoured all the books on medimachine; even steam was a matter of his cine and surgery he could procure. And yet early experiments. Sitting one evening he did not intend to devote himself to any at the tea-table with his aunt, Mrs. Muir- one of these departments of study; his head, she thus addressed him: “ James object was to increase the stores of a mind Watt! I never saw such an idle boy! take habitually intent on the acquisition of a book, or employ yourself usefully: for valuable knowledge, the last hour you have not spoken one

When about nineteen years of age, word, but taken off the lid of that kettle, Watt went to London, to place himself and put it on again ; holding now a cup, with a mathematical and nautical instruand now a silver spoon over the steam; ment maker, in Finch Lane, Cornhill, and watching how it rises from the spout, and while there, constructed with his own catching and connecting the drops it falls hands, those small and delicate, but beauinto. Are you not ashamed of spending tiful reflecting sextants, to which the art your time in this way?” Little did the of navigation owes its advancement. anxious aunt imagine that her idle little After passing a year in this employment, relative was making experiments on the he returned to Glasgow, where his encondensation of steam, and that by similar deavour to set up a workshop encountered inquiries he would hereafter earn an ex- some opposition; but this was overcome tensive and well-deserved celebrity. by the intervention of the University,

At an early period, Watt appears to who gave him a small room in their own have had remarkable powers of expression buildings, and the title of their matheas well as of thought. To give only one matical instrument maker.

There are proof of this, it may be stated that his still some instruments, it is said, of ex


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