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The little band of exiles took different exclaims : “GRAVE CONCERNS TO-MORroads, entered the city unobserved, and row.” Reader, are you a glutton ? If met safely in the house of Charon, a re- so, you may have so wantonly ministered solute partisan, where they were joined by to the flesh, that it may reap corrupothers, until the whole number amounted tion before “ to-morrow.” to forty-eight. They had not been long The man of pleasure is affectionately assembled, however, before they were advised to moderate his desires for the threatened with danger. A message things this world, and to set his came from Archias to summon Charon affections on things above, and as his into his presence. It seemed that the eyes rove upon his visions of earthly plot was discovered; but Archias had bliss, he joins the common cry: " GRAVE only heard that some of the exiles were CONCERNS To-Morrow." Reader, are you concealed in the city, and he had sent a man of pleasure? If so, remember that for Charon, without any suspicion, to your eyes may be closed upon all that is make inquiries on the subject. Charon dear to you in this world before the sundenied any knowledge of the circum- rise of " to-morrow.” stance, and Archias and Philippas, who The rich man who has long been saywere at the banquet of Phyllidas, were ing to his soul : “ Soul, thou hast much too much heated with wine to think se- goods laid up for many years; take thine riously of danger. Soon after, ed, a ease, eat, drin and be merry,” is cauletter was brought to Archias from an tioned to think of the day when he must Athenian of the same name, who was at part with his treasures, and to prepare this time hierophant, the appointed in- for his latter end; and as he looks upon tepreter of mysteries, communicating to his coffers and overflowing barns, pleased him the details of the plot; and though at the goodly prospect, he joins the unithe bearer conjured him to read this versal cry:
GRAVE CONCERNS TO-MORletter, inasmuch as it unfolded some Row." Reader, are you a worldly-minded grave concerns, Archias, heated and rich man? If so, this very night thy stupified by his debauch, laid it aside soul may be required. unopened, exclaiming: “GRAVE CON- The man who has reached his threeCERNS TO-Morrow;” and expressed his score years and ten, is earnestly entreated desire for the appearance of the Theban to spend the remnant of his life in pre
paring for that dread eternity into which This was the moment chosen for at- it is certain he must soon enter; and, tacking him. Mellon, and a few of his strange to say, although one foot is alcompanions, were at the door in disguise ready in the grave, he exclaims, also, as women or revellers, and Phyllidas ad- “GRAVE CONCERNS TO-MORROW.” Reader, mitting them, after a brief struggle, they are you an aged man? If so, we say dispatched Archias, Philippas, and the to you with tenfold earnestness, you may other guests. Thebes was finally rescued be numbered among the dead to-morfrom the power of the Spartans by the row.” conspirators.
The middle-aged are told of the unHow much does the conduct of Archias certainty of life, and are exhorted to resemble that of the world at large at the prepare for death; but as they cast their present day. The drunkard is cautioned eyes upon their vigorous frame, which to think seriously of his doings, because seems built for some thirty years to come, the word of God declares that no drunk- reckoning in full confidence upon walkard shall inherit the kingdom of heaven, ing the earth during that period, they de(1 Cor. vi. 10;) and he laughingly replies: spise the exhortation, and say, “GRAVE " GRAVE CONCERNS TO-MORROW. Reader, CONCERNS TO-MORROW!” Reader, have are you a drunkard ? If you are, remem- you attained the age of full-blown ber that “to-morrow may never dawn strength? If you have, although your upon you.
bones may be full of marrow, the stroke
of death may yet cut you down, and you The drunkard is a vessel weakly mann'd, That's wrecked and cast away upon dry land."
may never see “to-morrow.”
The young are affectionately entreated The glutton is warned of the results of to consider, that though they are in the his gluttonous delights, disease and death, morning of life, they are not too young and bade to prepare for his latter end; to die; that they may be cut down as and as he looks over the dainties spread a flower; and with a countenance full with a lavish hand upon his board, he of joy, they likewise exclaim,
PROV. xxvii. 1.
