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They search out iniquities;
On October 27, lord Monteagle sent to They accomplish a diligent search: Both the inward thought of every one of them, Cecil a letter he had received, which adand the heart, is deep.
vised Monteagle to be absent from the But God shall shoot at them with an arrow; Suddenly shall they be wounded.
parliament, as that assembly would reSo they shall make their own tongue to fall upon
ceive a terrible blow, and yet not see who themselves.
hurt them : a remarkable expression was And all men shall fear, and shall declare the work of God.-Psa. lxiv. 5-9.
added, “ the danger is past as soon as
you have burned the letter.” It appearThe cellar was hired in the name of ed that lord Monteagle had gone the Percy, and a quantity of gunpowder de- preceding evening to his country house posited there, under a heap of coals and at Hoxton, then some distance from Lonfire wood, which covered the barrels; and don, to sup there with his attendants, some articles of furniture were stowed in though this was not his usual custom. the vault.
While at his meal, a servant brought him The conspirators then separated, but the above-mentioned letter, which had during the summer further measures were just been left by a tall man, who instantly taken, by sending Fawkes to communi-disappeared in the darkness. Lord Montcate with the Spanish rulers in Flanders, eagle gave it to one of his gentlemen to and an agent to Rome, to procure aid for read aloud, and the next day took it to an insurrection, which was immediately the secretary of state. to follow the atrocious deed. These pro- On the same day, the gentleman who ceedings caused rumours, which were had read the letter, called upon Winter, communicated to Cecil from abroad; but knowing him to be active among the Rohe could not learn any particulars of the manists, and admonished him to take care precise nature of the design, in which the for his safety, if he had any design in active English Papists then seemed to be hand. Winter and Catesby conferred engaged.
with Tresham ; but were reassured, by Parliament was again prorogued to No- his answers to their questions, and by vember 5; the conspirators were alarmed Fawkes reporting that the secret marks at the farther delay; but Winter attended he had made on the door of the cellar the prorogation, and as the commissioners had not been disturbed: they fondly evidently were utterly unconscious of any hoped that the letter was too obscure to danger, they resolved to proceed. Their give the clue to their plot, and resolved to plan was now enlarged. A number of proceed, though Tresham evidently sought Romanists were to be collected by sir to alarm them, so that they might give Everard Digby in Warwickshire, under up the attempt, and seek safety in flight. pretence of a hunting match, and directly The king and the council examined the result of the explosion was known, the letter, when, by some means, James prince Charles and the princess Elizabeth, was led to express a suspicion, from the then in that neighbourhood, were to be sentence above quoted, that some exploseized, and a government formed in the sion, by gunpowder, was intended. Cecil, name of the prince. Tresham and several however, prevented any immediate search others were admitted into the conspiracy from being made, and the conspirators during the summer.
were thereby rendered secure. The final arrangements were made. On the evening of the 4th, the lord Fawkes, who had long been fixed upon to chamberlain, while examining the parliafire the train, was to leave the cellarinstantly ment house, entered the cellar. Fawkes after he had lighted it, and crossing the was there at the time, and represented river, was directly to embark in a vessel himself as the servant of Percy. The for Flanders, which was prepared for the lord chamberlain merely remarked upon purpose, that he might obtain military the large provision of fuel Percy appeared assistance from thence. It was also to have made, and went away. Fawkes agreed that some members of both houses told Percy what had passed, and returned should be prevented from attending the to watch in the cellar. fatal meeting. Some further hesitation About two o'clock in the morning of was shown by Tresham, who not only November 5, Fawkes went into the street, pleaded earnestly that his relative, lord where he was seized by a magistrate, who Monteagle, a moderate Papist, should be was waiting for the purpose, and on spared, but even urged that the explosion searching the cellar, the gunpowder was should be deferred to the end of the ses- discovered. He was immediatly carried sion.
