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of his researches and of that of his predecessors is the How successful have been the results, both from the record of this branch of the museums, and also of the literary and the artistic point of view, readers of his debt which knowledge owes, and must ever owe, to book will not, we venture to think, belong in dethe influence of one of the most remarkable of the ciding. To whet their appetites, we herewith reproduce pioneer laboratories and great European centres of scientific work.




THIS book fulfils the chief conditions we

have previously insisted upon as being essential in all new works relating to the birds of the British Isles, in that it is original, interesting, exquisitely illustrated from living subjects, and not burdened with technical names. Indeed, the latter are conspicuous by their complete absence, thereby, no doubt, rendering the volume much more acceptable to readers of all classes than it would have been had it included the usual superfluous intercalations in bracketed italics. Mr. Boraston, it appears, took to the "nature-study" of birds comparatively late in life, and in his case it may be truly said “better late than never," for had he never done so lovers of nature in general, and of birds in particular, would have been deprived of a very charming volume containing a number of fresh ideas and suggestive

Fig. 2.–Young Ringed Plovers crouching. From "Birds by Land and Sea.' observations. Having once decided to take up the outdoor study of bird-life, the author entered a couple of the illustrations, all of which, by the way, on his task with characteristic energy, and at once saw are taken from the author's own photographs. how essential it was for him to follow in the steps of The volume opens with the latter of what the author the Messrs. Kearton and to employ the camera to terms the two critical periods of bird-life, namely, perpetuate the scenes that he so much enjoyed if his ! March and September, when the migratory species

are in the thick of their departure from on arrival at the British Islands. From September until May the seasonal observations of the year forming the subject of the volume relate to the bird-li e of the neighbourhood of the author's home at Stretford, near Manchester, but during June the scene is transferred to the wild coast of Anglesea and Puffin Island, while in July and August we

more return to the home district. Perhaps the Anglesea interlude forms the most interesting part of the volume; but whether on a holiday or whether at home, the author seems to be endowed with a marvellous capacity for work, both in the matter of making and recording observations and in taking photographs.

On the wild cliffs of Anglesea, as we are told on p. 210,“ stalking” birds for the purpose of taking their portraits by a well planned snap-shot demands a considerable amount of coolness and steadiness on the part of the observer, as if he becomes too much absorbed in the object of his pursuit awkward accidents are likely to occur; and even if such undesirable contingencies are successfully avoided, disappointments from unsuspected or unavoidable causes are only

too likely in many instances to annul the FIG. 1.-Kittiwakes on an Anglesea Cliff. From "Birds by Land and Sea." results of all the toil and trouble. Who,

for instance, will fail commiserate work was to be one that would appeal successfully to the author on having lost the chance of “ snapping the public.

a sitting nightjar (p. 202), from the fact that he 1 “Birds by Land and Sea : the Record of a Year's Work with Field

actually did not see the bird for some seconds, and glass and Camera."

then, when “his eyes were opened, the camera By J. M. Boraston. Pp. xiv +282 ; illustrated. (London: John Lane, 1905.) Price 1os. 6d. net.

slipped ?





As an example of the successful accomplishment this spherical globule when solidified forms the ruby. of a difficult task, we reproduce (Fig. 1) the photo | The cooling has to be very gradual, so that the crystalgraph of kittiwake gulls nesting on the precipitous line particles have time to become regularly arranged, face of a cliff, approach to which was effected by climb- or an opaque product is obtained. If the ovoid mass ing down a narrow gulley and then scrambling over is carefully detached when cold, it splits up into two seaweed-clad boulders, to the imminent peril of the nearly equal portions, but not along a cleavage-plane.

The product so obtained is an individual crystal, and As a specimen of really excellent bird-photography, the direction of its principal optic axis is never very we present to our readers the picture of a group of different from that of the major axis of the ovoid. young ringed plovers (Fig. 2), the mottled down of The product when cut cannot be distinguished by which harmonises so admirably at a short distance with its chemical, physical, or optical properties from a their surroundings.

stone cut from a natural ruby. The operation may If it be said that this notice is purely commendatory, be considered successful when the clear product weighs and contains nothing in the way of criticism, the reply 12 to 15 carats, and has a real diameter of 5 or 6 is that we have found nothing to criticise or to con- millimetres. It is, however, impossible to obtain demn. It is real nature-study.

