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THE SALMON FISHERIES OF ENGLAND
power given under existing Acts to enforce those Acts being AND WALES.'
carried out. THIS report, although the first issued by the Board of
Dr. Masterman, who was appointed only just before the Agriculture and Fisheries, is on the same lines as the
end of the period with which the reports are required to forty-three previous annual reports of the Inspectors of
deal, submits a short but interesting paper upon fish scales Fisheries of England and Wales issued by the Board of
and upon the method of distinguishing the species of Trade. It embodies the reports of the three Inspectors of
Salmonidæ. He refers to the work so far done upon fish Fisheries of England and Wales, Messrs. Archer and Fryer
scales as a means of recording the age of fishes, and in and Dr. Masterman. Besides these reports there are twelve
this connection we are glad to learn that the salmon scale appendices.
is being studied at the present time by Mr. H. W. Johnston. It is pleasing to learn from Mr. Archer's report that the
The salmon scale is particularly interesting, as a number salmon and trout season of 1903 was on the whole a good
of rings--roughly about thirty-immediately surrounding Mr. Archer refers to the long-standing difficulty of
the nucleus of the scale, and occupying roughly about getting accurate statistics, and has made inquiries of the
0.5 mm. or 0.6 mm., are much finer, and are situated much various boards of conservators as to the possible methods
closer together, than the rings outside this area, perhaps of obtaining them. The answers from these boards are not
representing the fresh-water life period of the individual. encouraging, and it is apparent that legislation is necessary
We notice that the gross revenue returned during 1903 in order to compel the recording of fish caught.
was 75041., as against 66061. in 1902. There were more rod As usual, the want of funds by the boards of con
licences issued than in any previous years since the comservators, and the impossibility of their carrying out their
mencement of the statistics, although the revenue thereproper work without such funds, is discussed. The present
from, amounting to 32941., was not equal to that realised system by which the boards derive their revenue solely in 1892, when it was 33861. Revenue from nets was also from the net and rod licences granted annually is obviously slightly better than in 1902, being 39941. as against 39051., inadequate, and Mr. Archer quotes a resolution adopted
but in 1902 these licences realised less than in any year unanimously by the Wye Board of Conservators, which is
since 1867, the first year of the statistics, when only 38511. as follows:
was obtained. That as the present system, by which the income of
Trout licences produced more in 1903 than in any previous Fishery Boards in England and Wales depends entirely
year. upon the amount realised from licences paid for nets and
The report is published at His Majesty's Stationery Office, rods, has proved inadequate for the proper protection of the
and is obtainable from Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, or Fisheries, this Board is of opinion that legislation is urgently through any bookseller, price 8d. required to enable any Fishery Board, with the consent and
FRANK BALFOUR BROWNE. subject to conditions formulated by the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, to assess the annual value of all the Fisheries in its district and to levy a rate upon each Fishery for the
CORALS. purpose of providing the Board with a sufficient income for the proper protection and management of the Fisheries THE classification of corals based upon the structure of
the We quote this, not because it is new, for the suggestion used by zoologists in general since the publication of Milnethat some form of assessment of fisheries was probably un- Edwards and Haime's “ Histoire Naturelle des Coralliavoidable was made by the Salmon Fisheries Commission aires (1857-1860), is clearly not satisfactory. Some conin their report in 1902, but because this move on the part sideration in the system of the general anatomy of the soft of the Wye Board is worthy of commendation, and seems to tissues of the living coral polyps is clearly necessary if our us to be a move in the right direction. Too often our Royal classification is intended to indicate at all the natural groupCommissions make valuable reports which are pigeon- | ing of the genera and species. holed, and perhaps if the various boards of conservators The startling discoveries made by Moseley during the pass similar resolutions to that passed by the Wye Board, voyage of the Challenger, that the coral Heliopora and the and thus show some common agreement in the matter, it corals of the family Stylasteridæ do not belong even to the will go some way towards making those in authority take same order as the Madrepores, was an important, if not the matter up seriously. We have heard' rumours of new the principal, stimulus to the investigations of the anatomy salmon legislation, and let us hope that the financial side of these zoophytes that have been published in recent years. of the question will have full consideration.