before the council, and afterwards tortured to force a disclosure of his associates. The conspirators were executed amidst The leading conspirators hearing that the just execrations of the people, and the Fawkes was apprehended, took horse, nation at large called for stricter proceedand joined sir Everard Digby. But most ings against the followers and devotees of of those assembled for hunting dispersed, a faith, so dangerous and destructive to while the conspirators retired across the the rulers and to the people. But the country, endeavouring to gather asso- deep atrocity of the plot had not failed to ciates. Being pursued to Holbeach house, work upon the cowardice of James. He in Worcestershire, they were there taken. purposed to avoid the repetition of such Catesby, Percy, and the Wrights resisted acts by relaxing his severities against the till they were slain, some of the num- Romanists, and gave evident indications ber were disabled by an accidental explo- of this in his speech when the parliament sion of a part of their gunpowder. opened on November 9, when he did not
The ramifications of the plot were in- hesitate to reflect upon the Puritans as quired into. Search was made for the having principles still worse than the Jesuits. Gerard escaped to the continent; Papists! This fully showed the bent of but Garnet and Greenway were, after a the king's mind. We will not blame his long search, found concealed at Henlip, willingness to refrain from severities in Worcestershire, where they were se- which would amount to persecution for creted in a closet built in one of the chim- religion; but his conduct did not arise neys, for more than a week, while the from such a motive. officers abode in the house, searching for The particulars of this atrocious plot them; but hunger, and exhaustion from have been constantly impressed upon the confinement, at last obliged them to minds of English Protestants; but of late come forth. Garnet denied any know- years the Papists have made some bold ledge of the plot, excepting by way attempts to throw discredit upon the hisof confession; but this evidently was tory-some even daring to speak of it as equivocation, or at most he might choose a false plot of Cecil's! This has proved to receive as confession what another told beneficial, by producing a careful exhim as a direct communication. The amination of all the documents connected jesuitical, or popish doctrine of equivoca- with the design, and the disclosures give tion was fully exposed in the course irrefragable evidence against the prinof the examination. Tresham died in ciples and the practices of popery. Some prison, and before his death, retracted his particulars kept back at the time, from confession, and declared that he did not policy, have been disclosed, especially as know Garnet. Garnet had, however, ad- to the way in which it was found out. mitted his knowledge of Tresham, and There now is little doubt but it was by being asked to explain, said that Tresham Tresham's alarm, when the time for exeprobably meant “to equivocate,” and cuting the deed approached; and there did not hesitate to state, « that the speech is strong reason to apprehend that Lord by equivocation, being saved from a lie, Monteagle had some information, if not the same speech may be without perjury some guilty knowledge of the plot, and confirmed by oath, or by any other usual that the letter, and its being received, way, though it were by receiving the were planned with his knowledge. If so, sacrament, if just necessity so require.” how much more commendable the conUpon this no lengthened remark need to duct of the peer than that of the Jesuit be made. Even the modern Romish histo- priest, though not free from duplicity. rian, skilful as he is in the arts of pallia- When the parliament assembled in tion, and even equivocation, is obliged to January, 1606, the members showed their admit that “the man who maintained abhorrence of the late treasonable plot, such opinions could not reasonably com- by directing that the 5th of November plain if the king refused credit to his as- should be observed as a day of public severations of innocence, and permitted
cate others whose names were kept back. the law to take its course.
are noticed in some recent works on the subject, der and treason are said to be lawful; but particularly in volume two of Criminal Trials by the Bible declares the reverse in every
Jardine. The statement, therein given, is very full
and important, and cannot be objected to as parpage.*
tial: the writer investigates the gunpowder plot
merely as a legal question, and does not fully expose A disclosure of the plot was published at that the principles of Popery. The latter has been done time by authority, and the trial of the conspirators by Lathbury and others; and in the Visitor for last is in the State Trials; but reference to the original year, will be found a full account of this con. examinations, and other documents, has shown spiracy, to which the reader's attention is directed : that matters were suppressed which might impli- | only a brief sketch could be given in this place.
thanksgiving; and severe enactments | arbitrary disposition and foolish predilecwere made against Popery. They were tion for favourites, were both strengthtoo rigorous to be generally or strictly ened by this opposition, and also tended enforced; but the violent proceedings of to excite it further. the Papists, and their avowed designs The king's choice of favourites was against all Protestants, led to these mea- among the greatest evils of his reign, and
The king, as already stated, did did much to alienate his subjects. After not enforce them: one result of this was, his accession to the throne of England, to attach the Romanists to the crown, in the first he selected was Philip Herbert, opposition to the parliament.
brother of the earl of Pembroke. Herbert A large supply, yet hardly meeting the was far less obnoxious than his successor, royal debts, was voted to the king by this and the sums lavished on him, though parliament, amounting to nearly half a large, were less considerable in their million ; but a desire was also shown to amount. procure the redress of grievances. Against The king's love of pleasure was also this James endeavoured to guard when marked. He spent whole days in huntthe parliament re-assembled in Novem-ing, and concluded them by excesses at ber, by high assertions about his prero- the table, refusing to give regular attengative, and by cautioning the House of tion to the business of state. The salary Commons to repress any member who of the officer who looked after his fightmight be disposed to enter upon such ing cocks, was two hundred pounds, equal questions.
