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Die orientalische Christenheit der Mittelmeerlände.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. By Dr. Karl Beth. Pp. xvi+ 427. (Berlin : (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions Schwetschke, 1902.)

expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake

to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected The author spent five months in 1901 in the eastern

manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. Mediterranean, investigating at first hand, and at

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.) close quarters, the institutions, and the practical working of the Greek, Armenian and Coptic

What is Brandy? Churches, and of such other fragments of Christian With regard to the interesting article in your issue of communions survive in those parts. He is November 3 upon this subject, I trust that I may be allowed

to pass a few comments. evidently a good observer and quick worker, and was

There can be no doubt that the word “brandy " originally able to elicit much interesting information, meeting

connoted burnt or distilled wine ; its derivation is thus stated everywhere, as he did, with cordial receptions and

in the “ Oxford Dictionary of Dr. Murray as from the assistance. The result is a valuable handbook of an

Dutch word “ brandewijn," old English “ brandy wine." ill-explored section of ecclesiology, full of queer side- Thus so late as 1719 one D'Urfey, “ Pills,” v. 23, lights upon mediæval and modern history, and no less upon the workings of the religious instinct under the “I was entertained, with Kisses fine and Brandy wine." peculiarly unfavourable conditions which have pre- Certain spirits were introduced long before the outbreak vailed in the Levant for so long. The author's per- of the phylloxera in France under the name of British

brandy, still included in certain legal documents under the onal knowledge of the working of these curious institutions enables him to supply a number of designation of British compounds, though, as a matter of

fact, made more without than within this country. Herein corrections to Kattenbusch's “ Lehrbuch,” and to

a difficulty arises for those who may have to advise county confirm and expand the observations of Gelzer, von

or borough councils in the administration of the Sale of der Goltz, von Soden, and other recent travellers.

Foods and Drugs (Amendment) Act, as now interpreted, or

those, like myself, who have to deal with cases under the Tales of Sutton Town and Chase, with other Tales and Merchandise Marks Act. For on the one hand an astute some Sketches. Collected by “ Tau.” Pp. 86.

chemist could make up a liquid, wholly innocent of grape (Birmingham: Hudson and Son, 1904.) Price juice, so that the results, obtained on analysis, were identical 25. 6d. net.

with those of a genuine grape-spirit, and on the other, a.

sample of the latter might, as pointed out in your article, Two of the narrative poems in this delightful little if carelessly distilled be condemned, though innocent. collection are of more than local interest. One ballad

Again, if a genuine grape spirit, distilled not far from _" The Alchemist of New Hall”—refers to the moated Cognac, were mixed with per cent. of a spirit, not silent stone mansion of New Hall, where the celebrated Dr. (1 omit particular details on the ground of expediency), mere Sacheverell lived at one time. Another poem deals analytical results would be of little avail; such a problem amusingly with a meeting of the Lunar Society, which (credite experto) requires prolonged research, and the applimet in the district in the latter portion of the eighteenth cation of methods not wholly chemical.

It is clear that professional tasting, especially by certain century, and included among its members Erasmus Darwin, Galton, James Watt

, Priestley, Wedgwood results and methods of research, yet, as a matter of evidence,

specially gifted persons, is a very valuable aid to analytical! and Baskerville. To persons familiar with Sutton

it can be regarded only as a question of opinion, based on Coldfield and the neighbourhood, this collection of

long experience, rather than as a definite proof. verses describing in appropriate words and metre some

A Government inquiry would elicit important evidence, of the stories of “oldest inhabitants" will be read

and possibly some kind of standard might be arrived at with keen interest; and many others will find pleasure which would not only exclude clever and fraudulent imitain the quaint ideas contained in this dainty little tions, but also bring the present chaos or impasse to a. volume.

conclusion.

V. H. Veley.

Oxford, November 5. The Glamour of the Earth. By George A. B. Dewar.

Your article published under the above heading in Pp. ix + 255; with illustrations by R. W. A. Rouse.