Moseley himself, and his pupils Bourne, Fowler, and Mr. Archer discusses further evidence brought forward Sclater, and abroad von Heider and von Koch, contributed by those who believe in the advantages of artificial pro- valuable memoirs on the anatomy of different species of pagation of salmon to show the success of the experiments Madreporaria, and slowly but without any further startling upon the Weser in Germany, and he shows quite clearly effects our knowledge grew. The result of these investinot proven
must still be the verdict on the questiongations was to con rm the belief in the close relationship of their success.
of the Madrepores to the sea anemones, and to show that We are very glad to see from Mr. Fryer's report that in the structure of the mesenteries, tentacles, and other salmon-marking experiments, which have now been carried organs there are differences between the genera of great on for some years in Scotland and Ireland and in Norway, systematic importance. But still our knowledge remained have been undertaken in England. The percentage of insufficient to suggest any permanent improvement on the returns of marked salmon is not very high, and the more
Edwardsian system. the experiment is extended the better chance there is of Some years ago Mr. Duerden, when stationed in the gathering data which will throw some light upon the island of Jamaica, commenced a series of investigations migratory habits of the species.
upon the living corals of Kingston harbour and its neighAt last steps are being taken to alter the anomalous bourhood. He took advantage of his opportunities for state of the law as to the English and Scottish sides of the observing them alive on the reef and in his aquarium ; he Solway, as recommended by the Royal Commission on was equipped with a profound knowledge of the structure Tweed and Solway Fisheries, which sent in its report eight of the Actiniaria and of the modern methods of anatomical years ago.
investigation. A series of papers and notes marked the There is a résumé of the various local questions with period of his residence in Jamaica ; but he reserved for which Mr. Fryer has had to deal, and it is in reading this this magnificent memoir of 200 quarto pages a general and that one sees the futility of our present fishery laws. While detailed account of his work. inspectors or boards of conservators are corresponding with To say that the memoir is brilliant is to express an this manufacturer or that company or corporation as to the opinion, but to say that it is important is but to state a fact. steps to be taken to mitigate some nuisance, the seasons slip | Zoologists who are interested in the structure of corals by and nothing is done, often because there is insufficient must refer to this memoir as a great store of first-hand
1 Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. Annual Report of Proceedings I "West Indian Madreporarian Polyps." By J. E. Duerden. Memoirs under the Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Acts, &c., for the Year 1903. of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. viii. (Washington, 1902.)
facts, and whoever attempts in the future to classify the It is a matter for regret, which many will share with Zoantharia must base his conclusions upon many of the the reviewer, that in the introduction to the systematic part anatomical details which are here for the first time of the memoir Mr. Duerden has not given us his views as adequately recorded.
to the relation of the Actiniaria to the Madreporaria, a No less than twenty-six species of corals, distributed difficult matter upon which no one is more competent to among twenty genera, formed the materials of Mr.
express an opinion. Duerden's investigations, and, although the descriptions are There are some points in the terminology employed by not exhaustive, there is a very full and interesting account Mr. Duerden that appear to me to be open to some objecof the general structure of all these forms.
By universal acceptation," he says, CænenThe brilliancy of the colours of many corals in the living chyme is the calcareous deposit originating from the state has excited the interest and admiration of the cænosarc." This is most unfortunate. The word was naturalists and travellers who have visited coral reefs. introduced by Milne-Edwards and Haime to signify the These colours appear to be due to a variety of causes. In common tissue which precedes the existence of the polyps many cases the cavities of the polyps and the adjacent and plays a considerable part in their constitution. In a canals bear large numbers of the symbiotic algæ called similar sense Kölliker uses the expression as the tissue that Zooxanthellæ. The colour of these cells accounts for most gives rise to the axis of the precious coral. It was for the of the prevailing brown and yellow-brown tints.
In some soft, not the hard, parts of the “ common tissue" that the few instances, such as Istrangia solitaria and Phyllan gia word was introduced. But to say that by “universal americana, the Zooxanthellæ are nearly or wholly absent, acceptation the word is used for the calcareous deposit is and the polyps then are remarkably transparent and almost not accurate, for the writers on Alcyonarians invariably colourless. But there are in many cases definite pigment use the word to signify both hard and soft parts, other than cells, both in the ectoderm and endoderm, which may add the axis, which lie between the neighbouring zooids. to or give the only colour effect of the expanded polyps. A Again, the use of the word “ gastro-colom” for the third cause of colour is to be found in the boring filamentous general body-cavity of the Cælenterate, suggesting as it does red and bright green algæ with which many corals are a compromise with the old-fashioned gastro-vascular cavity, infested.
