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factory, Wellington, in the Nilgiri Hills, an effective fall of SPEAKING at St. George's Hospital Medical School on
660 feet is employed to work a turbine and alternators, Friday last, Lord Kelvin remarked :-The modern medical
generating about 1000 horse-power at a pressure of 5000 man must be a scientific man, and, what is more, he must
volts. As to irrigation, the amount of land irrigated in be a philosopher. The fundamental studies of medicine are
British India is about 44 million acres. Of these 17 million of a strictly materialistic kind, but they belong to a different
are irrigated by canals, 8 million from tanks, and 19 million world from the world which constitutes their main subject
from wells and other sources. In conclusion, the president -the world of life. Let it not be imagined that any hocus
remarked that although much has been done, far more yet pocus of electricity or viscous fluids will make a living
remains to be done—in opening up the country, in the precell. Splendid and interesting work has recently been done
vention of famines, in the regulation of the water supply, in what was formerly called organic chemistry, a great
in the installation of works and factories, in the transmission French chemist taking the lead. This is not the occasion
of power generated by the hill falls to those centres where for a lecture on the borderland between what is called it can be profitably utilised, and in the general development
of the resource organic and what is called inorganic; but it is interesting
rces of the Empire. to know that materials belonging to the general class of The three articles in the October number of the Zoologist foodstuffs, such as sugar, and what might be also called deal exclusively with local bird-faunas, namely, those of a foodstuff, alcohol, can be made out of the chemical Oxfordshire, Donegal, and Jersey. The capture of a whiteelements. But let not youthful minds be dazzled by the beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) off Aberdeen imaginings of the daily newspapers that because Berthelot is recorded. and others have thus made foodstuffs they can make living things, or that there is any prospect of a process being found
The director (Captain S. S. Flower) of the Giza Zooin any laboratory for making a living thing, whether the
logical Gardens, Cairo, has sent us a copy of a list of rare minutest germ of bacteriology or anything smaller or
animals recently received from the Sudan, among which greater. There is an absolute distinction between crystals
reference may be made to a female of the Niam-niam race and cells. Anything that crystallises may be made by the
of the chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus troglodytes schweinchemist. Nothing approaching to the cell of a living
furthi). creature has ever yet been made. The general result of an GAMMARUS, " otherwise the freshwater-shrimp (a name enormous amount of exceedingly intricate and thorough- which, by the way, appears to be omitted from the text), going investigation by Huxley and Hooker and others of forms the subject of the twelfth number of the L.M.B.C. the present age, and by some of their predecessors in both Memoirs. Miss M. Cussans, the author, seems to have the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries, is that no artificial treated her subject in the same thorough manner which has process whatever can make living matter out of dead. This been the rule in the earlier issues of this excellent series, is vastly beyond the subject of the chemical laboratory, and the four plates, although diagrammatic, are all that vastly beyond my own subject of physics or of electricity- can be desired from the point of view of the student. beyond it in depth of scientific significance and in human interest.
The greater bulk of parts i. and ii. of vol. xxv. of Notes
from the Leyden Museum is taken up by an article on the MR. H. H. JEFFcott has been appointed assistant in the beetles of the family Paussidæ by Mr. E. Wasmann. These metrological department of the National Physical Labor- beetles, which are now definitely known to live in comatory.
panionship with ants, are regarded by the author as the By permission of His Majesty the King, the Sanitary
most interesting of all living creatures, since they show Institute will henceforth be known as the Royal Sanitary
better than any other group the interdependence of Institute.
morphology and biology. They are remarkable for the
enormous size of their antennæ, and are believed to be the AN International Gas Exhibition will be held at Earl's
descendants of pre-Tertiary Carabidæ. Court from November 19 to December 17 inclusive, under the auspices of the Institution of Gas Engineers.