R. L.

stones larger than 4 carat free from included bubbles and cracks, and experts can therefore readily dis

tinguish the artificial gems from natural ones. These THE ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF flaws do not in any way detract from the beauty of RUBIES BY FUSION.'

the stones; they are often clearer than many natural THIf memoir opens with a short historical account

rubies, which are seldom found perfect.

The paper is illustrated by diagrams of the very inrubies by fusion, starting with the researches under genious apparatus devised by the author. taken by Gaudin with the view of obtaining fused alumina in a transparent state. He obtained by

CALCIUM METAL. fusing potassium or ammonium alum, together with a little chrome alum, small globules, which became EL

LECTROMETALLURGY has at last succeeded opaque on solidification, but had the composition of

in producing metallic calcium in commercial the ruby. These were shown by Becquerel to have quantities, and at what must be considered a relatively the cleavage of corundum, and contained small cavities low price. Until within a few weeks ago this metal lined with crystals of ruby. Gaudin concluded that had only been available in very small amounts, and realumina could not exist in the vitreous state, and this mained a rare laboratory specimen; it is now obtainview was supported by C. Sainte-Claire Deville, on able at a price per kilogram less than that charged account of the uniform density of the oxide before by most chemical dealers for a small one-gram sample. and after fusion. The facts at present known are in Humphry Davy first formed the amalgam by electrosupport of this view, for the transparent alumina lysing lime, mixed with mercuric oxide and slightly obtained by fusion is a completely crystalline mass.

moistened, with a mercury kathode; he isolated the The problem was not further investigated until, in

metal in small quantities by distilling off the mercury. 1886, Charles Friedel described an experiment by which

Since then many chemists have tried in vain to find corundum was obtained by fusion, presenting most of

a method suitable for its preparation on a larger scale. the properties of the ruby, but differing from the

Matthiesen, making use of Bunsen's suggestion of natural product by the presence of certain included applying high current density at the kathode, only bubbles, and by a rather low density.

succeeded in obtaining a few grams at a time by electroAs the production of the so-called “Geneva rubies” lysis of the fused chloride, or of mixtures of calcium remained a trade secret, M. Verneuil started a series of and other chlorides having a lower fusing point. investigations, following up the work of Gaudin. He Henri Moissan, as the result of a critical study of the found that to obtain the fused material in a transparent numerous proposed methods, was able to prepare somestate certain conditions must be rigorously fulfilled. what larger quantities of the metal. His method was He compares the solidification of alumina to that of essentially a modification of that proposed by Lièswater, which forms according to the method of cool- Bodart and Jobin in 1858, which consisted in reducing ing transparent or opaque ice. An important observ- fused calcium iodide with metallic sodium. Moissan ation which appears to have escaped Gaudin is that it found that molten sodium forms an excellent solvent is only the portions of alumina which are fused in the for calcium, and by heating calcium iodide with a cooler parts of the flame which remain transparent large excess of sodium obtained on cooling a cake on solidification. One of the greatest experimental of the sodium-calcium alloy resting on the sodium difficulties is that, however carefully the cooling is iodide. Small quantities of the alloy were thrown into conducted, the fused mass is excessively brittle. This well cooled absolute alcohol, which reacts with the brittleness is least marked when a very small support sodium leaving the calcium pure, but in the state of ing surface is employed. The apparatus devised by

a fine crystalline powder. This powder can be M. Verneuil is very ingenious. The blow-pipe and agglomerated by pressure and fusion, and thus furnace tube must be absolutely vertical. The finely Moissan prepared the fine specimen ingots of this powdered alumina, containing the requisite quantity metal which so greatly interested visitors to the Paris of chromic oxide, and specially purified, is admitted Exhibition of 1900. It is largely to him that we are by means of a fine sieve, which is given a series of indebted for a knowledge of the properties of the pure regular taps, controlled by an electromagnet, so that metal, of which he prepared some 4 kilos. by this the material falls down the tube intermittently in a process. Contrary to the earlier descriptions, calcium series of thin layers. It forms a cone at the bottom, is a white metal, the yellow coloration being due to and as soon as this cone reaches a hot enough part of a film of nitride; its melting point is about 760° C., and the tube the apex fuses, and the fused material then its density 1.85. The definite compounds which it extends gradually upwards in a long filament. This forms directly with hydrogen and nitrogen promise eventually reaches a still hotter part of the furnace, and useful applications in the laboratory in cases where develops a spherical mass instead of growing further; it is necessary to remove these gases. 1 "Memoire sur la Reproduction artificielle du Rubis par Fusion." By