is to be regretted. Either of the words “ enteroceel The chapter dealing with the structure and arrangement“ cælenteron” is preferable. of the tentacles is one of exceptional interest. To investi- On the other hand, the discussion (pp. 443-4) on the use gators in this country the tentacles have always offered of terms referring to the aspects of the coelenterate body difficulties and uncertainties. However carefully the is excellent. The aspect of the body towards which the faces
bearing the musculature of the two complete bilateral pairs of mesenteries, i, ii, are turned was called by Haddon the “ sulcar” aspect, and the opposite the “ sulcular ” aspect. This terminology was adopted by Bourne in his “ Anthozoa" of Lankester's “Treatise on Zoology." Marshall, in writing upon certain Alcyonarians, had previously used the
abaxial ” and axial ” respectively, and these
were introduced to supersede the “ ventral ” and dorsal ” of Moseley, Kölliker, and others. It is quite clear now from Mr. Duerden's remarks that the use of the newer sets of terms can lead to nothing but confusion. Anything that can be called a “ sulcus” occurs only in
Alcyonaria and a few Zoantharia; the b.
myth. FIG. 1.-Diagrammatic figures showing the arrangement of the first six
But of more importance is the fact that, as shown by pairs of mesenteries in (a) Madrepora ; (6) most other species of Madre- Carlgren, the “ sulcus” is dorsal in Cerianthus and ventral poraria. The upper side of each is the side turned towards the axis in the other forms where it occurs. The axial-abaxial re(axial), and the lower is away from the axis (abaxial). The axial side of Madrepora is ventral, whereas in most other species it is dorsal. (The
lationship, moreover, is not constant. In the Alcyonaria upper of the bilateral pairs marked v, v in a should have been vi, vi).
and in the majority of Zoantharia the dorsal aspect of the
polyp is turned towards the axis of the colony, and the material they can obtain is preserved, it is impossible to
ventral aspect away from the axis; but in Madrepora this prevent a great deal of retraction and shrinkage. Mr.
arrangement is reversed. In the solitary Anthozoa the use
of the terms “ axial ” and abaxial" has no meaning. Duerden's careful observations, therefore, of the fully ex
The conclusion is then that, although they are open to panded tentacles of his living corals form a particularly welcome addition to our knowledge.
some objections, the use of the terms
and The most elaborate, and perhaps we may say the most
ventral " for the two aspects of the bilateral anthozoon important, part of the author's work deals with the number
must be retained.
In conclusion, Mr. Duerden may be congratulated on the and arrangement of the mesenteries. This is not the place to relate or to criticise details which are necessarily highly production of a really great work which marks an imtechnical and somewhat intricate ; but it may be said that
portant step forward in the history of our knowledge of the
Calenterata. it is upon the results of this part of his investigations that
SYDNEY J. Hickson. the suggestions he has to offer for the classification of the order very largely depend. If we regard the Madreporaria as an order, we may
SEISMOLOGICAL NOTES. divide it into two suborders :-(!) the Entocnemaria, (2) the IN No. 10, vol. ix., of the Boll. Soc. Sismol. Italiana, Dr. Cyclocnemaria. In the former the mesenteries always arise Agamennone records the fact that his idea of taking in bilateral pairs, and beyond the protocnemic stage the photographs, at intervals, from fixed points, in regions increase takes place within one or both of the directive suspected of bradiseismic movements, was independently entocæles. In the latter the mesenteries, beyond the proto- | suggested by F. Salmojraghi. The object is to detect slow chemic stage, arise in isocnemic unilateral pairs within the or rapid changes of relative level in the interior of a conprimary exocæles. The Entocnemaria are represented only tinent, where there is no such convenient datum level as by the single section Perforata, the Cyclocnemaria by the is afforded by the sea, and the paper is specially devoted to two sections Aporosa and Fungacea. The arrangement of showing that the effects of refraction, being irregular, would the families of the Aporosa into two groups, the Gemmantes not prevent the detection of a bradiseismic change of relative and the Fissiparantes, based upon the method of asexual re- level in a regular series of photographic records. production--by gemmation or by stomodæal fission-sup- No. 23 of the Mittheilungen of the Austrian Earthquake ported as it is by Mr. Duerden's later researches, can be Commission is a paper by Prof. Láska on the application regarded as only tentative and suggestive at present; but of earthquake observations to the investigation of the conthe facts upon which it is based are among the most interest- stitution of the interior of the earth. From a consideration ing and important of his many results.
of the observations of the Caraccas earthquake of
October 29, 1900, in Europe and Japan, he arrives at the which would be required to raise a mass equal to that of conclusion that if the earth consists of a central core and
the earth through 1.2 mm. at its surface (Die Erdbebenan outer shell, each of uniform composition, the outer shell
warte, iii., 1904, pp. 196–202). must have a thickness of not more than 500 km.