NATURE of November 3 raises some interesting points. The (London: George Allen, 1904.) Price 6s. net.

writer clearly fails to appreciate any difference between THE true lover of the country will enjoy this book. brandy and alcohol, for he says, “if the brandy is being The author is not addressing the mere seeker after made from damaged wine the rectification must be most information; and such a reader will regard the volume carefully conducted, and may have to be pushed to a point as diffuse and unsatisfactory. But men who are weary

that the alcohol is obtained almost pure, that is to say, with work and have gone to the country quietly to

almost free from non-alcohol.Now if brandy is merely come into contact with nature, and so secure refresh

alcohol, as is here plainly implied, why produce it from

grapes or wine at all? Similarly, why produce whisky ment and recreation, will follow Mr. Dewar's notes

from malted barley, or rum from cane sugar? The fact is and leisurely observations with sympathy and appreci- that the genuine article is, and has always been in history, ation. The beautiful pictures by Mr. Rouse add much the product of the pot still. The pot still produces alcohol. to the attractiveness of the volume.

plus non-alcohol, the patent still pure alcohol. It is

true that brandy, whisky, and rum contain alcohol, but the Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität und Elektronik. Heraus- alcohol of the patent still or rectifying still is not whisky, gegeben von J. Stark in Göttingen. Erster Band. brandy, or rum. Pot still spirit from “ damaged

or sick i Heft. (Leipzig : S. Hirzel, 1904.)

wines would be nauseous and undrinkable, but pot still

spirit from wines of repute possesses the qualities which disThis new magazine or year-book,” devoted to radio- tinguish genuine brandy chemically and physiologically activity and the electric discharge, is promised to from rectified spirit. It is well known that the effects of appear in four parts yearly. The first part, now under pure alcohol on the blood pressure and lymph circulation consideration, contains two original contributions, six are modified very considerably by the presence of other conshort summaries of recent work on special branches,

stituents in spirits. These other constituents are the nonand a fairly complete list of the original papers on

alcohol" which you describe. To call rectified spirit or radio-activity, &c., which had appeared in 1904 up to

patent still spirit brandy is about as reasonable as calling

skimmed milk milk. In England the word brandy ought the date of going to press. The short summaries referred to are preceded by bibliographies, and should

to be confined to a pot still spirit produced from the wine

of grapes, and should never be applied to alcohol distilled prove useful to specialists.

in a patent still from damaged wine or from likely enough worse material. Such a definition, if adopted, changed to deep blue, violet, or purple, and so much so would be calculated to facilitate the work of the un- that in places the whole surface of the road has a marked fortunate public analysts who may be called upon to express blue shimmer. Or perhaps it should rather be said that an opinion as to the genuineness of a sample of brandy,' this was the case last autumn; I have not seen it since. and the question, what is brandy ? analytically speaking, As will be seen from the enclosed specimen, the contrast would no longer“ await solution.” Recent analyses to between the imbedded and the exposed portion of the pebbles which you refer have at any rate reduced a large section is very striking. of the brandy trade to the confession that much of the stuff Without giving any special study to the matter, I was they sold never had its origin in the grape at all. The inclined at the time to attribute the phenomenon either to public house trade now posts notices in the bars that it a further oxidation and hydration of the iron which is, no cannot guarantee the brandy sold to be genuine grape doubt, present in the flints, or, possibly, to a molecular respirit.

arrangement of the silica. At some points the blue colour The attitude of the French committee is not difficult to passes almost into black; this suggests that it may indicate understand, and there can be no objection to it so long as a transition stage between yellow and black flints. the trade, in the interests of which it has undertaken Possibly some mineralogist has examined the matter more the inquiry, determines on issuing an honest label setting thoroughly.

C. SIMMONDS. forth that either the spirit is a pot still spirit from grape Northcroft, Deronda Road, Herne Hill, November 14. wine or it is not.

S. ARCH. VASEY. Bromley, Kent, November 8.

Chemical Analysis for Beginners

In a review on this subject (this vol., p. 5)“ J. B. C." The Origin of Life.

directs attention once again to the unsuitability of an ALTHOUGH there are good reasons for believing that the extended study of analysis for a beginner. His opinions life of our world is the product of its own physical con- not only claim respect, but must be largely shared by all ditions, and distinct from the life of other members of the teachers of chemistry. solar system, it is hardly probable that living substance There is, however, a side to the question which somehow can be produced otherwise than by the same conditions that seems rather to be overlooked. The average elementary produced it in the past, and one of these conditions is a student will work patiently for hours over qualitative vast period of time.