The first of three lectures on the fossil vertebrates of
Egypt was delivered at University College, Gower Street, An exhibition of water colours, photographs, and other by Br. C. W. Andrews, of the British Museum, articles of interest belonging to the National Antarctic Ex- at 4.30 on October 31. This lecture was devoted to the pedition will be opened at the Bruton Galleries, Bond Street, Proboscidea. On November 7, at the same hour, the on Friday by Sir Clements Markham.
lecturer will discourse on Arsinoitherium and the HyraA sketch of some of the results of the public works policy ation the sirenians and reptiles. Free cards of admission
coidea, while on November 14 he will take into considerin India during the last fifty years was given at the Institution of Civil Engineers on Tuesday, in the address of the
to these lectures may be obtained on application to the president, Sir Guilford L. Molesworth, K.C.I.E. In the registrar at University College. course of the address, it was pointed out that there are avail- ACCORDING to the report of the Government biologist for able in India millions of potential horse-power, in the form 1903, the Government of the Cape of Good Hope is making of water flowing from the mountain ranges, capable of being every effort to develop the local fisheries. During the year converted into electrical energy at generating stations in four large steam-trawlers arrived from Europe ; two of the hills, and conveyed, with slight loss in efficiency, to these were unfortunately wrecked, but the others have been centres even at a distance, where it can be utilised for doing good work, as have also certain vessels belonging to industrial purposes. A generating station has been erected private owners. A new fishing-ground, much nearer to at the Cauveri Falls, with a head of 380 feet. The turbines Cape Town than any of the old ones, has been discovered, drive six generators, each of 1000 electrical horse-power, and has been the chief attraction for the new trawlers. The and the current is transmitted, at a pressure of 30,000 volts, report contains reprints (without the plates) of various for a distance of ninety-one miles, to the Kolar goldfields, memoirs by specialists on different sections of the South with an efficiency of nearly 80 per cent. At the cordite African marine fauna.
" The Animals of Africa forms the title of an article brought about as a result of the inoculations, but the case by Mr. Lydekker in the October issue of the Quarterly mortality is largely reduced. We are further of opinion Review. While admitting the African origin of the masto- that with due care the process of inoculation is devoid of dons, the author does not consider that there are sufficient direct danger, but that under special circumstances there grounds for rejecting Huxley's theory that the bulk of the may possibly be some temporary increase of susceptibility modern mammalian fauna of Africa came from the north. to infection immediately following inoculation; and it is In an article on fatigue, Sir W. R. Gowers points out that therefore desirable that the preparation of the vaccine and the study it has received has been chiefly at the hands of the inoculations should be carried out under specially skilled Italians. The facts known relating to both muscular and supervision.” In spite of this favourable verdict the brain fatigue are passed in review, and the methods of pre- advisory board still maintained its opposition, and Mr. vention are considered in turn. Mr. D. G. Hogarth de- Arnold-Forster therefore appointed another committee to scribes the palace of Knossos, and his account of recent advise him, consisting of Colonel Bruce and Dr. James researches is accompanied by a large plan.
Two other Galloway, of the advisory board, together with Dr. C. J. articles also are of special interest to men of science-one Martin and Dr. A. Macfadyen, Lister Institute, Dr. Bulloch, dealing with the Panama Canal and maritime commerce, London Hospital, Dr. Bruce Low, Local Government Board, the other summarising what has been accomplished in
Major Leishman, R.A.M.C., and Prof. Wright. This comWales in the provision of higher education. Referring to mittee has reported unanimously “that the anti-typhoid Sir Norman Lockyer's calculation, that to place the Welsh inoculation has resulted in a substantial diminution in the universities on a footing of equal efficiency with the best incidence and case mortality from typhoid fever, and reuniversities of Germany and America a capital sum of four commend that the system introduced by Prof. Wright millions is required, the writer says it is clear that Wales should be resumed in the Army.” The Army Council has herself cannot raise a tithe of this large sum, and emphasises adopted this recommendation, and is proceeding to carry the fact that it is to the State that Wales must look for out inoculations and to conduct investigations, by the agency the bulk of the money needed.
of Major Leishman, on volunteers from the 2nd Battalion
of Royal Fusiliers now proceeding to India. In a brief Bulletin issued by the Michigan State Agricultural Experiment Station (No. 218) Mr. Fred Edwards
A list of fresh-water algæ, collected by Mr. A. Howard reviews in popular language our present knowledge of soil
in Barbados, Dominica and Trinidad, and described Mr. bacteria in their relation to agriculture.