This Prof. Omori contributes a note on the variations of sea result would fall in with Milne's hypothesis, but as this is level on the east coast of Japan to part xiii. of vol. ii. of considered to be inconsistent with the facts of astronomy, he the reports of the Tokio Physico-Mathematical Society. adopts the conclusion that there is a continuous increase in The curves of barometric pressure and sea level are very the rate of propagation from the surface to the centre of similar, and approximately reversed; the maximum sea level the earth, this increase being much more rapid near the is in September and the minimum in February, while the surface than at greater depths; this condition would result minimum barometric pressure is in July and the maximum in the wave motion being propagated along curvilinear in November. The range of barometric pressure is 9:3 m., paths, and give rise to a small apparent rate of propagation corresponding to 126 mm. of sea level, while the range of near the origin as compared with that found at greater sea level amounts to 276 mm. at Misaki and 219 mm. at distances. The value of Prof. Láska's conclusion is
Ayukaua ; these figures show that while the local variations diminished by the fact that it is based on the consideration of barometric pressure doubtless influence the level of the of only a single earthquake, the time of origin of which sea, this is also dependent on the variations of barometric is not known by direct observation.
pressure over the Pacific Ocean. The net result is that the In the Boll. dell Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in
variations of pressure on the bed of the sea are the opposite Catania of February, 1904, Prof. Ricco returns to the con- of those on the adjoining land, and Prof. Omori correlates sideration of the gravitational anomalies he has detected this fact with the observed variations in frequency of earthunder Mount Etna, and shows that they are accompanied by quakes originating off the east coast of Japan. corresponding irregularities in the course of the lines of equal The Deutschen Rundschau, vol. xxvii., part i., contains magnetic force. Prof. Ricco merely records the fact of these
an interesting note, originally printed in the Honolulu magnetic irregularities, but the observation is important in
Evening Bulletin of June 21, 1904, by Dr. Otto Kuntze on its bearing on the explanation of the gravitational anomaly,
the present condition of Kilauea, which he describes as which is equivalent to the removal of more than 1000 metres being now dormant or extinct. There are no longer any in thickness of rock, at sea level, from under the summit of “ lakes of fire"; the old lake of lava has cooled, and is the mountain. It is inconceivable that this can be due to
covered by a sheet of rock, and though steam issues from the existence of huge cavities in the earth; more probably some of the cracks in this, no molten, or even red-hot, rock the effect is due to the existence of a “root” of the moun- is now visible. A remarkable statement in the note is that tain, depressed into a denser magma, by the buoyancy of the lava lake, formerly visible, did not mark an active vent, which the visible mountain is supported. There is indepen- but was merely a reservoir of slowly cooling lava, which dent geological evidence that Mount Etna lies over a region had flowed from the crater of Halemaumau and accumulated of special subsidence, the basis of sedimentary rock on which in the lowest part of the caldera of Kilauea. There is no it was heaped up having been depressed during its form
authentic record of this crater, which rises from the floor ation, and if we suppose this depression to have caused the of the caldera, having been in eruption since June 24, 1897, displacement of denser by less dense rocks to a considerable
and the paper contains some strongly worded comments on depth, we get an explanation of both gravitational and
the mis-statements regarding the present condition of the magnetic anomalies. A rough calculation shows that the crater, printed in the guide book's issued by the tourist buoyancy of the downward protuberance would, on the most agencies, mis-statements which are unnecessary, as Kilauea, favourable supposition, be inadequate to support the whole even in its existing condition, is nevertheless one of the most weight of the mountain, and it must be concluded that
interesting sights in the world, of which Dr. Kuntz claims Mount Etna is not in a condition of complete isostacy, but that few have seen more than himself. partially supported by an upward force.