analysis, well taught, badly taught, or not taught at allWe are not acquainted with any life apart from “ cells." he is interested, and though none too willing to use brains But the cell is a very complex organism, and between in- as well as tables, he is ready under guidance to do his best. organic substance and the cell there may have been as long But in any logical system of elementary quantitative and a course of evolution as between the cell and the highest preparation work calculated to build up a firm foundation existing animal or vegetable. Probably most biologists the principles of chemistry he appears to take no natural nowadays regard life not as an entity (e.g. not as a vital interest, when it comes to actual work. Possibly “ J. B.C." force ''), but rather as a coordination of many physical will not agree that this is so; and it may be right that the processes which have become more numerous and better student should be compelled (if it can be done) to think coordinated in the course of evolution. It is not to be sup- | logically from the first. But it seems not unimportant to posed that the total functions of life would be developed interest him in practice as well as on paper. in not-living substances under the restricted conditions of I do not refer to the embryo professional chemist who human experiment; nevertheless, some of the individual

soon gets through the introductory work and is nearly functions might be brought into action, at least in a always interested, but to that enormous crowd of text-book primitive form.

consumers who spend, possibly, three hours per week in One of these functions, which I believe to be the most the chemical laboratory as part of their scheme of study. fundamental, is the deoxidation of a compound containing Does not the marked change of attitude in such students the elements N, O, C, H, &c., by the action of light, when qualitative analysis is touched upon indicate that there moderate heat, or slight electrical disturbance. This is the is still room for fundamental improvement in the method foundation of biosynthesis—a small beginning which in of presenting first steps in practical chemistry? the course of ages develops mechanisms so perfect as the

F. SOUTHERDEN. photosynthesis in chlorophyll-bearing cells. We ought by Royal Albert Memorial College, Exeter. research to discover the conditions on which such deoxidation depends, and imitate it in our laboratories; we

Misuse of Words and Phrases. might even apply it to important economic purposes.

In Mr. Basset's book, to which he refers in NATURE of This deoxidation is probably a perfectly natural process, November 10 (p. 30), he speaks of the advantage of having as natural as the opposite process of oxidation, only it must a concise and pointed mode of expression, which saves a not be sought in the behaviour of mere oxides, as CO2, but great deal of circumlocution and verbosity.” He thinks rather in that of compounds containing N, O, C, H, &c., that this object is best gained by coining a new word from as above suggested. In fact, it may be expected to be nearly the Greek, for instance, autotomic, whereas I hold that a reversal of the process of vital oxidation, which has been the same object is better gained by adopting a word of more successfully investigated. Vital oxidation seems to English derivation, self-cutting. Mr. Basset now says that take place in two stages, as follows :-(1) the O is taken he considers this word “ inelegant," and, in the absence into combination with the N in a complex molecule, (2) it of any standard of elegance, I can only reply that this is a is transferred from the N to a more oxidisable element. matter of individual taste. Perhaps it would be better still Whether complete linking occurs between 0 and N, as to call a curve that has double points a nodal curve," and O=N=, we cannot say; but the linkings =C—0–NE one that has none a nodeless curve.

The word binodal and H-0–Ne are probable. The oxygen-carrying func- is already in use. tion of N seems to be assisted in many (if not all) cases As regards the phrase non-singular cubic,” it is clearly

inaccurate if, with Plücker, we speak of “ First attempts at life may be occurring continually around as well as

singular points,” and include all these under us, but if any synthetic substances be formed they are sure the term singularities; but I rather think that in English to be seized and assimilated by the already developed books the term singularity was formerly not applied to organisms.

F. J. ALLEN. double tangents, or even to points of inflection. Cambridge, November 12.

November 14.

T. B. S. Change in the Colour of Moss Agates.

Reason in Dogs. IN connection with Mr. Whitton's inquiry (NATURE, APROPOS of “thinking cats,” perhaps the following story November 10, p. 31), the following note may be of interest. of a practical joke played by a dog will interest your readers,

On the top of the West Cliff at Bournemouth the road A friend of mine, Mr. W., owns a Manchester terrier of is laid with material which includes a number of Aint which he is very fond, and for that reason receives rather pebbles. These are, as a rule, rounded or subangular, and more than doggy attention. The dog passes most of his of a yellow or whitish-yellow colour as regards their general time in the library, where a basket and rug are provided for surface. But where exposed to the air the colour has him, but he prefers, when it is possible, to take possession

by Fe.