G. S. West, appears in the Journal of Botany (October).
This contains' species, some new, which are additional to The October number of Climate contains articles on
those recorded in papers previously published by the same malaria by Dr. Harford, the climate of Uganda and of
author. A species of Glæotænium, a green alga, is Lovaleland by Mr. Cook and Mr. Fisher respectively, and
figured, which is distinguished by the presence of a peculiar medical articles, notes, and reviews.
opaque cruciform zone. Biographical notes culled from Sir
M. Grant Duff's “ Notes from a Diary ” and other sources The Journal of the Royal Statistical Society for September include references to Sir James Paget, Brodrick, and John (vol. Ixvii., part iii.) contains the second and third reports Ball. of the committee appointed to inquire into the production and consumption of meat and dairy products in the United
The success obtained with Para rubber in Ceylon has led Kingdom, with remarks thereon by Mr. Rew, from which
to the experimental plantation of the tree in other countries. it appears that we are well ahead of other European nations
In India planters are wisely hesitating before they embark in meat consumption (122 lb. per head as against Germany's
upon a venture which yields no return for five years or 99 lb.), but appreciably behind our American cousins (150 lb.
longer. It is obviously the duty of the superintendents of per head), and much less carnivorous than our Australian
experimental gardens to investigate the possibilities, and in kinsmen (262 lb. per head). Mr. Thompson contributes a
the Tennasserim circle, Burma, the scheme instituted by Mr. paper on local expenditure and indebtedness England and
Manson for developing a large Para rubber plantation at Wales, and Mr. Adam a newly calculated life-table for
Mergui is progressing. Up to the present serious deScotland.
predations have been caused by deer and pigs which attack
the seedlings, but by planting out two-year-old plants it is Prof. A. E. Wright's system of anti-typhoid inoculation,
hoped that th
may be to a great extent obviated. The introduced by him in 1896, after being applied to the British
experiment, which was started in 1901, will be followed Army in India was forbidden by an army order in con
with considerable interest by planters. sequence of certain objections raised against it. During The annual report of the Royal Alfred Observatory, the South African War the inoculation of troops proceeding Mauritius, for the year 1903, states that the rainfall of the there was officially sanctioned, and Prof. Wright and his island for the year (mean of fifty-one stations) was 68.8 inches, assistants injected some 100,000 men without the slightest the average being 77.3 inches. The greatest falls in twentymishap. At the termination of the war the advisory board four hours were 9 inches at Constance d'Arifat on April 23, of the reorganised Army Medical Department recommended and 8.5 inches at Britannia on January 14. The number of that the practice of anti-typhoid inoculation should be ships which visited the island was 274, against 686 in 1882. suspended. Prof. Wright demurred to this decision, and in From the observations contained in their logs, daily synoptic consequence Mr. Brodrick referred the matter to the Royal weather charts were prepared and tracks of cyclones laid Society, and at their suggestion a special committee of the down. Photographs of the sun were taken daily when the Royal College of Physicians was appointed to examine and weather permitted ; 173 negatives were sent to the Solar report. This committee was composed of Dr. Rose Brad- Physics Committee. During the year 117 earthquakes were ford, Dr. Gee, Dr. Howard Tooth, Prof. Simpson, and Dr. recorded, particulars of which will be published in the annual Caiger, and reported unanimously that, after careful volume of observations. Mr. Claxton states that much scrutiny of the statistics from both official and private damage has been done to the library by white ants, and that sources which have been made available, we are of opinion it has been necessary to remove the books to another that not only is a lessened susceptibility to the disease position.
