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From land to land
The ancient thrones of Christendom are stuff



preacher of the fifth crusade. This man in the rescue of the Holy Land from the equalled Peter the hermit in the ardour Moslems, their conquests over the Greeks of his address, and Bernard in ora- had an indirect influence in promoting torical talents. He was aided in his at- | the welfare of the Christians in Palestempts to raise an army by pope Innocent tine. The Mussulmans were alarmed at 111., and the call of the church was even- their power, and Saphadin gladly contually listened to with a ready obedience. cluded a truce for six years, which was

France and the Low Countries chiefly the chief result of this enterprise, as resupplied the force which composed the pects the Holy Land. A.D. 1206. armies of the fifth crusade. But the crusaders turned aside from the path leading to Jerusalem. Venice had undertaken to convey the armies into Asia, For occupation of a magic wand, and Arrigo Dandolo, an old man of up

And 'tis the pope that wields it. wards of ninety years of age, who had almost lost his sight, and who was doge The sound of war was not long hushed of Venice, was the soul of the enter- to peace. The armies of the cross and prise. Arrigo Dandolo, however, saw the crescent met again on the more deeply than most of his contempo- fields of Palestine. Where the feet of raries into political intrigues, and he per- the Redeemer of mankind had walked, suaded the crusaders to conquer Zara, a where he had published peace and salDalmatian city, for the Venetians. After vation to a guilty world, there superstithis exploit, they entered into a treaty with tion and infidelity again raised the war young Alexis Commenus, for restoring cry—again strove for empire. his father to the throne of Constantinople, Before the truce with Saphadin had and finally, they seized upon the Greek expired, Mary, the daughter of Isabella, empire for themselves, and placed one of by Conrad of Tyre, was acknowledged their captains, Baldwin, count of Flan- queen of Jerusalem, and Philip Augustus ders, upon the throne.

of France brought about her marriage The crusaders, to escape the bann of with John de Brienne, who was held in the pope, for the non-fulfilment of their high estimation among the knights of enterprise, sent him a letter, stating that Europe, both for his wisdom in council they apprehended so great a multitude and experience in war. The hopes of would be burdensome to the Holy Land; the Christians in Palestine were so exthat they thought it expedient to settle alted by this union, that they refused to the disquiets that existed in Constantino- prolong the truce with Saphadin, upon ple, in order to secure for themselves which the Sultan marched an army to the necessary supplies and assistance for the neighbourhood of Tripoli, and threatfuture proceedings; extolling the riches ened hostilities. John de Brienne opof Constantinople, and the fertility of the posed the Moslem with great bravery, country which they were led to appropri- and saved his states from the annihilaate to themselves; and finally, they con- tion with which they were threatened ; cluded with entreating his holiness to but he foresaw the future overthrow of

cil at Constantinople, as his the Christian kingdom in Palestine, and predecessors had done in ancient times. appealed to Rome for succour.

Pope Innocent knew too well what be- Honorius 11., who had succeeded to longed to the pontifical character not to pope Innocent, did not lightly regard this publish the bann against the crusaders, appeal. Bent on a crusade, he sent his who, instead of conquering the infidels, commands to every European sovereign. deposed those called Christian princes; He forbade the king of France to aid his but, in considering the circumstances, as son in the conquest of England, threathe said, he again absolved them. Heened the king of Scotland if he wavered saw, in truth, that the capture of Con- in his allegiance to the English crown, stantinople promised greater advantages summoned the Greek emperor of Thessathan any victory over the Mohammedans lonica to liberate his prisoners, and recould confer; for it opened a way to the quired both the king of Arragon, and establishment of the supremacy of the the young count of Toulouse to purchase Romish see over the churches of the East. a reconciliation with the church by aiding Innocent, however, declined visiting Con- against the Saracens. stantinople.

