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are determined not to know any thing I indolence. The Catholic religion is examong you, save Jesus Christ and him clusively professed, and education negcrucified. It is by him alone we can be lected; and thus ignorance and fanatireconciled to God. The Moravian mis- cism, left with the controlling influence sionaries preached three years in Green- of the one, or the enlightening power

of land, on the being of God, and the nature, the other, are every where apparent, and excellency, and requirements of the moral excite in the observer mingled feelings law without doing any good in the con- of disgust and commiseration. With version of sinners,-notone sinner brought all its moral disadvantages, the valley of to the knowledge of the truth as it is in the Rhone, nevertheless, is a charmingly Jesus; but the first sermon in whiel they diversified country, presenting physically exhibited Christ crucified, as the only Sa- the most beautiful and sublime features, viour of lost and perishning sinners, the and producing, from an exuberant soil, doctrine became the power of God for the every variety of fruit, abundant harvests, salvation of one of the heathens. Let min- and a successful vintage. In some disisters of the gospel, at home and abroad, tricts the corn is cut down in May, in recollect this, Christ crucified, the mar- others, it does not ripen till October. In row and fatness of the gospel, is the glo- one place, the fruit never ripens; in anrious subject that God has owned and other, the almond, fig, and pomegranate, blessed for the conversion of sinners every arrive at perfection. Such is the cliwhere, and at all times. — Christmas mate; so various as to furnish the hardy Evans.

productions of the north with the delicate luxuries of the tropics. In one day we may collect the common productions

of Spitzbergen, and the high-flavoured THE VALLEY OF THE RHONE.

growth of the Caribbees. In a few hours The situation of this canton, the cha- we pass from the shivering skies of Iceracter of the people, and the productions land to the glowing sun of Africa; and of its soil, distinguish it from every other by the simple process of ascending the branch of the confederation, and demand mountains, or retiring into the valley, a few general observations, as we pass we enjoy nature in her most delicious through its interesting territory. Placed prospects, or contemplate her features in in the centre of the Alps, it is surrounded their most appalling form.-Beattie. on every side by those enormous barriers, and traversed through its whole extent by the Rhone. It is the longest and most

I SHALL NEVER GET BEYOND THAT considerable of all the valleys of Switzer

PRAYER. land, being thirty-six leagues in length, The result of a long life spent in the but of a breadth seldom exceeding one service of God, will necessarily bring league. It has, however, numerous la- every man to the conclusion, that there teral valleys, which run into the interior is no worth nor worthiness in himself, of the Alps; and of thirteen that are and that, if saved at all, he must be inhabited, four are ten leagues in extent. saved wholly by grace. When the venerSt. Maurice is the only gate by which it able Mr. Wilkinson had reached nearly can be entered on level ground; and this the close of his life, he said, to a relative key of the canton is turned every night, who came to visit him, and who attemptlike that of a gaol upon its prisoners. In ed to cheer him by referring to his Christhe lower Vallais no branch of industry tian character, " Ah, you cannot see my has hitherto been introduced. In the heart. It has always been my endeavour management of their flocks, and in the not only to abstain from evil, but from cultivation of their vineyards, they are all appearance of evil; but I would be still, as compared with their neighbours, jealous of my own heart. "The heart is the Vaudois and Bernese, in a state of deceitful above all things, and desperately barbarism. It is remarkable, that, with wicked: who can know it?' Jer. xvii. 9. the most powerful stimulus of good ex- | Well, I must do as I have ten thousand ample constantly before them, their indo- times before under such feelings, cast lence remains unexcited, their prejudices myself entirely on the mercy of God. unshaken; and the shackles of supersti- God be. merciful to me a sinner,' the tion as strongly riveted upon them as vilest of sinners! and after all that I ever. They are the slaves of their priests, have received, a most ungrateful sinner! and victims of their own unconquerable I shall never get beyond that prayer,"