THE C.S. Weather Bureau has issued its meteorological usefully employed for a great number of manipulations, chart of the Great Lakes for the winter of 1903-4. This such as curve drawing, transferring outlines of mouldings, was the coldest winter in the lake region that has been &c. The parabola is of celluloid and is accurately cut, and experienced since the beginning of the Weather Bureau its axis, focus and latus rectum neatly engraved on it. In observations in 1871. Freezing temperatures commenced addition to its use for draughtsmen, teachers of matheabout the middle of November. The climax was reached maties will find it serviceable for the study of that curve. in February, when the mean monthly temperature ranged about 10° below the normal in all districts. On Lake A new general theory of errors has been contributed to Superior the ice-fields did not disappear from the eastern the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and portion until the last week in May, 1904. Several interest- Sciences, xi., 3 (August), by Mr. William Edward Story. ing photographs are given of vessels and ferries forcing their The author's object has been to develop the theory in such way through apparently impassable masses of ice as soon a way as to avoid the usual assumptions, the legitimacy as a thaw set in. When navigation is practicable storm of which, as approximations, may be questioned. It is warnings are displaved by day and night, and at almost all claimed that the present theory is based upon such simple stations a chart is issued showing the weather conditions at principles as will be generally admitted to be necessary for Sh. a.m. daily (except Sunday); masters of vessels are the mathematical treatment of any theory. The fundainvited to obtain these charts, or any other information in mental assumptions are as follows :- Possible errors form a connection with the weather, at any of the Weather Bureau practically continuous sequence from a certain lower limit offices.
to a certain upper limit. The probability that the error of
an observation lies between x and x+dx, where dx is Appendix iii. of a report upon the basin of the Upper infinitesimal, is $(x)dx, where $(x) is an analytical function Nile, with proposals for the improvement of that river by
of x, developable by Taylor's theorem throughout the whole Sir William Garstin, contains an interesting account of the
range of possible error. The probability that the error lies variations of level of Lake Victoria Nyanza contributed by
between given limits is independent of the unit of measureCaptain H. G. Lyons, the director of the Survey Department of Egypt. This lake has a water surface of about 68,000 square kilometres, and is situated about 1129 metres above
ATTENTION has already been directed in these columns to sea-level. It is believed to be of shallow depth, and lies
the important innovation introduced into this country by the for the most part of the year in the region of the equatorial
Drapers' Company in granting a sum of 1000l. to University rain and cloud belt, the excess water draining off at the
College, London, for the furtherance of research in applied Ripon Falls by the Victoria Nile. After reference to the
mathematics. No better testimony to the value of this grant geology and climate of the region, a brief historical sum
could be adduced than is afforded by a reference to the mary is given of the early lake levels as observed by
pages of Nos. I and 2 of the technical series of the Drapers' travellers and others visiting or residing by it; this is
Company Research Memoirs, edited by Prof. Karl Pearson.
In the first of these Mr. E. S. Andrews discusses the stresses followed by a detailed study and discussion of the various gauges. Some of the results obtained are as follows:
in crane and coupling hooks by means of the theory of The annual oscillation of the lake is from 0.30 metre to
elasticity, and describes experimental tests in verification of 0-90 metre. Between 1896 and 1902 there was
his theory. The present investigation shows not only that of 76 cm. in the average level, since followed by a
the existing theory is unsatisfactory, both theoretically and rise of 56 cm. The epochs of high and low levels are given
practically, but that improvements can well be made in as :-1878, high level; 1880-90, falling level ; 1892-95,
existing types of hooks by following lines laid down in the temporary high level ; 1896–1902, falling level ; 1903, rising
paper. In the second paper Mr. L. W. Atcherley directs level.
attention to certain very serious defects in the theory of masonry dams.