The next advance was made almost simultaneously A. Verneuil. (Annales de Chimie et de Physique, se série, t. ii., September.) | by Borchers and Stockem at Aix-la-Chapelle, and Ruff and Plato at Berlin. The method employed by! It is announced by the Athenaeum that the Circolo Matethese workers was in principle that of Matthiesen, but matico di Palermo intends to offer an international prize by suitable construction of apparatus and regulation for geometry at the fourth International Mathematical of temperature much better yields were obtained, and

Congress, which will meet at Rome in 1908. The prize the metal was thus prepared in larger quantities.

will consist of a small gold medal, to be called the Guiccia Borchers and Stockem electrolysed molten calcium chloride, which was maintained at a temperature below

medal, after its founder, and of 3000 francs, and will be the fusing point of calcium; they ascribe the low yields, given by preference, though not necessarily, to an essay at higher temperatures to the reaction of fused calcium

which advances the knowledge of the theory of algebraical with calcium chloride to form a subchloride.


curves of space. The treatises may be written in Italian, an iron rod as kathode, they obtained a metal sponge i French, German, or English, and must be sent to the presiwhich was pressed with tongs before removing from | dent of the Circolo Matematico before July 1, 1907. the electrolyte. The raw material prepared in this way contained some 10 per cent. of calcium chloride,

We learn from the Times that on Friday last President which could, however, be almost entirely removed by Loubet received Dr. Otto Nordenskjöld, who was presented subsequent fusion of the metal.

by the Minister for Sweden and Norway in Paris. On the The final step in the evolution of the commercial evening of the same day Dr. Nordenskjöld delivered a lecture process was taken by Suter and Redlich, of the Elektro

on his Antarctic explorations before the French Geographical chemische-Werke, Bitterfeld. By the ingenious em- Society. Prince Gustav Adolph and Prince William of ployment of a kathode which only just touches the Sweden were present, and several Ministers were represented. surface of the fused calcium chloride, they obtain a

Dr. Nordenskjöld was the guest on Saturday afternoon of small layer of fused calcium under the kathode; before the calcium has collected in sufficient amount to flow

the Paris Municipal Council at the Hôtel de Ville. He was

welcomed by the president of the council, who presented away the electrode is very slightly raised; the metal thus comes into a cooler zone and solidifies. By con

him with a silver medal commemorating his visit to the tinuing the process a rather irregular rod of calcium

city. On Saturday evening Dr. Nordenskjöld delivered a is built up, which itself forms the kathode. The metal lecture before a large and distinguished audience at the is supplied in these rough rods, which in outward Sorbonne. appearance strongly resemble cabbage stalks, but show a white metallic surface when cut through.

The death is announced of Mr. C. G. Barrett, one of the The present price quoted in Germany is about 205. editors of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, at the age a kilogram retail, or 125. a kilo. in 100 kilogram lots, of sixty-eight years. which quotation alone proves the feasibility of the

It is stated that at a meeting of the French Surgical process. The technical product is said to contain about 97.11 per cent. pure calcium, 1.64 per cent. calcium

Society held on December 14 a report of the committee chloride, and 0.4 per cent. sodium.' 'If one may judge appointed to investigate Dr. Doyen's researches on cancer by the case of metallic sodium, there will doubtless be and its microbe was read, and that some of the conclusions difficulties in finding any large demand for the metal, support Dr. Doyen's claims. No authentic details have, but it will obviously be much appreciated for experi. however, as yet been published. mental purposes in many chemical and physical laboratories.


The following recent deaths are announced in the Bulletin of the French Physical Society and the Popular Science

Monthly :-M. Jeunet, late professor of physics; Prof. NOTES.