In No. 17 of the Publications of the Earthquake InvestiIn No. 1 of the tenth volume of the Bolletino of the
gation Committee in Foreign Languages, Mr. S. Kusakabe Italian Seismological Society Prof. Grablovitz discusses the
continues his investigations of the modulus of elasticity of vexed question of the nature of the wave motion in the rocks, and publishes some interesting results. He finds that third phase of the record of a distant earthquake. The all rocks show a marked hysteresis, that is to say, when occasion is the series of earthquakes which originated in the exposed to a stress they go on yielding, apparently to an Balkan peninsula on April 4, 1904; as registered at Ischia, indefinite extent, though after a while the effect is masked the great waves had a period of about 8 seconds, and, if the by that due to changes of temperature, and when released records of the horizontal pendula are interpreted as due to from the stress the recovery takes place at a continuously tilting, they indicate angular movements of as much as
decreasing rate, but apparently is never complete. Rocks 100 seconds of arc, and this means a vertical movement of in a state of strain have a higher modulus of elasticity than more than 2 metres; in the same earthquakes the instru
in the unstrained condition, and if exposed to a series of ment for recording the vertical component of the movement alternating stresses, increasing and decreasing in opposite gave only negative results. From this Prof. Grablovitz | directions, the mean modulus for the whole cycle is disconcludes that the records obtained from the horizontal
tinctly greater than that obtained by the usual method of pendula and the vasca sismica are not due to tilting; he determination. The mean modulus of elasticity decreases admits that there may have been a small amount of vertical with the increase in amplitude of the cycle, from which it movement which the instrument failed to record, but this is concluded that the rate of transmission of earthquake must have been much smaller than that obtained by calcu- waves is a function of their amplitude, and is less for a lation in the ordinary way.
larger than for a smaller amplitude. The modulus of The number contains a description, by Dr.
elasticity was found to have a maximum value at about Agamennone, of a new form of very delicate seismoscope, 9° C., and to decrease by about half per cent. of its value adapted for the detection of both near and distant earth- for each rise of one degree of temperature; from this it quakes; and an account, by D. Vassalo, illustrated by a is inferred that there is a tendency towards a decrease in sketch plan, of the condition of Stromboli in June, 1904. the rate of transmission as the depth of the wave path
Dr. R. von Kövesligethy, of Budapest, has made an increases. On the other hand, the average rate of transingenious calculation of the work done by great earth- mission is higher in Archæan and Palæozoic than in the quakes. Regarding the observed irregularities in the dis- newer rocks, and from these two considerations the deducplacement of the poles as compounded of a regular epicycloid tion is drawn that there is a level of maximum velocity of movement, and an irregular movement, which has been transmission. We may point out that in arriving at this shown by Prof. Milne to vary with the frequency of great conclusion no account is taken of the increase in pressure earthquakes, he calculates that each of the 200 great earth- with depth, and the consequent increase in compression of quakes registered during the eight years 1895-1902 caused the rocks. an average displacement of the pole through -0".00275; Prof. Imamura, in the Tokio Sugaku-Butsurigakkwai the negative sign is interesting, as showing that the tendency (Tokio Physico-Mathematical Society), vol. ii., No. 13, of great earthquakes is to diminish the departure of the adopts the same notion that there is a level of maximum instantaneous from the mean axis of revolution. The work rate of propagation, and places this level at a depth of a done by this displacement is calculated as equivalent to that few hundred kilometres. The estimate is based on the
high rate of transmission, as much as 16 km. per second, deduce one or several racial types in the population of a obtained for near earthquakes by a calculation from the given region. observed duration of the preliminary tremors, on the Such measurements concerning the principal racial assumption that their rate of propagation is uniform. In characters, for instance, the stature, the colours of the hair another part of the paper he gives the results of direct calcu- and the eyes, the shape of the head (expressed principally lation in the case of ten earthquakes the time of origin of by the cephalic.index, i.e. the centesimal relation between which was known; for Tokio, at a mean epicentral distance the length and the breadth of the head), &c., have been made of 003 km., the rates were 7.5 km. per second for the first, in nearly all the parts of Europe--especially by the examinand 15 km. per second for the second, phase of the pre- ation of conscripts for the military service. liminary tremors, while Osaka, at a mean epicentral
The only countries in which such measurements are now distance of 856 km., gave 8.2 km. and 5.8 km. per second absent are Montenegro, some provinces of European Turkey respectively. These values may be accepted as more trust
and of Caucasus. Some other countries, and not of the worthy than those obtained by the other method.