It is shown that the stresses across vertical We have received from Mr. W. J. Brooks, 33 Fitzroy
sections of a dam are far more important than those across Street, W., some of his patent flexible curves and a para
horizontal sections, and that in many existing dams not bolic curve. One of the former is a strip of celluloid with
only do shearing stresses exist in the vertical sections which
are far in excess of any considered safe by engineers, but tags at intervals along its length; when placed on paper
considerable tensile stresses also occur, which form a serious it can be bent to any desired curve, the fingers being placed on the tags to keep the strip in position ; the strip does
source of danger. These two papers are fitting illustrations not yield under the pen. A second form (pattern B) has a
of the many important practical problems now awaiting
solution, which could be solved at a very small cost by steel strip and is self-clamping and reversible; this in
the provision of further endowments for mathematical genious device maintains the steel strip in any position by
research. means of stiff-hinged linkwork attached to metal tabs. The shape of any curve thus formed by this strip can be trans
The third revised edition of “ The Scope and Method of ferred from one drawing to another, a desirable advantage
Political Economy,” by Dr. J. N. Keynes, has been pubto many workers. A third and longer form (pattern C),
lished by Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., at 75. 6d. net. also self-clamping and reversible, has been designed for such special purposes as are required by ship and boat Messrs. ROUTLEDGE AND Sons, LTD., have added to their builders, but it will have a much wider field of adaptation,
Country Books a profusely illustrated edition such as, for instance, in the construction of interpolation of Charles Kingsley's “ Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Seacurves for wave-lengths in spectroscopic work, &c. This shore.” The volume is published at 3s. 6d. pattern, which can be obtained from one foot up to any length, consists of light wooden cross-bars hinged to tabs Since the advent of the Nernst lamp, every physicist has fixed to a steel strip. The strips slide through brass spring- ; recognised that it would ultimately be very serviceable for clamps, and are thus held tight against a stout wooden lantern purposes. Any lecturer interested in the matter bar running the length of the curve. Several patterns and may see a well designed lantern provided with Nernst filasizes for all the curves are obtainable, and they may be ments, in actual use, at Mr. R. W. Paul's, High Holborn.
series of “
8. ih. 5om.
Mr. H. G. WELLS returns to the more serious side of his
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. work in “ A Modern Utopia,” which is being published ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES IN NOVEMBER :month by month in the Fortnightly Review. As in
Nov. 5. Saturn. Outer major axis of outer ring = 39":42. “ Anticipations Mankind in the Making,” Mr.
Outer minor axis of outer ring=11".01. Wells concerns himself with sociological problems, and
Minimum of Algol (B Persei). pictures the probable manners and customs of society in 9. 13h. om. Venus in conjunction with Moon (Venus, a Utopia, situated on a distant planet, which is the natural
6° 30' S.).
Minimum of Algol (B Persei). outcome of continued development on modern lines.
13. 21h. om. Juno in conjunction with Moon (Juno, A REVISED edition of Mr. H. N. Chute's Physical
0° 8' N.). Laboratory Manual ” has been published by Messrs. D. C.
14. oh. Om. Saturn in conjunction with Moon (Saturn, Heath and Co. In this edition sound and light have been
3° 53' S.).
5b. 28m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei). made to follow mechanics, because, the author says, " there
16t.. Epoch of November meteors (Leonids, radiant seems to be a consensus of opinion among teachers that
150° +22°). ... the grade is less steep than it is where these subjects 15. Venus. Illuminated portion of disc=0.832, of Mars follow electricity.” A few of the problems of the first
16. edition have been omitted, and new ones added.
15h. Venus and Uranus in conjunction (Venus,
1° 28' S.). The first number of the Journal of Agricultural Science,
17. 5h. 5m. Transit of Jupiter's Sat. III. (Ganymede), edited by Messrs. T. H. Middleton, 1. B. Wood, R.
egress. Biffen, and A. D. Hall, in consultation with other gentle
19. nih. Jupiter in conjunction with Moon (Jupiter,
1° 31' N.). men, will be published in January next by the Cambridge
Ioh. 24m. to nih. 44m. Moon occults & Ceti University Press. The journal will publish only definitely
(mag. 4-5). scientific work in agricultural science, and will not include
23. 5h. 20m. Near approach of Moon to a Tauri (mag. the results of the ordinary trials of manures and varieties
I'I). for demonstration or commercial purposes.
24. 6h. 39m. to Sh. 34m. Transit of Jupiter's Sat. III. Papers for
(Ganymede). publication should be sent to Mr. T. B. Wood, University 25. Vesta in opposition to Sun (Vesta, mag. 6-5). Department of Agriculture, Cambridge.