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of his master's easy chair. A short time ago I had occasion of which one at least is an ancient classical language. to call on Mr. W., and the dog was, as usual, occupying | Part ii. includes arithmetic, algebra, and geometry as the chair, from which he was removed to his basket.

He heretofore. The paper on “ Paley's Evidences is showed his resentment of this disturbance of his slumbers abolished; it is not a school subject, and it is got up by becoming very restless. Presently he trotted over to the door, which he rattled by pushing with his nose, his usual largely by an effort of memory from a bare abstract method of attracting attention when he wished to go out.

or analysis. Part iii. includes English composition as His master immediately rose and opened the door, but in- a compulsory subject, and two of the following alterstead of the dog going out he rushed back and jumped into natives : (1) English history; (2) scripture knowledge the chair his master had just vacated! The rapid wagging (a Gospel and Acts in English); (3) elementary organic of his tail and the expression on his face showed the dog to chemistry; (4) experimental mechanics and other parts be very pleased with the result of his ruse. The dog has re- of elementary physics. Natural science, in the shape peated the same joke once or twice since, with much evident

of physics and chemistry, is thus introduced for the delight to himself.

ARTHUR J. HAWKES.

first time. The syndicate was urged by weighty Bournemouth.

authorities to require from all candidates some know

ledge of science; but, after full consideration, it is Occurrence of a Tropical Form of Stick-Insect in unable to recommend more than the inclusion of science Devonshire.

among the alternative subjects. Probably, in view of: A FEW weeks ago I obtained through the kindness of a the imperfect organisation of science teaching in many lady in Paignton a living specimen of a stick-insect, one public schools of the classical type, to make science of several individuals which had appeared in her garden. compulsory at this stage would have involved the My example was met with on the plaster outside a window adoption of a standard so low as in effect to discredit and owing to the tenacity with which it adhered to its posi- the subject. tion required some force to dislodge it. I preserved it in

For the benefit of certain students, among whom captivity for about a fortnight, at the close of which period it died, having refused to feed on the foliage of any of the

students of science may certainly be reckoned, to plants with which it was supplied.

whom the power to read French and German is more It is an apterous female, and is, I think, referable to important than a special knowledge of one only of Cladocérus phyllinus, Gray. I have not been able to obtain these, it is provided that the translation papers in each any clue as to the cause of its occurrence.

of the two languages may be substituted for the transROBERT O, CUNNINGHAM. lation and composition papers in one alone.

For a boy from a modern school or technical instiA Probable Variable of the Algol Type,

tute, therefore, the examination provided might thus On the evening of October 29, while examining the include, for example, Latin, French, and German Pleiades with a binocular at about 9 p.m., G.M.T., I noticed translation, mathematics, English composition, elethat the star Atlas (27 Tauri) was slightly fainter than mentary chemistry, and elementary physics. On the Pleione (28 Tauri), a little to the north of it. I did not other hand, a boy from a purely classical school might remember at the time what the relative brightness of the

take the following combination : Latin and Greek, stars was, and on looking them up in the Harvard Cata- mathematics, English composition, scripture, and logues I was surprised to find that Atlas was measured English history. For him the examination would be 3-80 magnitude, and Pleione 5.19. I find that all the estimates for the last 300 years agree in making Atlas con

an improvement on the old “ previous" examination, siderably brighter than Pleione. The nights following

not only by reason of the higher standard proposed to October 29 were cloudy, but on the evening of November 9

be required, but also on account of the wider range of I found Atlas of its usual brilliancy, and more than 1 mag- literary subjects to be included. nitude brighter than Pleione. The observed variation was The report represents a serious attempt to recognise therefore about i} magnitude. As Atlas is not a long period

and to provide for the changes which are in progress variable, it seems probable that it is a variable of the Algol in modern English education. By asking from every type. The star should be watched, and observations for aspirant evidence that he has seriously studied one, variable radial velocity would be very desirable.

at least, of the classical languages, it safeguards the J. E. Gore.

traditional virtue ascribed to that form of intellectual training By admitting that modern languages (in

cluding English) and physical science are possible THE PREVIOUS EXAMINATION AT

components of a liberal education in the twentieth CAMBRIDGE.