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him that the parliament should not

touch a hair of his head. But if Charles It is indeed remarkable, that at this had been unable to control the preceding period the nation was, in many respects, parliaments, he was still less likely to in a prosperous state; the general policy influence the present. The elections had of the two preceding reigns had contri- in many places gone against the royalists; buted to increase the internal sources of and even the person the king intended wealth, and to encourage foreign com- for speaker was not elected. This led to merce, even under the glaring acts of the choice of Lenthall, a barrister of unfairness and oppression, which at times limited abilities, quite unequal to the attracted notice, and occasioned discon- task of controlling angry spirits, or guidtent. Had there been less of arbitrary ing the proceedings of the Commons at pertinacity, and disregard of national that period. feeling in the king and his advisers, with When the Houses met, the king spoke less bitterness of spirit, and dislike to in a conciliatory manner: he termed the the ruling powers, in the leaders of the Scots rebels; but hearing murmurs, he popular side, both parties might have made a sort of apology for so doing. avoided the dreadful scene of intestine The Commons immediately proceeded to warfare, with all its miseries, on the consider the grievances; and first athistory of which we are about to enter, ttended to those who had suffered by deand in which all suffered.

crees of the High Commission Court, or When the parliament met, November 3, of the Star Chamber. The release of 1640, it was evident that the opponents of Prynne, Burton, and Bastwick, was orthe king had increased their strength, and dered; their return being conducted so were disposed to be guided by angry spirits, that their entrance into London was a who felt

their power, and were determined popular triumph, upon which many indito use it, while the king and his advisers viduals of rank attended. The holders found it necessary to adopt a humbler of monopolies were excluded from their tone than heretofore. His ministers seats, which weakened the king's supfound that they were in personal danger, porters in the house. The leaders next and Strafford's friends advised him to proceeded to a trial of strength : they continue either in Ireland or at York: knew that either themselves or the earl the king, however, needing his firmness of Strafford must fall. Pym was aware and decided tone in the council, required that grounds for proceedings against him the earl's presence in London, assuring I might be found : he caused the House

OCTOBER, 1842.

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to be cleared of strangers, and then, with | alive that fear. The proceedings of Laud many insincere expressions of respect to and his followers, in restoring many rites the king, he denounced evil advisers, and ceremonials identified with Popery, expressly pointing to the earl as an apos- were before the eyes of the people, while tate, and the greatest promoter of tyranny many were persecuted for opposing them. that ever lived. The earl was impeach- It was notorious, that several individuals ed directly, and the charge lodged at of rank and influence had become cononce · with the House of Lords; the verts to the church of Rome; and though leaders fearing that if the king knew of Laud did not hesitate to oppose that their design, the parliament would be church in controversy, it was evident inmediately dissolved. Strafford heard that, in many essentials of doctrine and something of these proceedings while rites, he adopted its worst errors.

Nor with the king, and hastened to take his was this course pursued merely by a place, but was ordered to withdraw, and party in the church, in many respects committed to the Tower; many who did truly eminent but devoid of actual power. not fully approve of the designs of Pym That stage of affairs was passed. These and his associates, were not displeased to views were not only held, but enforced unite against a minister so unpopular in by the king and the archbishop, the chief his conduct, and who was the object of individuals in the church and in the state. general hatred from his haughty be- Even reflecting minds apprehended, that haviour. He now was a sufferer, by the the re-establishment of the horrors of same course which he had formerly urged Popery was at hand, when so many of against the duke of Buckingham.

its essentials were restored, and the lanThe leaders of the opposition to the guage of strong affection to the church of court, in the House of Commons, were Rome was generally used by leading Pym, Hampden, and St. John : for a churchmen ; while any affection for other time these were supported by many indi- Protestant churches, or even for the viduals of talent and moderation, who leaders of the English reformation, at saw the necessity for directing the affairs once rendered a man obnoxious to those of government in a less arbitrary course in

power. than that pursued by Strafford and Laud. Laud was the next object of attack : Among these were Holles, Falkland, the late proceedings of the convocation and Vane, Hyde, Selden, and Digby, of were made the grounds for impeaching whom some continued to act with the him. A general charge of attempts to parliament after open hostilities took subvert the laws and constitution, in place; others became supporters of the church and state, was also alleged, while king, when his opponents extended their the Scottish commissioners gave aid, by encroachments to his legitimate autho- requiring justice upon the two great inrity.