Encke's COMET 1904 b.-In No. 3973 of the Astronomische The seventh edition of Dr. J. Frick's “ Physikalische
Nachrichten M. M. Kaminsky gives a further ephemeris for Technik,” enlarged and completely revised by Prof. O.
Encke's comet, which he has corrected in accordance with
the observation made at Heidelberg on September 11. The Lehmann, is in course of publication by Messrs. F. Vieweg ephemeris gives the daily positions of the comet from and Son, Brunswick. The first half of vol. i. has been October 14 to December 5, and the following is an abstract received, and the second half is promised shortly. The
therefrom :second volume will be published in a year or two, and will
Ephemeris oh. (M.T. Berlin).
a app. complete the work. In the part before us there are 629
log. " log. A pages and 2003 illustrations of lecture and laboratory Nov. 3 23 10 34
+ 24 9
0'1510 9*7380 apparatus for demonstrations and experiments in various
3 +23 21 0'1424 907305 branches of mechanics and physics.
22 51 37
+ 22 29 01335 97237 9 22 42 19
0'1243 97178 A CHEAP edition (is. net) of Mr. G. F. Chambers's
22 33 11 + 20 36
... 01147 9*7125 Astronomy for General Readers " has just been published
22 24 17
9.7080 22 15 34
O'0946 9*7040 by Messrs. Whittaker and Co. The book contains 268
7 5 +17 29
9.7008 pages and 134 illustrations, most of which represent the
» 19 21 58 49
+16 24 0'0730 9.6978 pictorial efforts of bygone days. As instances of the worst of these figures, reference may be made to Figs. 29, 104,
The accompanying chart shows, approximately, the
apparent path of the comet through the constellation 105, 106, 109, and 112. Before issuing this cheap edition Pegasus into Equuelus from now until December 5. an attempt should have been made to bring the text and the illustrations in line with the present position of astronomy, instead of leaving them as they were in the original volume.
The Journal of Anatomy and Physiology for October (xxxix., part i.) contains a number of valuable papers, but of purely anatomical interest. The principal contribution is by Dr. Huntington on the derivation and significance of certain supernumerary muscles of the pectoral region, illustrated with fourteen excellent coloured plates.
The new illustrated catalogue of physical apparatus just issued by Messrs. F. E. Becker and Co. (Messrs. W. and J. George, Ltd.) is likely to prove indispensable in the physical laboratories of all our schools and colleges. It runs to 628 large pages, and is strongly bound in cloth. Full particulars are provided, not only respecting the apparatus required in elementary and advanced physical teaching, but also concerning that necessary to the physicist in his research work. All branches of physics are included, and the instruments throughout are explained by excellent illustrations and concise descriptions, and, what is of prime importance, the figure and its appropriate text are close together.
garding the absence of any allied magnetic disturbances | uplift first occurred. Blocks from the adjacent cliff slipped during the appearance of a vigorous sun-spot from May 19 down over the sand, and the series was then preserved by to June 26, 1901.
the Boulder-clay of the Glacial epoch. The wide stretch Herr Nippoldt questions the advisability of introducing of coast, from Carnsore Point in co. Wexford to Baltimore statistical gradations of the magnetic disturbances, and con- in the west of co. Cork, over which this raised platform tends that the magnetic effect at any one place or at a has been traced, affords ample opportunities for comparing number of places in approximately the same latitude is, the modern with the ancient features. The authors show possibly, not a measure of the solar cause. That is to say, that the pre-Glacial sea worked against a cliff about 100 feet an instrument near the poles might register a “great in height, and consequently advanced slowly, leaving a when the Potsdam or Stonyhurst recorders only registered denuded surface remarkably free from stacks and irregularia "small " disturbance. Consequently, he would urge that / ties. This surface commonly lies about 12 feet above the when the magnetograph trace shows any marked diver- modern beach. Unfortunately, no trace of fossils has yet gence from the normal one might consider that a disturbance appeared in the old beach-deposits, and the authors believe had taken place, and he shows, by a reproduction of the that even pebbles of limestone have been removed by "horizontal-intensity” curve obtained Potsdam on perurlating water. The Boulder-clay above contains the May 30-31, 1901, that a disturbance did take place during usual n:olluscs, including northern species. the time that the spot which Father Cortie especially dis- The pre-Glacial beach is traced into the estuaries of the cussed was on the sun.