CONCERNS TO-MORROW." Reader, are you parts of Italy ancient frescoes have been young in years? If so, look at the names brought to light, and Vasari says, that and ages recorded on tomb-stones, and such was the beauty and freshness of consider that you may be numbered the baths of Titus, when first opened, among the dead before " to-morrow." that Raffaelle and Giovanni da Udine,
To whatever class of character you who had come to see them, remained for may belong, and of whatever age you some time transfixed with amazement. may be, into whose hands these lines may Among the advantages of fresco for fall, oh remember the words of the wise mural decoration are, the absence of glare,
with exceeding purity and freshness of “ Boast not thyself of to-morrow,
colour. Fresco, reflecting instead of abFor thou knowest not what a day may bring forth.” sorbing light, renders it particularly
beautiful by candlelight, though its bland Let these kints be as a letter to warn you mellowness of tone is at all times very of the danger of delay in the matter of charming. salvation. Throw it not aside as Archias By the practice of this admirable mode did, unheeded, and with the exclamation, of painting, the artist will soon lay aside “Grave CONCERNS TO-MORROW.” Lay the lesser excellences required in oil, as its warnings to heart, for you may never they would not be called for, and indeed know “to-morrow.” Like as Archias was, cannot be exercised in it; the firmness so you may be summoned away from of touch and celerity necessary for comearth, and all you love, suddenly. Even pleting the part prepared for the day, now, Death may be standing at your with a constant reference to the effect of door, ready to execute his fearful work. the whole, will prove to the painter that St. James saith emphatically, “Go to more beauty is caused by simple colour, now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow more grandeur by preserving the flow of we will go into such a city, and con- outline, the vigour and general character tinue there a year, and buy and sell, and of the subject, than by attending to tints, get gain : whereas ye know not what shall glazings, and all the intricacies of oil. be on the morrow. For what is your life? Local colour should remain unbroken by It is even a vapour, that appeareth for a various hues; and the chiaro-scuro in little time, and then vanisheth away,” fresco seems amply to supply the want Jas. iv. 13, 14. Prepare then to meet of variety of tints. To manage fresco thy God!“ Behold, now is the accepted well
, requires a practice in the large,
the worldling gives the reins to his mind,
He that is but half a Christian, lives but We learn from Mr. Latilla that fresco, miserably; for he neither enjoyeth God (so called from its being painted on a nor the world: not God, because he prepared stucco while fresh plastered and hath not grace enough to make him his wet,) is the most masterly of all modes own; not the world, because he hath for mural adornment. The Greeks intro- some taste of grace, enough to show him duced it among the Romans, and most the vanity and sin of his pleasures. So of the ancient frescoes and encaustics the sound Christian hath his heaven were the work of the former, as those of above, the worldling here below, the unPompeii and Herculaneum.' In various settled Christian nowhere.- Bishop Hall.
THE JOY OF A CHRISTIAN.
tility of the Puritans, began to think of
a re-union with the see of Rome, as the The determination of Charles to pro- best safeguard for the church of Engceed in the course upon which he had land. Of this number were Windebank, entered, was shown immediately after his Cottington, Goodman, bishop of Gloucesreturn from Scotland, by appointing Laud ter, and Montagu, bishop of Chichester. to succeed Abbot, as archbishop of Can- The latter conferred three times with the terbury. Laud has recorded, that on the Italian on the subject, and assured him same day he had the offer from an autho- that the English clergy would not refuse rized party to be made a cardinal. He de- to the pope a supremacy, purely spiritual, clined, but evidently had not the reluctance such as was admitted by the French which any ecclesiastic really attached to romanists; that among the prelates, three the Reformation would have felt. About only, those of Durham, Salisbury, and this time, the king and his advisers gave Exeter, would object; and that Laud, cause for new suspicions of their sincer- though he was too timid and too cautious ity, by sending an envoy to Rome, as
to commit himself by an open avowal, from the queen, and allowing three ac- was in reality desirous of such an union. credited agents of the pope to reside in