century, it indicates a certain widening of academic THE HE first report of the studies and examinations aims and ideals that may lead to better things here

syndicate, issued on November 11, deals with after. There is little doubt that the report will meet the previous examination. This is the first public with strenuous opposition from those who, in the suptest imposed on candidates for degrees at the uni- posed interest of ancient learning, dare not make any versity, and since 1822 has included a compulsory concession to modern knowledge. It will not escape examination in both Latin and Greek. In response to

criticism from reformers of the more advanced type, a demand for reform sent up by teachers, parents, pro

who would sweep away Latin as well as Greek. But fessional men, and men of science in the direction of the proposals at least remedy a genuine grievance in making Greek, at least for some students, an optional a practical manner, and they make for progress along subject-a demand supported by a large majority of the lines of a sounder and broader education than the head-masters and assistant masters in the secondary older universities have yet sought to foster. schools—the syndicate proposes a new scheme for the examination in which this demand is recognised.

Briefly, the scheme provides that for all candidates THE EXPLORATION OF THE TRANSVAAL.the previous" shall consist of three parts, to be taken together or separately at the convenience of the

N this first report, drawn up by Mr. H. Kynaston IN

and his colleagues, we see the prospect of healthy student. Part i. includes Latin, Greek, French, and rivalry between the geologists of Cape Colony and of German, the papers in each to require unprepared the newly acquired territories to the north. No time translation and composition.

“ Set books "

has been lost in issuing one of those small folio abolished. A candidate may take Latin and Greek, or

| “Geological Survey of the Transvaal. Report for the Year 1903." either Latin or Greek together with French or Ger- Pp. ii+43 ; with 24 plates, folding maps, and sections. (Pretoria : Printed man. In other words, he must take two languages,

at the Government Printing Office, 1904.)

are

numerous

volumes, the form of which, however unsuited to our The Karroo beds similarly contain boulders of the bookshelves, probably recalls to the Government rocks that preceded them, including the granite that printers the blue-books of the old home-country. No rose beneath the Waterberg series. These boulders time has been lost, moreover, in the prosecution of occur in the Glacial beds at the base of the system, researches which furnish something worthy to record, corresponding with the Dwyka conglomerate of

Cape Colony. These beds were laid down in a region already traversed by large streams, and it is very interesting to note that the modern Elands River, Bronkhorst Spruit, and Wilge River have cleared the Glacial beds out of the ancient channels, and have followed in the course of valleys that were long fossilised and lost to view.

As in Cape Colony, the Lower Karroo beds lie on handsomely glaci. ated surfaces. Dr. Molengraaff directed attention to these in 1898, and Mr. Mellor has described

new and admirable in stances (Fig. 2). The uniform direc tion of the striæ from one exposure to another points to an ice-sheet, and not to local glaciers. The fact that the movement was from north to south, speaking in general terms, both in the Transvaal and in Cape Colony, only adds zest to the search for an explanation of this old

Glacial epoch in the southern Fig. 1.-Waterberg sandstones near Balmoral, containing fragments of Pretoria quartzite.

hemisphere. It is satisfactory to find that Dr. Molengraaff now con

cludes that even in the Vryheid and the results have here been illustrated on an ex- | district the ice-movement was from N.W. to S.E , cellent and liberal scale. Topographic work has been i.e., contrary to his previous suggestion. undertaken where existing surveys are deficient, and Mr. A. L. Hall found in the area allotted to him an it seems probable that the geologists will run ahead, interesting series of igneous rocks, including a norite for some years to come, of the accurate mapping of which, near Onderstepoort, has given rise to considerthe country. The beds dealt with are, firstly, the able masses of magnetite by a process of segregation. Pretoria series of quartzites and shales, which must have a high antiquity; secondly, the Waterberg sandstones and grits, which are now for the first time proved to be distinctly unconformable on the Pretoria series; and thirdly, the Karroo system, or rather systems, which opened under Glacial conditions, and were laid down on the denuded surface of the folded Waterberg series.

The two earlier series are thus clearly pre-Carboniferous. The Pretoria series is in places enormously swollen by the intrusion of diabase, which has worked its way along the bedding-planes with remarkable regularity. Where it breaks across the beds, it becomes slightly modified and charged with fragments from the quartzites. The Waterberg series near Balmoral has been invaded laccolitically by a granite, which is correlated with the red granite of the northern Transvaal.