rivers of southern Ireland; consequently these inlets are Finally, he confirms M. Deslandres's opinion that in the still older. Since they have arisen from the submergence future the solar observations should be continuous, and of river-valleys, the river-system and the submergence are thereby become more strictly comparable with the magnetic of pre-Glacial age. This simple but important observation records.
seems effectually to negative the views of the late Prof.
Carvill Lewis and Mr. James Porter (Irish Naturalist, 1902, THE THIRD BAND OF THE Air SPECTRUM.-In No. 16 (1904) P. 153), who argued that deposits of glacial drift might of the Comptes rendus MM. H. Deslandres and A. Kannapell have turned the lower portions of these rivers into their publish the results of a study of the third air band, which present north-and-south direction. We are thrown back, occurs in the more refrangible part of the ultra-violet end of the spectrum (9 3000 to 1. 2000), under a large dispersion.
The apparatus used consisted of a capillary vacuum tube closed with a plate of quartz under a pressure of less than 1 mm. of mercury, and a spectrograph containing two calcite prisms of 60° and two quartz lenses of 1.3 metres focal length. The latter produced a dispersion which, in the neighbourhood of N=42,189 (À 2370), gave a separation of 0.005 mm. for a difference of 0.06 N.
The wave-lengths of the lines were obtained by reference to a spectrum of iron, using Kayser's fundamental values for the wave-lengths of the latter, and the authors state that in the individual values obtained for N the first six figures are correct.
In the results it is seen that, although the lines of the band may be separated into four series of doublets according to Deslandres's law, so that the difference of wavelengths in each series advances in arithmetical progression, yet the variations from the computed values
Fig. 1.-Section in Courtmacsherry Bay, co. Cork, showing beach-gravel and sand resting on shoreare greater than may be accounted
platform, and overlain by Boulder-clay. for by errors of measurement, and, what is more remarkable, the sign of these variations for series i. and ii. is opposite to that then, upon the view of Jukes in accounting for the courses obtained for series iii. and iv.
of the Blackwater and the Lee, and may see, as the drift is slowly washed away, further and further developments
of the pre-Glacial topography of Ireland. We have been PRE-GLACIAL TOPOGRAPHY.1
apt to assume that the western fjords and rias originated
when the glaciers retreated from them and the land sank THE beautifully illustrated memoir by Messrs. Wright upon the Atlantic side. It now becomes possible that the
and Muff, recently issued by the Royal Dublin Society, tongues of ice spread into pre-existing inlets, banking out directs attention to an ancient rock-platform on which the sea, and again admitting it in warmer times. Messrs. Glacial deposits were laid down in southern Ireland. The Wright and Muff even conclude, from British as well as importance of such observations is clear when we consider Irish indications, that a considerable portion of the coastthe possibility of the preservation of a pre-Glacial, and line of Southern Britain is of pre-glacial age. The approxiperhaps Pliocene, fauna in favoured localities beneath mation over so wide an area of the sea-level in pre-glacial the drift. At Courtmacsherry Bay, for example, south- times to that of the present day renders it very probable west of Cork Harbour, a well marked rock-shelf occurs that Ireland was already insulated before the Glacial about 5 feet above high-water mark. On this rests a Period.” raised beach, with ferruginous sand and rows of pebbles, This only increases the difficulty of assuming an extincsucceeded by the blown sand that accumulated when the tion of the fauna and flora of Ireland during the maximum 1 "The Pre-Glacial Raised Beach of the South Coast of Ireland.” By
extension of the ice. Many points of cheerful controversy W. B. Wright and H. B. Muff. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal
lurk behind this straightforward and descriptive paper. Dublin Society, vol. x. part ii. (Dublin : University Press, 1904.) Price 3s.
Grenville A. J. Cole.