Nor was an appeal to the conscience Notwithstanding the French had failed overlooked. Honorius reminded the

hold a


several monarchs that the time was come irregularities. Wandering over the counwhen a successful effort might be made try, they committed the greatest enormito rescue Palestine out of the hands of ties, and were cut off in parties by the the infidel, and that, while those who suffering and incensed inhabitants. The should fight faithfully under the banners king of Hungary, moreover, was so disof the cross would obtain a crown of gusted with the campaign, that he reglory, such as refused to enlist under fused to remain in Palestine; and the those banners would be subjected to consequence of this defection was, that everlasting torments.

the king of Jerusalem, the duke of AusIt is remarkable that Honorius used tria, and the master of the hospitallers one argument in favour of the crusades took up a defensive position on the plain which has been often urged by Protest-of Cesarea; while the Templar and Teuant writers against his own church. tonic knights seized upon Mount Carmel, The Mohammedan heresy,” said he, where they surrounded themselves with “ the Beast foretold by the Spirit, will fortifications for fear of the Saracens. not live for ever; its age is 666." He During the next spring, their fears concluded with an assurance that the were relieved by the arrival of a reinSaviour would condemn those for gross forcement of crusaders from the upper ingratitude and infidelity, who neglected parts of Germany. The chiefs of the to march to his succour, at a time when crusades, however, now resolved to withhe was in danger of being driven from draw their troops from Palestine, and to the kingdom which he had purchased carry on the war in Egypt. with his blood.

Damietta was the first object of atThis crusade was preached by Robert tack, and the castle or fortress, which de Courcon, whose fanaticism_was was supposed to command the town, soon fervid as that of the hermit and Foulkes; fell into their hands. In the mean time, but whose eloquence fell short of both. some of the best soldiery of Europe apDe Courcon invited all to assume the peared at the mouth of the Nile, to aid cross, and enrolled among the list of them in their operations. Italy sent thiadventurers in this enterprise, men, ther her choicest soldiers, under the women, and children, and even the old, legates Pelagius and de Courcon; France the blind, the lame, and the diseased. sent her valiant sons, under the counts The multitude of crusaders was very of Nevers and Le March, the archbishop great, and the offerings of money_to of Bourdeaux, the bishops of Meaux, carry on the war were immense. The Autun, and Paris; while England sent crusade was sanctioned by the emperor her chivalrous troops under the celebrated of Constantinople, the kings of France, warriors, the earls of Arundel, Chester, England, Hungary, Jerusalem, Arragon, and Salisbury. and other countries, who, by their repre

The loss of Damietta now appeared insentatives in the council of Lateran, de evitable, and Khamel, the sultan of Syria, clared war against the infidels, and pro- apprehensive that the crusaders would nounced it to be the sacred duty of Chris- advance to Jerusalem, issued orders to tendom to take up arms against them. destroy the fortifications, to prevent its As an attraction, the usual privileges, dis- retention as a place of defence. At the pensations, and indulgences, were grant- same time, the Saracen leaders proposed ed to the crusaders, and Honorius con- terms of peace. They offered to rebuild tributed thirty thousand pounds towards the walls of Jerusalem, and to liberate all defraying the expenses.

the prisoners in Syria and Egypt. They At the period of the arrival of the proposed, also, to retain only the castles crusaders in Asia (A.D. 1216) the sons

of Karac and Monetreale as necessary for of Saphadin were at the head of affairs the safe passage of pilgrims and merin Syria, their father having retired from chants in their intercourse with Mecca; the fatigues of royalty. They chiefly while, as an equivalent for these conconsisted of Hungarians and the soldiers cessions, they only required the immeof Lower Germany. They landed at diate evacuation of Egypt. Acre. Although unprepared to encounter Success had made the crusaders arroso formidable a force, the Saracen chiefs gant. They refused to listen to terms of advanced to Naplosa, the ancient She- peace, however advantageous to their chem. It required, however, but a small cause, and resolved to prosecute the siege force to resist the crusaders. They were with vigour. Damietta was

taken by already, indeed, half conquered by their them after they had besieged it for a year and a half, and they found only Mediterranean. It was but a dream.. A three inhabitants out of the seventy few months' campaign on the shores of thousand they had originally shut up the Nile dispersed their visions of future within the town : so resolute had been conquest. They were reduced to the netheir defence, so devoted their patriot- cessity of asking permission to return ism. A.D. 1218.

into Palestine, and to purchase their A treaty of peace was again proposed safety by giving up all their acquisitions by the Saracen chiefs, and again scorn- in Egypt. On their arrival in Palestine, fully refused by the crusaders. Depend the barons of Syria and the military ing on their prowess, they resolved on an orders retired to Acre, where they awaitimmediate attack upon Grand Cairo, and ed an attack from the enraged Saracens, they dreamed of reducing the whole of and the crusaders returned into Europe. Egypt, and finally, of subjecting all the The Holy Land was still possessed by the Mohammedan states on the shores of the Moslems !