Lespiault, of the University of Bordeaux; Prof. Joseph We regret to announce that Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart.,

Thimont, of the École Ste-Geneviève and other institutions ; F.R.S., died on Tuesday, at eighty-eight years of age.

Prof. Clemens A. Winckler, professor of chemistry at

Dresden ; Prof. Max Berbels, of Berlin, noted for his publiThe death of Mr. Norman Maccoll, late editor of the

cations on ethnology ; Major Henry F. Alvord, chief of the Athenaeum, at sixty-one years of age, will be deeply re

dairy division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. gretted by many men of science. Mr. Maccoll did much to further the interests of science, and to cultivate sympathy In the Bulletin of the French Physical Society, No. 219, with the pursuit of natural knowledge among readers not the death is announced of Prof. Macé de Lépinay, of actively engaged in scientific work.

Marseilles, a former member of the council of the society. On Saturday last, direct telegraphic communication was

Prof. Macé de Lépinay's researches were mostly connected established between Liverpool and Teheran, in Persia, a

with optics, and had special reference to the determination distance of four thousand miles. The line belongs to the

of wave-lengths by means of interference phenomena, on Indo-European Telegraph Company.

the lines first laid down by Fizeau. The methods used were

interference due to double refraction, interference of a direct On Tuesday next, December 27, Mr. Henry Cunynghame will deliver at the Royal Institution the first of a Christmas

ray with one passing through a lamina of the crystal, and course of six lectures adapted to a juvenile auditory on

interference of two rays, one passing once and the other ancient and modern methods of measuring time, experi

twice through the lamina. A further series of researches

dealt with the inverse problem of determining the specific mentally illustrated.

mass of water. Most of the experiments were performed At the December meeting of the Astronomical Society of

with sodium light. Prof. Macé de Lépinay's latest reFrance an address was given by Mr. de Watteville on the

searches were conducted conjointly with M. Buisson, who temperatures of stars. The lecturer described a series of experiments made by him in the Count de Labaume Pluvinel

proposes to complete them. laboratory, and exhibited a series of photographs of spectra

GLASS hives for the observation of bees at work have obtained by him, reproducing the principal types described

been in use for many years, and latterly ants' nests have by Sir Norman Lockyer. The president congratulated the been on view at the Crystal Palace; but it may be new to speaker on having obtained such brilliant results, on the many of our readers to learn that Messrs. A. W. Gamage, subject of which he has already delivered a thesis at the Ltd., of Holborn, have actually put on sale a contrivance Sorbonne.

called “ The Lubbock Formicarium,” which is really a


portable ants' nest, which can be moved anywhere without of Mülhausen. The book is issued in two forms, one more trouble or inconvenience, and which, it is claimed, will last expensive than the other. In the cheaper issue (of which for upwards of six years with ordinary care. The species the price is 3s. 6d.) there are only five coloured plates, selected is the small yellow ant, Formica flava, and the nest whereas in the more expensive one (price 45. 6d.) the number is enclosed in a frame 10 inches square, resembling a picture of illustrations of this description is twenty-nine. Some frame, except that it must, of course, be laid flat, and the difference in the arrangement and number of the cuts discover must be kept over it except when the ants are under tinguishes the two issues. Considering the price of the observation. The nest.contains ants in their various stages,

volume, the coloured illustrations are all that could be and some of the other insects which are associated with

desired. The fact of the work reaching its twenty-sixth them; and it is supplied with or without queen,

edition is a sufficient guarantee of its fitness for its special and accompanied by full directions as to management. This

purpose. novelty has attracted considerable attention already, and the visitors, many of whom are children, show much interest in

We have received a copy of a new monthly publication, this novel exhibition.

Indian Public Health (No. 4, vol. i.), which is to be devoted

to the discussion of public health questions in our Indian DR. CHARLES WALDSTEIN gave a lecture on Herculaneum Empire. We cannot help expressing the opinion that it is and the Proposed International Excavation" at the Royal undesirable to multiply small journals, of which there are Academy on December 14.