least civilised, have not yet furnished sufficient information. Globus of September 15 contains a note by Wilhelm Krebs For instance, there is no data concerning the cephalic index on the distribution of submarine earthquakes, illustrated
and the stature for Prussia and some other States of by a map of the world, on which all the recorded instances
northern Germany; concerning cephalic index and pigmentare plotted. Many of these are submarine volcanic erup- ation for Hungary, Roumania, and Servia ; concerning the tions, and their great concentration in the middle of the cephalic index for some parts of Switzerland, of Holland, narrowest part of the Atlantic Ocean, between Africa and
of Russia, and, the lecturer regretted to have to mention South America, is very striking. The utility of charts of
that, for some parts of the United Kingdom. this description would be much increased if they bore on
The lecturer expressed then the hope that in a short time their face indications of the principal trade routes of the
all these lacunae would disappear; considering this fact, oceans; as it is, some doubt may be felt as to whether the
that many serious efforts are made now for studying the much greater frequency of recorded seismic phenomena in
populations in Germany, Roumania, Russia, and Great the Atlantic Ocean may not be due to a very large extent
Britain. In every case this lacunae represent only a small to the fact that this ocean is, proportionately, much more
part of Europe. For the rest, the details are sufficient, and frequented than the Pacific. The other centres of activity,
furnish a basis for general deductions. according to the map, are the West Indian islands, the
Taking the whole mass of these results (about 20,000, west coast of South America, the south of the Bay of Bengal individuals), and correcting them as to be comparable with
expressing the observations on more than 3,000,000 of the Malay Archipelago, the east coast of Japan, and the Mediterranean.
each other, the lecturer explained how he put on the maps of Europe, of a comparatively large scale (1/10,000,000),
district by district, this different data, and obtained in this THE RACIAL ELEMENTS IN THE PRESENT
way the distribution of every one of the principal somatic POPULATION OF EUROPE.'
characters throughout the different regions of Europe. THE lecturer opened his discourse with a graceful Concerning the cephalic index, Europe can be divided
acknowledgment of the honour conferred upon him into four regions : by the Anthropological Institute, and paid a respectful (1) A region of long-headed people with medium-headed tribute to the memory of Huxley, who was the first to make areas in the north-west (Scandinavia, north of Germany, the two-fold division of the peoples of Europe into xantho
Holland, Great Britain). chroid and melanochroid races. With the name of Huxley (2) A region in the south-west (Portugal, Spain, south of he coupled the names of Beddoe and Broca as pioneers in Italy, east of Balkan Peninsula), characterised by even European ethnographical research. To the two
greater length of head. mentioned above a third was soon added—the Mediterranean (3) A very short-headed region in western Central Europe race--and the lecturer himself had in 1897 made a further (south-eastern France, southern Germany, northern Italy, step by dividing the population of Europe into six main Switzerland) and in the immediate west of the Balkan He then dealt with criticisms which had been passed
Peninsula. upon his own theories, chiefly by the American ethnologist (4) A region comprising Russia and Poland subdivided Ripley, and stated that the further researches upon which
into three, moderately long-headed in the centre, and he had continually been engaged since that date, and of
medium-headed on the east and west. which he was about to lay the results before the audience, After discussing these regions in detail, he proceeded to the had confirmed him in his first opinion. During a consider
subject of stature. He remarked that the great mass of his able number of years he had been diligently collecting
data was compiled from measurements taken on conscripts, statistics concerning the stature, colour of eyes and hair,
and explained an ingenious method by which these measureand head measurements of the various nationalities, and
ments could be modified so that they represented fairly the now, in spite of certain lacunae, some of which he regretted
typical stature of the full-grown male population. In Europe to observe occurred in Britain, he was able to say that he
there are no people of very short stature according to the possessed data covering the whole of Europe.