On its upper surface, which follows the planes of stratification of the overlying beds, Fig. 2.-Glaciated surface (Permo-Carboniferous glaciation), north of Duglas Colliery, near it passes into a platy rock of the compact quartz-porphyry type.

Mr. E. T. Mellor regards the Waterberg series, with It is not so clear, however, that similar internal proits coarse breccias and conglomerates, as deposited in cesses, taking place during cooling, will account for waters swayed by powerful currents, torrents from the the passage of the norite into red granite, described as land being responsible for the earlier beds. Frag- ' occurring near the farm of Doornpoort. The facts ments of the Pretoria quartzites are found in these, noted, particularly the mottling of the granite near its affording additional proof of the unconformity (Fig. 1). margin, where it contains augite and decomposed

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Balinoral.

hornblende, seem to point rather to the formation of are mounted. He gives as an instance how the train a composite rock along an intrusive junction.

of the peacock, commonly called its “ tail,” is often Messrs. Kynaston and Hall conclude this important placed as if it arose from the hinder end of the body, report with an account of what they style“ diamond-while in reality when erect it stands in front of the iferous " pipes and alluvial deposits. It is suggested wings, as shown in the accompanying illustration rethat the diamond-bearing vents were connected with produced from Mr. Pycraft's paper. the great uplift that followed the close of the Karroo “Would it not be well,” remarks Dr. Bather very period in South Africa.

aptly in his excellent presidential address at the AberSome of Mr. Mellor's results, now detailed in the deen conference of the Museums' Association, “ for official memoir, were communicated earlier in 1904 to each of us Museum curators occasionally to ask himself the Geological Society of South Africa, and have been the question: What exactly is the object of my incorporated in_Dr. Molengraafi's “Geology of the Museum?". While laying stress on inspiration as one Transvaal.” This handy work, the publisher of of the principal functions of a museum, by which Dr. which is not named, now replaces the well known Bather understands the selection and display of paper in the Bulletin de la Société géologique de material so as to attract members of the general public, France for 1901. It is accompanied by a coloured sketch map on the scale of 1: 500,000.

GRENVILLE A. J. Cole.

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OUR MUSEUMS.? THE object of the asso

ciation, of which the manifold spheres of activity are chronicled in the Museums' Journal, is the promotion of the better and more systematic working of museums. That museums are destined to play a very important function in the future education of our race every curator is fully convinced.

Yet anyone perusing the pages of the Museums' Journal will be struck by the apparent want of unanimity among those into whose charge such institutions have been placed as to the best methods to be adopted in conveying to the public the educational advantages offered. A learned German museum official thought that if artistic skill were more cultivated The public would show increased appreciation for museums. He

insists that the greater the knowledge of drawing Fig. 1.—Side view of the Peacock in display showing that, when erect, the train stands in front of the wings, and in a community, the

not behind them. From the Museums' Journal. greater the value of a museum

educational institution for a' he does not, however, touch upon the really vital point nation. Dr. Hecht, a French museum authority, to the museum curator—how can we best induce the advocates placing among natural history specimens a community to enter the doors of our institutions ? number of attractive and pleasing exhibits so as to | The scope of museums is extended from year to year, lead the mind of the visitor to larger ideas, and to and everything is done to widen the sphere of their show him by well chosen illustrations in how many usefulness. A museum is no longer a place for exways animal life is connected with human civilisation. hibition only, but a place for research and investiAnother gentleman argues that the doctrine of evolu- ' gation, and for the encouragement of those who desire tion should be the key-note of museum work, while to devote their time to such. Yet no one like the Mr. Pycraft directs attention to a real defect in many museum curator is more impressed with the fact that, of our museums in the manner in which our animals in spite of all his efforts to make his collections appeal 1 "Geology of the Transvaal.” By Dr. G. A. F. Molengraaff. Translated

to the public, in spite of his heartfelt desire to teach by J. H. Ronaldson, M.E. With Additions and Alterations by the Author. both old and young, he only succeeds in attracting Pp. viii +90. (Edinburgh and Johannesburg, 1904.)

within the walls of the institution a comparatively 3 The Museums' Journal. Edited by E. Howarth. Vol. iii. (July, 1903, to June, 1904). Pp. x+436 and 73-142. (London: Dulau and Co., small percentage of the community. What is really 1904.) Price 125. Det.

wanted, it seems to us, is that schools and museums

as

an

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