He remarked that from already too many. It would be better to enlarge the scope Herculaneum many beautiful works might be expected. of the existing journals. The city and district of Herculaneum were overwhelmed with volcanic material, but this is not the impenetrably In the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club (ix., hard lava commonly supposed. Geologists have shown that,

No. 55) Mr. T. B. Rosseter gives a good description of the apart from actual contact with air, the material is perfectly anatomy of Taenia sinuosa, a tapeworm of geese, and proves friable and manageable for the excavator. The beautiful by feeding experiments that the cysticercoids inhabit certain works from the city which are to be seen at Naples show copepods and ostracods; and Mr. Wesché investigates some that the disaster was not destructive of the beauty of the new sense-organs of Diptera, concluding that where the works of art at Herculaneum. Manuscripts, which can be antennæ are not particularly sensitive, the palpi have strucunrolled and read, as well as glass and marble, with no tures to compensate, and may bear organs of touch, taste, trace of fire on them, give good hope of what may be ex- and smell, but not more than two of these at the same time. pected from thorough excavation. The catastrophe was a

He also describes certain organs, probably of sense, on marvellous preservation of a provincial city's life at the the legs of many species, the function of which is doubtful. moment of arrest. The King has expressed approval of the proposed international excavation, and the King of Italy, as

We have received “ Researches in Helminthology and well as his Prime Minister, promise support. The Presi- Parasitology,” by Prof. Joseph Leidy, edited by his son, Dr. dent of the United States, the German Emperor, the Presi- Joseph Leidy (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, part dent and Government of the French Republic, the Emperor of vol. xlvi.). It gives a summary of Prof. Leidy's conof Austria, and the King of Sweden encourage the under

tributions to science, with bibliography, and should prove taking. There is already a committee in Vienna, and it is of considerable value to those engaged in these branches hoped to secure the cooperation of many other national of research. Commencing in 1849, Prof. Leidy's contribucommittees. Mr. Neville Rolfe, our Consul at Naples, has

tions were continued without intermission down to 1889, and told Dr. Waldstein that there is ample work for many are no less than 578 in number, many being of considerable years without infringement of private rights.

importance, and embracing parasites of all kinds, as well

as some papers on comparative anatomy. Our Norwegian namesake-Naturen-for November contains an illustrated account of the mammoth discovered in In the report for the year 1903-4 on the administration the Kolyma district in 1901, and now mounted in the St. of the Government Museum and Connemara Public Library, Petersburg Museum. The monster has been set up in the Madras, amongst other interesting matter the following position in which it was found, namely, endeavouring to paragraph appears :-“ A prolonged tour was made in the struggle out of a quicksand or crevasse.

Mysore province in connection with the ethnographic In the issue of the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy

survey, with the primary object of continuing my researches

into the character of the Canarese cranium (vide Museum for November 10 Dr. F. Werner gives an account of the

Bulletin, iv., 2, 1901). The work was carried out under zoological results of his recent expedition to Egypt and

conditions of considerable difficulty, caused by the terror Nubia. The most important part of the collection appears

of the natives, who mistook me for a recruiting sergeant to consist of orthopterous insects--a group hitherto very im

bent on seizing them for employment in South Africa or perfectly known from the countries in question, and of which a large series of specimens was obtained. Very note

for the Somali war, and fed before my approach from

The little spot, which I am in the habit of worthy is the discovery of certain Central Asian species of the group in the heart of this part of Africa. A fish and a

making with Aspinall's paint to indicate the position of fresh-water mussel previously supposed to be confined to

the fronto-nasal suture when measuring the nose, was supthe Upper Nile are recorded from the delta, and some

posed to possess blistering properties, and to turn into a

number on the forehead, which would serve as a means of interesting observations with regard to certain reptiles have also been made.

identification. The untimely death of a Korava outside

a town where I was halting was attributed to my evil eye. We are indebted to the publisher-G. Freytag, of Leipzig Villages were denuded of all save senile men, women and --for copies of the two issues of the new (twenty-sixth) children. The vendors of food-stuffs in one bazaar finding edition of Pokorny's Naturgeschichte des Tierreiches,” business slack owing to the flight of their customers, raised a well known zoological text-book for schools. The present their prices, and a missionary complained that the price enlarged edition has been supervised by Mr. M. Fischer, of butter had gone up. My arrival at one important town