classification invented by Topinard (under 1,600 mm., or In no part of the world does there exist such a blending
63 inches) ; on the other hand, this continent is distinguished of races, such an intermixture of somatic characters, as
by the tallest race known, the Highlanders of Scotland. amongst the ethnic groups which constitute the present
Flence, for the purpose of this lecture, he would speak of populations of Europe, even when we make abstraction of
statures ranging between 1650 and 1675 mm. (65 inches to the “national ” groupings, such as Austro-Hungarian
66 inches) as medium, those below these measurements as monarchy, for instance, and consider only the properly
short, and those above as tall. Tall statures are, with a called ethnic or linguistic groups, like Slavic, Roman,
very few exceptions, particularly well represented in the Germanic, &c.
north-west ; the rest of the population of Europe is, again In an anthropological study of the European populations of medium or short stature.
with certain exceptions, chiefly in the Balkan Peninsula, it is impossible to proceed in the same way as in the case
People of medium stature are of the majority of the so-called uncivilised peoples, where
found grouped round the regions where the tall peoples the measurements of a small series of individuals (often
occur, and connect the tall races of the north-west with
those of the south-east. Short statures he divided into three twenty or fifty) suffices to give an idea of the whole population.
groups, eastern (Russia), western (France), and southern Another method is required for the study of complicated (Spain and Italy), and showed how the eastern zone com
municated by narrow channels ethnic groups. It is the combination of the statistical and
with other centres of
short stature. the cartographical methods, in which the observations, taken on many thousands of individuals permit the investigator
In grouping the peoples of Europe with regard to colour to exclude the influence of accidental variations, and to
of complexion, eyes and hair, he had taken as the 'basis of
his classification the brunette type (eyes and hair dark Summary of the Fifth Huxley Memorial Lecture, delivered before the
brown or black), as the most easy of recognition. Those Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, on October 7, by Dr. J. Deniker, president of the Anthropological Society of Paris, to whom
peoples among whom are found from 17 per cent. to 30 per was presented the Huxley Memorial medal.
cent. of brunettes may be called intermediate. Where less
than 17 per cent. occur the population is termed blond, REPORT OF THE SURVEY OF INDIA. where more than 30 per cent. dark. According to this grouping the two extremes are the THE Indian Survey report is a full record of useful
work and widespread progress, but it lacks some of Swedish (3 per cent. brunettes) and southern Italy (70 per
the interest which used to attach formerly to the very varied cent.). From this point of view the map showed that north
character of the work undertaken by the Survey department. Europe was mainly blond, South Europe dark, and Central
The scientific section of the report is included within the Europe intermediate. He traced the southern limit of the
limits of a few pages; and the narratives of individual blond races through the various countries, showing that it nowhere reached below the 50th parallel in Central Europe,
surveyors (which always formed a most interesting chapter
or two) have entirely disappeared. and below 55th parallel in Britain and Russia. The northern
The main work of the department, now, is the revision of limit of the dark peoples is more irregular. In the inter
old mapping in districts which have been sorely in need of mediate zone blond areas are rare (one of these occur in
such revision for many years. The plains of India, in fact, south England, i.e. Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Hampshire,
are being re-surveyed, and, on the whole, the work of the Sussex and Middlesex), dark areas fairly numerous, but
department is increasing, rather than diminishing, on purely individually very small. Intermediate areas in the blond
utilitarian lines. It would almost seem as if the days of zone are only found in the British Isles, but in the dark
Indian geodetic triangulation, which once took such a strong zone are fairly frequent in western Europe.
lead amongst the scientific triangulations of the world, From these data and certain other considerations relating
were numbered. Only one first-class series is in progress to shape of face and nose, character of hair, &c., Dr.
at present, and this is to connect the great meridional Deniker had been confirmed in his theory that the present
These population of Europe is composed of six main races.
Mandalay series of Burma with a future extension follow
ing the Salwin valley. It is, however, satisfactory that the he proceeded to enumerate, giving their typical character
practice and training necessary for surveyors in this class istics, tracing their positions throughout the map, and
of work is well maintained so far, for it is impossible to indicating the proportions in which they had intermingled
say what the future may demand in the way of similar to form the existing populations of the various countries.
extensions in Persia, Tibet, or even in China. The following is an abbreviated sketch of his classifi
One subject of special interest dealt with in the report is cation :
the deflection of gravity. In 1901 a theory was advanced (1) A race, blond, wavy-haired, long-headed, very tall,
by Major Burrard that deflections of gravity in India could with long face, a straight prominent nose; the northern
be classified by regions. Astronomical determinations of race, so called because its representatives are confined almost
latitude have therefore been carried systematically through exclusively to North Europe. This is the Cymric race of
considerable arcs to prove whether this theory were sound. Broca, the Germanic or Reihengräber race of German
The results undoubtedly support Major Burrard's predicauthors, the Teutonic race of Ripley, or the Homo Euro
tion, and it is expected that the substitution of this regional paeus of Lapouge.