One of the first measures to that assigned to the secretaries of state. brought under consideration, was the The queen also indulged in expensive union with Scotland; this was opposed, masques and revels; and on a visit from and withdrawn by the king's consent. But her brother, the king of Denmark, in the an important point connected with this summer of 1607, the whole court exsubject, was brought forward in another hibited disgusting scenes of excess and
The question of naturalization riot. Harrington describes one of these was submitted to the decision of the allegorical exhibitions, when the person courts of law, which solemnly decided, representing the queen of Sheba, and that all persons born as subjects to the also the king of Denmark, were both so crown of England, were entitled to the drunk, that, on attempting to dance, they same privileges wherever its dominion rolled on the floor together. Hope was extended : this placed all who were born too much intoxicated to speak her part ; after the accession of James to the Eng- Faith was hardly able to stagger out of lish throne, on the same footing, whether the room; Victory was overcome with natives of England or Scotland. This liquor, and fell asleep; while Peace, in a decision was not pronounced till 1608; similar state, “rudely made war with her but the unpleasant feelings to which the olive branch, and laid on the pates of discussion gave rise, caused James again those who did oppose her coming." He to close the session of parliament, and to adds, “ The lord of the mansion is overresort to various expedients for raising whelmed in preparations at Theobald's, money, all of which tended to alienate and doth marvellously please both kings those who had to advance it, particularly with good meat, good drink, and good levying duties or imposts by the royal speeches. I do often say, but not aloud, authority alone. Cecil found his office that the Danes have again conquered the far more burdensome than under queen Britons; for I see no man or woman either Elizabeth, though he was allowed to ex- that can now command himself or herercise greater power. He spoke in strong self.” terms to Harrington of the difference. Conduct so diametrically opposed to
The profuseness of James contrasted the precepts of Him who declares, “ By very unfavourably with the care of his me kings reign and princes decree juspredecessor, who seldom troubled her tice,” could not bring down a blessing subjects for money. Thereby she pre- upon this monarch or his successors. vented those discussions to which such ap- The policy and principles of James plications gave rise, and which, by causing were further shown, by his seeking the examination into many matters, tended marriage of his son, prince Henry, with a to limit the power of the crown. He Spanish princess. For one situated as also thereby lost much of the advantage James had always been, and now the of his pacific disposition ; and as causes king of England, to form a family union and effects re-act upon each other, so his with a bigoted Papist, plainly manifested
that his affections were set upon the tinent, was the acknowledgment of the things of this world.
independence of the United Provinces, A few passing events require to be to which the king of Spain was commentioned. The inclosure of waste lands, pelled reluctantly to consent in 1609. caused by the improvement of agricul- This event, so favourable to Protestantture, and the increase of population, ex-, ism, was soon followed by another, which cited partial insurrections in some of the exhibited the fruits of Popish principles midland counties. The excesses
-the assassination of Henry ., by Rachiefly the levelling of the newly erected villiac, at the instigation of the Jesuits, fences; the mobs were speedily dispersed, notwithstanding that prince had outwardand the ringleader hanged. The Dutch ly conformed to Popery. consented to pay a yearly sum as an ac- King James's need of money led to the knowledgment for permission to fish on re-assembling of parliament in February, the coasts of England. The necessities 1610. Some measures of a conciliatory of the king disposed him to snatch at any description were adopted, by way of prepecuniary benefit, or he would have seen paration, Several members, who had that to disburse an equal sum to en- been excluded from the office of justice courage the fisheries of his own subjects, of the peace for their disposition to inwould have been far more beneficial to quire into grievances, were him in the result. A like feeling, pro- placed; and, in his speech, the king bably, was the actuating principle in even invited the Commons to state their another important commercial measure, grievances. He appears to have been, in the renewal of the charter of the East some degree, sincere in his professions of India company, and in allowing a scheme a desire to conciliate the people : his nefor settling colonies of English Protes- cessities had taught him that this must tants on the forfeited estates and lands be done ; for he applied for six hundred lying waste in the north of Ireland. The thousand pounds to meet his exigencies, superior condition of the province of and a regular increase of revenue of Ulster at the present day, compared with two hundred thousand pounds. It would the rest of Ireland, shows that still more have been well had this disposition been important benefits would have resulted, met promptly nd yet firmly, by suphad this measure been fully carried into plying the king with what was really effect, and in a right spirit. Colonies necessary, and by requiring beneficial
also sent to North America ; measures in return. Such a course might these will require special notice. Hud- have saved the property of thousands, son's Bay was discovered in 1600. and the temporary subversion of the mo
Considerable alarm was excited at the narchy; but the iniquities of the land increase of buildings in London ; a pro- required chastisement, and bring to our clamation forbade any to be erected, on minds the threatenings so repeatedly given new foundations, within two miles of the by the Lord to Israel of old, “Because metropolis. At that period, the city was they had not executed my judgments, densely peopled, and the state of the but had despised my statutes, and had habitations caused the plague to be al- polluted my sabbaths, and their eyes were ways lurking in some corner. In the after their fathers' idols,” Ezek. xx. 24. first two years of this reign nearly seventy Many passages referring to the national thousand persons died of the plague in sins of God's ancient people, might well the city. One important measure for the be applied to the guilt and the vices which health and comfort of the metropolis, then prevailed in England. “They have was begun in 1609, and finished in 1613; erred through wine, and through strong the bringing a supply of pure water from drink are out of the way.-Wherefore Hertfordshire to the north of London, by hear the word of the Lord, ye scorna canal called the New River. Sir Hugh ful men, that rule this people.--The hail Middleton, the projector, sunk his whole shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and fortune in the enterprize, which was at the waters shall overflow the hiding last finished by the help of the king. place,” Isa. xxviii. May not these truths James also engaged in some public build-afford a useful lesson now? ings at Whitehall and elsewhere; a plan was devised for establishing a college for Lord, when thy judgments shake the land, learned men, and Chelsea college was
Thy people's eyes are fixed on thee;
And own thy just uplifted hand, set apart for that purpose.