cendiaries, as they termed them, Strafford Having thus deprived the king of the and Laud. On the impeachment being support of his most able, as well as most presented to the Lords, the archbishop arbitrary minister, the popular leaders was ordered into the custody of the usher pursued their victory. Secretary Winde- of the black rod, and six weeks afterbank had been the prominent instrument wards he was sent to the Tower. Finch, in protecting the Romish priests : he who, when chief justice, had urged the found it necessary to retire to France. | decision in favour of the king's right to Thus the ministers of the king learned collect ship money, was the next imthat it was no longer safe for them peached. After a vain attempt to excuse to act by the directions of their royal | ħis conduct before the House of Commaster.

mons, he fled to Holland. We must not be surprised at the ex- suffered this storm to burst upon his tent to which the fears respecting Popery principal supporters, with apparent inwere then carried. As already observed, difference or apathy. He felt his weakthe atrocities perpetrated in the reign of ness, and shrunk from the contest with Mary, less than a century before, were the popular voice, doul ess hoping to still fresh in the minds of the nation : regain his power, when the Scottish questhe whole course of intermediate events, tion was settled, and the army disbanded; especially the efforts in behalf of Mary the existence of which encouraged the Stuart, the Spanish armada, the gun leaders in parliament to the bold and powder plot, and the continual machina- decisive measures they pursued. It is tions of the Jeuits, were enough to keep now well known, that the Scottish com

The king

missioners, and their friends in the House, once in Ireland, and in England as soon of Commons, felt that unless the latter as the king regained his authority; but could firmly establish themselves, before the pope could not confide in the promises the Scottish leaders and their army were of Charles, and only the small amount gone, a stop would soon be put to their of thirty-five thousand crowns was given proceedings. The king, therefore, in his as a present. How would even the parhaste to conclude this matter, conceded simony of Elizabeth have scorned a gift several points, which much weakened from the deadly foe of the religion and him, and discouraged his supporters : liberties of the land ! among them was the leaving those whom The prosecution of Strafford was urged the popular party denominated incendi- forward. The general feeling of three aries to be judged by the two parlia- nations was excited and arrayed against ments; the earl of Traquehaire was one, one individual. The king again sacrificed who is reported to have entreated the his advisers, by consenting that privy king not to let his life stand in the way counsellors should be examined upon of a reconciliation with the people. This oath, respecting the advice Strafford had was generous on his part; but, for his given as a privy counsellor, which renown sake, Charles ought not thus to dered it unsafe for any one to express an have given up his adherents.

opinion, even when called on by the The presence of the Scottish commis- king, and in conformity to his solemn sioners in London, also helped to dif- oath, if it were likely at any time to fuse their religious views. St. Antholin's displease the party to which he might be church was assigned to them, and divine opposed. The trial commenced March worship, there conducted, according to 23 : it lasted fifteen days, beginning at the presbyterian forms. The church was nine in the morning, and continuing till crowded, while many thronged the doors, four or five o'clock in the afternoon, the unable to procure admission. These pro- king ill-advisedly being present. The ceedings strengthened the popular feel- charges against the earl for the most part ing against the bishops, so that petitions failed, and there was evidently a reaction were presented to parliament 'for the in favour of the impeached minister, abolition of episcopacy. One, presented when the House of Commons resorted on December 11, was signed by fifteen to that arbitrary and unfair proceeding thousand inhabitants of London; it de- adopted in the reign of Henry vill., the sired the removal of episcopacy, root passing a bill of attainder. This was and branch.” The presbyterian feeling mainly supported by a statement which against the order of bishops made the Com- secretary Vane allowed himself to be mons active in this matter; but at first required to verify, of a declaration said only a resolution was carried against their to have been made by Strafford in counsitting in the House of Lords, expressing, cil, that the king had an army in Ireland, that their exercising legislative and judi- which he might employ in reducing Engcial power, hindered the due discharge of land to obedience. their ecclesiastical duties. The king de- The bill was debated and opposed for clared that his conscience would not per many days: meanwhile the House of mit him to allow the destruction of an Lords proceeded with the trial and the order, without which he considered the defence of Strafford, who was encouraged Christian religion could not exist. Still by an assurance from the king, that he did not pursue an open or decided whatever sacrifices he might make to the course : he was then seeking to strengthen popular violence, he would never consent himself by alliances with foreign powers; that one, who had served him so faithand as a connexion with a Popish prince fully, should suffer in his life or forwas now out of the question, he espoused tune. Several plans were devised for the his daughter, the princess Mary, to the safety of Strafford: one was, so to arprince of Orange.