E. F.

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not only been educated with the same

high ideas of his personal prerogative; CHARLES 1. succeeded his father as but possessed a firmness of temper, monarch of Great Britain, March 27, strengthened by the warmth natural to 1625, being then twenty-four years old. youth, which rendered him still more If the reader calls to mind the principal likely, than his father, to come into colcircumstances of the late reign, he will | lision with his subjects, while his superior be aware that king James left no easy regard to moral character gave him intask to his successor. The crown was creased influence. pressed with debts, and in need of pecu- There was not that change in the meaniary supplies, which the parliament was sures of government which is usual at unwilling to grant; the people, and the the beginning of a new reign. The duke leaders in parliament, desired the removal of Buckingham possessed the full confidof abuses, with the confirmation of cer- ence of the new monarch, and had still tain privileges which the late king was greater influence over him than over his unwilling to bestow. His successor had father. The course of policy pursued


was the same as in the late reign : thus to / marriage, had secretly engaged to tolergratify the favourite, Charles burdened ate those who professed Popery in his himself with a Spanish war, which all dominions. It then proceeded against matters, both at home and abroad, ren- Dr. Montague, who had avowed the docdered it desirable for him to avoid. trines already noticed, in a manner which

One of the earliest measures was to the parliament thought was a contempt conclude the marriage of the king with of the house. As to money, only a small the nch princess, Henrietta Maria. grant was made, wholly inadequate to The union was solemnized at Paris, by the expense of the war entered into by proxy, early in May; but the new queen desire of the late parliament; and the did not arrive in London till the iniddle customs and duties on merchandize were of June, when public ceremonies were only voted for a year, instead of for life : prevented by one of the plagues then fre- this was a departure from the usual quent in the metropolis. More than forty course, and justly resented by the king. thousand died of pestilence during the Although the commerce of England was year, in London, besides twenty thousand at that time in its infancy, as appears by carried off by other diseases—a large pro- the annexed representation of the Lonportion of the inhabitants.

don custom house as it then stood, the On June 18, the parliament assembled, duties on exports and imports formed a when the king called attention to his considerable part of the royal revenue, pecuniary wants; as, in addition to the About 200,0001. per annum were received debts of the late king, and the present from the whole kingdom, more than one expenses of the court, money was needed half of which was collected in the port of to carry on the war with Spain. But the London. opponents of the court in the House of In July, the increase of the plague Commons had become a regular and ac- caused the parliament to be adjourned tive body, and were seriously alarmed re- to Oxford, where angry debates ensued. specting Popery; for, in addition to the The king was charged with dissiincreased danger arising from a marriage mulation in having pardoned Romish with a princess of that religion, many of priests, after promising to enforce the the clergy, most in favour, did not hesi- penal laws; the parliament was charged tate to avow tenets, and to countenance with breaking the pledge given to supproceedings, which, in many respects, port a war with Spain. Buckingham inwere opposed to those of the English terfered, but brought down personal atReformers of the preceding century, so tacks on his own conduct, and the king as to be at variance with the literal state- dissolved the parliament to prevent the ments of the Articles and Homilies of impeachment of his favourite. In the the English church, and which, if follow-whole, sums amounting to half a million ed out to their full results, must lead to were granted by this parliament; one Popery itself. This alarm evidently was reason for not giving more, seems to the national feeling, and did not arise have been an apprehension that the from a factious spirit