In 1632, the reading of the Book of London, in succession, tisl 1610. This Sports was again commanded; this was request for the cardinal's hat for Laud done to discountenance the proceedings seems to have originated with the queen, of two judges on the western circuit, who whose priests were afterwards sent to the had given force to some measures for the pope's nuncio, at Paris, where the latter better outward observance of the Lord'sspoke highly in praise of Laud, and of his day. Such a measure was distasteful to willingness to show favour to the papists. Laud and the court, as savouring of puriThe following statement of the modern tanism; but they forgot the especial Romish historian of England, is import- blessings promised to nations and public ant. He says that Panazani, the second bodies, as well as to individuals, who keep of the three agents, from Rome, in De- the Sabbath ; and surely their opposition cember, 1634, was received graciously by led to increased profaneness, and added the queen, and assured through secretary to the national guilt. This recalls to Windebank, that he might remain in mind the description of Judah, given by safety. From his despatches, it appears the prophet, “She obeyed not the voice; that among the most zealous churchmen, she received not correction ; she trusted there were some who, alarmed at the in- | not in the Lord; she drew not near to creasing numbers, and persevering hos-her God. Her princes within her are
roaring lions; her judges are evening would have regarded the efforts of Bible,
the celebration of Divine worship, so that Laud evidently was determined to put all might unite therein, but rather that down all true and vital religion, if it savour- especial facilities might be given for the ed of what was regarded as puritanism. The celebration of what was called the sacrijudges before mentioned were compelled fice of the eucharist; changing the reto revoke their order at the next circuit; verend and due participation of the Lord's and every bishop was directed to require Supper into the performance of a sacrithat the Book of Sports, issued by king ficial memorial. The tables were removed James, should be again read in all the to the east end of the churches, placed churches. May's History of the Parlia- altar-wise, inclosed with rails, and raised ment of England states, that “this at- on steps; this was enforced so as to optempt to put down puritanism by setting pose, and set aside a canon upon the up irreligion, instead of producing the subject then existing. In many cases. by intended effect, may credibly be thought litigation, and the removal of galleries, to have been one motive to a stricter ob- monuments, and other erections within servance of that day. Many men who the church, attempts were made farther had before been loose and careless, began to sanction the idea of a special manifestupon that occasion to enter into a more ation of the Deity at one part of the buildserious consideration of it, and were ing, forgetful of the scriptural declaration, ashamed to be invited by the authority of Howbeit the Most High dwelleth not in churchmen, to that which themselves, at temples made with hands,” Acts vii. 48. the best, could but have pardoned in them- Serious offence was hereby given to many selves, as a matter of infirmity.”
reflecting minds; the more from the pains In the visitation of his new diocese, and penalties inflicted by the spiritual Laud enforced an exact observance of courts on all who resisted their proceedoutward regulations and ceremonials, and ings; and shortly after these courts were did much to repair and beautify the conducted in the name of the bishops, churches, even causing the king to un- and not of the king as heretofore. In the dertake to restore St. Paul's to its former consecration of the church of St. Kathesplendour; but every thing opposing his rine Cree, in London, Laud carried more own doctrinal views was discountenanced, fully into practice his love for ceremonials, and as much as possible put down. Hin- to the alarm of many, and the disgust of derances were thrown in the way of ob- the nation in general, introducing several taining ordination by any who differed ceremonies directly opposed to what had from him; and in stopping the lectures been customary on the like occasions, in churches, he followed out the course he since the Reformation. As Pennant obopenly adopted early in 1633, when by the serves, in reference to this consecration, aid of the star chamber, he put an end to “Laud attempted innovations in the cea trust, designed to devote large subscrip- remonies of the church, at a season he tions to the purchase of livings, and the ought to have left them in the state he endowment of lectures in populous neigh- found them.” bourhoods, to be supplied by pious and One of the churches repaired at consiactive clergymen. These lectures were derable cost about this period, was that chiefly established in towns, and were of St. Peter's, Cornhill, represented in very needful for the instruction of the the annexed engraving, of which church people, when a large part of the pastors a tradition was current, and recorded on were incompetent to preach to their a tablet then placed therein, that the flocks. The amount raised for these pur- church was the first Christian edifice for poses was declared forfeited to the crown, worship erected in London, being origiand the trustees threatened with personal nally founded on that spot A. D. 179, by punishment, if they attempted to carry on Lucius, said to have been the first Christheir praise worthy design. From this