Which thousands cannot, will not see. The most important event on the con
THE PREACHING OF THE CROSS.
any steady complacency in a character The preaching of the cross is the power which appears to be our inflexible and of God to salvation, inasmuch as it is that determined enemy. It is necessary that doctrine alone which lays a firm and solid the conscience should be in some degree foundation for
peace of conscience,-for a pacified, before a cheerful obedience is peace
of conscience in a man awakened rendered, and this only the cross of Christ to a sense of his extreme danger. The inspires. Men attempt in the first ingreat use of conviction of sin is to pre- stance to seek peace in other quarters; pare the mind for the reception of mercy; they endeavour to reform what is amiss; it is the harrow that turns up the fallow they subject themselves to stricter regulaground, and alone fits it to receive the tions; they multiply the rules of watchgood seed.
If it terminated merely in fulness, and of temperance and sobriety; despondency, or any of those efforts which they subject themselves, particularly in the anxiety of the human conscience might certain countries, to great severities;
but produce, and did not lead the man to de- still the sense of guilt returns, and all pend on the promise of the Divine pardon, with which they attempt to cover themit would be all unavailing. But while selves, and all the shreds by which they the cross of Christ is the most calculated endeavour to conceal themselves, will not to produce serious alarm, and to excite ayail : they have nothing to shut out the men to flee from the wrath to come, it is surges of Divine wrath ; the bed is too the most adapted to give them true peace short for them to stretch themselves upon in believing. We are informed by St. it. They then have recourse to resoluPaul, that the blood of Christ has this tions of future time, hoping they shall be effect in a far more perfect manner than able to make some atonement by a more the sacrifices of the law had in the re- correct deportment; but, if the law comes, moval of outward pollutions; “If the in its purity and extent, they find all this blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes is vain; that it demands nothing short of of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanc- perfect obedience; that the penalty has tifieth to the purifying of the flesh: how been incurred; that the wrath of God much more shall the blood of Christ, who has been excited; that they are already through the eternal Spirit offered himself in condemnation; that the sentence has without spot to God, purge your con- already past; that they are already conscience from dead works to serve the demned, and that they are only waiting, living God?” It is the blood of Christ if the Divine proceedings go on in their that purges the conscience, and the de- usual course, for the season of retribusign is that we may serve the living tion ; that they are shut up, they cannot and true God; but we cannot serve God | escape. But no sooner are they enabled, until the conscience is first purged; as in
consequence of the despair of any the ceremonial disqualifications must be other remedy, and as they find no other removed from the Jews before they could resource, to look to the blood of Christ, approach the Divine Being, so a hope of as cleansing from all sin, than there Divine favour and mercy must be felt they find a solid ground of hope ; there before we can devote ourselves to the the conflict is at an end; and they see service of the great Supreme. The author that they have nothing to do, but humbly of the epistle to the Hebrews exhorts us, to receive reconciliation. Peace with God
Having therefore, brethren, boldness to has been made, justice has been satisfied, enter into the holiest by the blood of and only waits to see the sinner confessing Jesus, by a new and living way, which he his sins over the head of that victim, and hath consecrated for us, through the veil, asking for mercy in that name. that is to say, his flesh; and having an Robert Hall. High Priest over the house of God; let us draw near.” And the way in which we are to draw near, is “having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience.” It is the blood of Christ that takes away
ROME, AND OTHER PLACES. that condemning sense of the law, that My last perambulation was an ideal horror arising from a sense of guilt, with- one. Seated by the fire on a gloomy day, out the removal of which we can take no with the map of Europe before me, I steady complacency in the character of rambled, as fancy led, through some of God; for, however lovely the Divine the cities of far-famed Italy, making Being may be in himself, we cannot take such remarks as memory and reflection