, as probably some grants might be applied to assist the other proceedings did. The events of the French king against his Protestant sublast century, in Europe, had led to a de- jects. This feeling was much strengthcided horror of Popery, wherever that ened by the following occurrence, The faith was

not the dominant religion. king of France being engaged in hostiliThose actuated only by worldly motives, ties with that important class of his subsaw its hostility to all improvement and jects, required from England and Holfreedom, whether mental or corporeal; land the aid promised by treaty. Seven those who knew the importance of true English merchant vessels were pressed, religion, regarded Popery as destructive and sent with a ship of war, under the to the soul, and both classes considered command of admiral Pennington, to join any probability of a return to Popery as the French fleet. The sailors undera national evil. Under these feelings, standing that they were to act against one of the first steps of the House of their fellow Protestants, refused to obey; Commons was to petition the king to they twice returned to England. At last enforce the laws against the Popish recu- the admiral was required to enforcę obesants, and the seminarist missionaries se- dience, and to give up the ships to the cretly at work in England. Nothing could French. He executed his orders ; but one be less welcome to Charles, who, at his vessel was brought back to England, and the crews of the others abandoned them, with the French Protestants followed, declaring they would rather be hanged and he promised to assist the war for the than engage in such a service; the ships recovery of the Palatinate. were retained, and employed by the In February, 1626, the king was French against Rochelle.

crowned, after which the second parCharles carried on hostilities against liament of this reign met. Charles had Spain with the activity of youth, and the contrived that some of Buckingham's firmness which was his natural tempera- most active opponents should be exment. The increase of his expenditure cluded, by nominating them for sheriffs, thus incurred, made him more depend which rendered them ineligible for sitent on his parliament, and added to the ting in the House of Commons. The probability of collision with the legisla- prevalence of feelings adverse to the tive body. He was not then aware court, was at once shown, by appointing how much he thereby endangered his committees for matters relative to relipower. The fitting out an expedition gion, grievances, and the causes and rewas hastened, while money was raised medies for evils. The prevalence of by loan, and on every pretext that could Popery, and the secret advance of princibe resorted to. In October, a fleet and ples nearly allied thereto, engaged the army sailed to attack Cadiz ; but after attention of the first. Another attack an ineffectual attempt, the expedition was made upon Dr. Montague, who had returned in December, having lost many openly shown his desire to palliate the of the troops by disease. Buckingham errors of Rome, and to admit the authoproceeded to the continent to borrow rity of that church. Laud entreated the money in Holland on the crown jewels, king to interpose in his favour; but the and to negotiate treaties with the United king declined to do so. The second comProvinces and Denmark, for assistance in mittee pointed out sixteen abuses, partirecovering the Palatinate. But he was cularly that of purveying or taking proforbidden to go to Paris, where, notwith visions for the royal household, at fixed standing the marriage, an unfriendly and unfair prices, within sixty miles of the feeling towards England prevailed, in- court; and complained that the customs creased by the proceedings of the French and duties were collected without the aurulers towards their Protestant subjects, thority of parliament. The king urged whom the English nation desired to sup- the grant of a supply, the parliament deport; and by the popular feeling having manded his promise to redress grievances; compelled the king to enforce more but the firmness and threats of Charles strictly the laws against the Romanists. He obtained the vote of a subsidy : in the was the less averse to do this, on account interim, the House of Commons resolved of the annoying conduct of the priests to impeach the duke of Buckingham. and French attendants of the queen, who A dispute with the House of Lords folendeavoured to disgust her with England. lowed. The king availed himself of the Among other unseemly acts, they had marriage of lord Maltravers without the caused her to walk to Tyburn, to honour, royal licence, to imprison lord Arundel, by such a penance, the memory of the father of that peer, and thus prevent his Romish priests who had been there ex- acting against Buckingham. The lords ecuted as traitors. At length, the king demanded his release, when the king was was roused; acting with decision, in the forced to comply, and also to allow the year following the marriage, he sent away attendance in parliament of the earl of nearly the whole of the queen’s French Bristol, who immediately exhibited artiattendants, and formed another house-cles of accusation against Buckingham, hold for her. This tended to restore har- which were met by an attempt to silence mony; after which, the queen soon ac

charge of high treason. The quired and exerted influence over the House of Lords, however, resolved that king. The conduct of those dismissed each should be heard. The charges was ludicrous and disgraceful; they plun- against Buckingham related to his con

red the queen's wardrobe, and left her duct in regard to the Spanish match, absolutely destitute of common clothing. which, it was alleged, failed from his

Sir Dudley Carleton was sent ambassa- moral and political misconduct. The dor to France, with power to use a tone charge against Bristol was founded on decisive and favourable to the Protestant allegations respecting his conduct in the interest. Richelieu gave way ; peace

same matter, which were satisfactorily

him on

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