fact, tian king in Britain. In itself the leit is not difficult to suppose how Laud gendary story is of no value, but the re
ference to Lucius may be considered as still more favourable to popery, was that forming a part of the chain of irrefragable of Sherfield, the recorder of Salisbury. evidence, which establishes undeniably the He had in various ways shown readiness existence of a purer Christian faith in our to support the measures of the ruling land, before Augustine, on the sending of party, but there were some pictorial repope Gregory, had introduced the more presentations decidedly idolatrous, in a corrupted form of Christianity prevalent church which he attended, having been in the sixth and seventh centuries. originally monastic, and a private chapel,
Some other instances must be shown till given to the parish during the last of the impolitic and violent proceedings reign. Here was a window, having seven of the ruling party. Prynne, a learned | pictures of God the Father, as an aged barrister, was tried in the star chamber; man, in a coat of red and blue, engaged his offence was, that in a volume against in creating the world, depicted with all stage plays he had used expressions rela- the grossness and absurdity of the darkest tive to actresses, which some applied to the ages, before which ignorant people were queen, though his work was published still repeatedly seen kneeling and worsome weeks before a mask in which she shipping as in the days of popery. Sherappeared as a performer. Laud excited field, with the consent of the vestry, at the royal wrath against Prynne. The which six magistrates were present, ofwork was condemned as seditious; the fered to replace this window with plain author was fined £5000, pilloried, and glass, and, being about to proceed to his ears cut off; while the societies of law- London, he broke the objectionable panes yers were induced to show their disagree- of glass, that the workmen might not ment with their associate, by acting a mistake the window to be removed. masked pageant which cost £21,000. Three years after, he was cited in the star This was in 1632, but in his imprison- chamber for breaking a church window. ment, Prynne wrote a tract still more Laud aggravated the offence, and palliviolent, in which he reflected on the pre-ated the idolatry by referring to the paslates : for this, by direction of Laud, he sage, Dan. vii. 13, where the prophet speaks was again tried with Bastwick and Bur- of the Ancient of days. Strafford supported ton, who had also written against prelacy. the bishop, but the earl of Dorset, who They were all condemned to the pillory, also sat as judge, said the prosecutor and loss of their ears. They were after- ought to be punished, and not Sherfield. wards sent to Scilly, Guernsey, and Jer- This obliged Laud to mitigate the fine he sey, to be imprisoned, debarred from pen at first proposed, but Sherfield was senand ink, and not allowed to see any tenced to pay 5001., while the first cost friends or relatives. Their sufferings were of the glass did not exceed forty shilregarded as martyrdom. Prynne having lings. A prebendary of Durham was already lost his ears, the executioner cut fined and imprisoned for publicly censuraway the scraps of flesh that remained. ing the dean for having placed a number Laud openly took part in these proceed- of lighted candles on the communion ings; though he might have plainly table; two lecturers were imprisoned for seen that he was contending, not with preaching against crucifixes; and Laud a few enthusiastic, discontented spirits, did not hesitate to require bishop Hall to but with the general feeling of the nation; omit passages in an intended publication and he pushed forward that terrible en- in which he spoke of the pope as Antigine of oppression, the star chamber, into christ. active contest with the
An in- Laud was not contented with filling stance of his unforgiving anger was what would now be called the place of shown in the prosecution of bishop Wil- prime minister : he entered into the deliams, once his friend; but having coun- tails of office, and took the place of one selled the king against these acts of seve- of the lords commissioners of the trea. rity on the plea of religion, he was prose- sury on the death of the earl of Portland, cuted, and, after a suit which lasted many who had been a decided opponent of his years, condemned in 1639 to be suspended policy. His eager temper, and ignorance from his office, and heavily fined, his of business, caused him to be repeatedly crowning offence being that a letter ad imposed upon : he found himself unequal dressed to him was found in his pocket, to its duties, and gave up the office in in which the writer spoke with disrespect 1635, but prevailed upon the king to of Laud.
continue it in the hands of an ecclesiastic. Another case which was regarded as Juxon, bishop of London, was appointed.