law for the old theory of local attraction will exercise a proWith this race is connected a subrace, blond or inter
found influence on future investigations. mediate, straight-haired, medium-headed, of tall or medium
The report on geographical or reconnaissance surveys (on stature, angular face, and retroussé nose, the subnorthern
the scale of 1/500,000) includes an out-turn of 38,000 square race, found in the neighbourhood of the northern.
miles of survey of this class by one native assistant in (2) A race blond, straight-haired, moderately short
western Tibet. This seems a remarkably large out-turn for headed, and of short stature, broad square face, nose often
one surveyor to secure during the progress of a shooting retroussé; the Eastern race, so named since its principal expedition ”; but it is only one instance amongst many of the home is in eastern Europe.
remarkable capacity of well trained native explorers for Connected with this is a subrace, blond or intermediate, work of this nature. In reasonably easy country there seems medium-headed, of very short stature, named the Vistulian
to be hardly any limit to their power of producing fairly race, occurring in Poland, parts of Prussia, and probably
accurate geographical maps so long as they have a few Saxony and Silesia.
fixed points to work upon. (3) A race dark, hair sometimes curly, long-headed, of
In this connection it is well to note the remarks of the very short stature, straight or retroussé nose; the Ibero- Surveyor-General (Colonel St. G. Gore) on the difficulty insular race. This is the Mediterranean race, or Homo
that constantly faces him of finding qualified native Mediterraniensis of certain authors, found chiefly in the assistants to meet the demands of military or political Iberian Peninsula and the islands of the western
missions or geographical expeditions. He most justly Mediterranean.
observes that in the first place it is difficult to find the men (4) A race dark, very short and round headed, of short
who possess the necessary qualifications, and in the second stature, round face, broad nose, and thick-set body; the
that, having found them, it is impossible to train them Cevenole or western race. This type occurs in its greatest efficiently in country which is unsuitable for instruction. purity in the extreme west of Europe, though found It is due to a combination of natural aptitude with perfect sporadically elsewhere. This is the race called variously educational environment that the native explorer of the by other authors Celtic, Celto-Ligurian, Celto-Slavonic, Indian Survey becomes so extraordinarily efficient as a topoSarmatian, Rhetian, Ligurian, or Homo Alpinus.
grapher. If these men are wanted (and they are wanted) (5) A race very dark, moderately long-headed, and fairly for Imperial duty over half of the continents of Africa and tall; the Littoral, or Atlanto-Mediterranean race, situated
Asia, it seems but fair that the Imperial Treasury should on the coast of the Mediterranean, from Gibraltar to the
contribute something towards maintaining a sufficient staff Tiber, and in occasional groups on the Atlantic Littoral, to meet all demands.
T. H. H. but never more than 150 miles from the sea.
(6) A race dark, short-headed, tall, nose slender and straight or arched; the Adriatic or Dinaric race, which is
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL found grouped round the northern Adriatic, particularly in
CAMBRIDGE.—The State Medicine Syndicate reports that modified characteristics in Central Europe.
during the current year there were 57 candidates for the With the last two races are connected two secondary diploma in public health, of whom 34 were successful. For races, which are perhaps no more than types, produced by the diploma in tropical medicine and hygiene there were the admixture of the two former with each other or with 12 candidates, of whom 8 were successful. The syndicate the northern, subnorthern, and western races.
has resolved to hold two examinations for the latter (a) The north-western, long- or medium-headed, situated diploma in 1905, the first beginning on January 10, the between the northern and Atlanto-Mediterranean races, second on August 8. spread chiefly in Ireland.
Applications for the vacant readership in botany (annual (b) The sub-Adriatic, moderately short-headed,
stipend 300l.) are to be sent to the Vice-Chancellor by rarely short-headed, of medium stature, found in many Tuesday, November 15. parts of Central Europe, probably the result of admixture Mr. R. H. Lock, late Frank Smart student in botany, between the Adriatic and subnorthern and western races. has been elected to a Drosier fellowship at Gonville and