range the garrison of the Tower that The queen went to France, on the the earl might be removed or rescued ; pretext of illness, to obtain help from this was prevented by the steady, conher brother; but the private enmity of duct of sir William Balfour, the lieuteRichelieu counteracted her wishes, and nant, who refused a large bribe. An urged her return to England. She ap- attempt was also made to interest the plied to the pope for a considerable sum, English army, so that it might be promising in return, that the penal laws marched to London, and overawe the against Papists should be abolished at parliamentarians; but the leading officers disagreed; and colonel Goring betrayed | diers on peaceable householders without the object. The bill of attainder was a cause; the other, that he had obliged carried; it was opposed by about sixty all Scots living in Ireland to take an members; but to intimidate farther op- unlawful oath. This, under the opinion position to the prevailing parties, the of the judges, was pronounced to be treanames of these members were placarded son; the bill of attainder was passed on in the streets, as Straffordians, and ene- May 8, and a deputation was sent from mies to their country : thus they were both Houses to urge the king to consent. pointed ont as the objects of popular It was on a Saturday, and the crowds insult. Other violent and underhand who assembled round the court at Whitemeans were taken, to excite panic: many hall, with loud threats, were only apministers even preached expressly in peased by an assurance that the king support of the proceedings of the parlia- would assent. ment.

A few days before, Strafford wrote to As a last resource, the king offered to the king, releasing him from his progive the disposal of the principal state mise, by advising him to consent to the offices to the parliamentary party, if bill, but declaring his own innocence. Strafford's life was spared. This was Sunday was a day of doubt and distress assented to, but interrupted by the death to the unhappy king, who, with all his of the earl of Bedford, the chief of se- rashness and obstinacy, had not strength veral influential leaders of the opposition of mind to adhere firmly to that course to the court, who had a short time before which he knew would be right, and been admitted to the king's council, to would save his minister. He sent for one soften their hostile feelings. The matter to counsel him after another, as weakthen devolved on lord Say, by whose minded men usually do in cases of diffiadvice the king spoke to the houses of culty. The bishops advised him to conparliament, telling them that he would sult the judges, and the judges referred have left the law to take its course ; but him back to the bishops. Only bishop their proceeding by an act of attainder Juxon advised him to be firm in refusing made him a party, and he could not con- to order the death of a man whom he sent to such an act, knowing that Straf- did not believe to be guilty. Williams, ford was innocent of the main charges and other bishops, drew a distinction against him; but he was willing to ex- between his conscience as an individual, clude him from office during life, as and as a king acting with his parliament; guilty of misdemeanors. This

but he was, probably, most influenced by interference stimulated the enemies of the selfish fears of the queen and his Strafford: it was declared a breach of the courtiers, all thoroughly alarmed 'for privileges of parliament, and an armed their personal safety, and unwilling to rabble, not less than six thousand, crowded incur the danger of a tumult, even though to Westminster, on May 3, calling for the life of their former adviser and assojustice, and even threatening the king. ciate was at stake. Charles signed a A protestation was made by the members commission to give the royal assent to of both houses, declaring that they would the act of attainder against his counprotect the religion and liberties of the sellor; uttering a declaration we may nation; hypocritically adding, that they readily believe, “The earl of Strafford is would protect the king against his ene- happier than I am.” mies. This measure, introduced by Pym, On the following Tuesday, the king both soothed the populace, and kept up sent the prince with a request to the their excitement, which was stimulated Houses, that they would consent to by rumours of foreign invasion and other change the sentence to perpetual imdangers, while the leaders of the Comprisonment; but marred the whole force mons pressed forward the proceedings of the application, by putting the request against Strafford. Eighty peers had at- conditionally; and at last, by the queen's tended the trial, but more than one half suggestion, added a postscript, that if he were absent from the debate on the bill must die, it were charity to reprieve him of attainder. Many were kept away by till Saturday. However, the persecutors personal threats; and the Romanists had of Strafford apprehended that if his life refused to subscribe the protestation were spared, he would eventually regain against Popery. At last only two charges, power, and their own doom would be out of twenty-eight, were voted to be sealed: they therefore refused proved : one, that he had quartered sol- to spare him for a few days, lest that



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