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was coincident with a temple festival, whereat there were not sufficient men left to drag the temple car in procession. The headman of another town, when he came to take leave of me, apologised for the scrubby appearance of his chin, as the local barber had fled. One man, who had volunteered to be tested with the tintometer, was suddenly seized with fear, and, throwing his body-cloth at my feet, ran away and was no more seen. An elderly municipal peon wept bitterly when undergoing the process of measurement. Such are a few examples of the results which attend tie progress of the Government anthropologist." Mr. Edgar Thurston finds that the average cephalic index of various groups of natives in the southern (Tamil and Malayalam) districts of the Madras Presidency ranges from 72.6 to 76.5, while that in the Canarese and Maratha area ranges from 77.1 to 81-8. The significance of this brachycephalic element is not yet elucidated.

AMONG the interesting collection of models of Palæozoic seeds and cones exhibited by Mr. H. E. H. Smedley at a recent meeting of the Linnean Society, a few are of special interest to palæobotanists. The example selected for illustration here is that of the group of three models of the sporophylls of the lycopodiaceous cone, Lepidocarpon, from the Carboniferous formation. The model on the left shows the general morphology of a single sporophyll, from which will be seen the peculiar shape of the integument and micropyle, much resembling a hand-bag. The centre model demonstrates the general anatomy as seen in the

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The formation of a botanic garden in sandhills does not perhaps suggest utility or success, but in the Gardener's Chronicle (November 19) Dr. Masters gives an account of the practical results obtained by experiments carried out in

Fig. 1.--Palæozoic cones. the garden, or, as it may be called, the experimental station established in the Belgian dunes at Coxyde. As an instance transverse section, and shows the complete lamina of the of the way in which experimental results are sometimes sporophyll, while that on the right clearly exhibits the comopposed to theoretical supposition, the writer describes the plex internal structure of the sporangium containing four successful formation of a forest of dwarf poplars in the megaspores, one of which has developed a seed-like formsandhills, and even suggests that they would act as nurses ation filling nearly the whole of the sporangium, the other to seedling pines.

three being abortive. In urging an affinity between the

lycopodiaceous cones and the gymnosperms, the author subIt is characteristic of the scattered groups of islands mitted the following points of agreement :-Integument and which lie between the parallels of 45° and 60° south that

micropyle, the single functional megaspore in the sporin their flora they all contain a proportion of what has been

angium, and the detachment of the seed-like organ as a termed a Fuegian element. Amongst these are the so- whole. called Southern Islands of New Zealand, of which the latest account is that given by Dr. Cockayne in the Transactions

THE report of the Meteorological Council for the year of the New Zealand Institute, vol. xxxvi. The plant associ

ending March 31, 1904, shows increased activity, and is ations of the Auckland Isles include a forest formation, with

somewhat more bulky than its predecessors, extending to Olearia lyallii as the dominant tree, which Dr. Cockayne

more than 200 pages; the report proper embraces only some regards as the primitive forest, and one that was previously | 30 pages; the remainder is composed of appendices which more extensive, but which has been curtailed by the spread

contain details of the operations of the office. No change of a rata forest similar to the rata forests found in New

has taken place in the constitution of the council during the Zealand. This fact, and the existence of a well marked

year, nor is any clue given to the future of the office resultNew Zealand element in the flora are points of evidence in

ing from the deliberations of the Meteorological Grant Comfavour of a former extension of New Zealand to the south.

mittee; their report, however, was not issued until after

the period to which the council's report refers. While the MR. A. Tingle, of the Imperial Provincial College, work of a former Government department is arduously perChinanfu, Shantung, has sent a further communication upon formed, the Meteorological Office continues to hold a very the flowering of the bamboo, in which he supplements- anomalous position compared with similar establishments in view of the letters of Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S., in our in other countries; it performs valuable public duties, but issue for August 11, and of Mr. J. S. Gamble, F.R.S., in has not the status of a Government office, although supNATURE for September 1-the information supplied in his ported by a Government grant. The operations may be previous letter. Mr. Tingle is unable to tell the species of summarised under four principal heads :-(1) ocean meteorthe bamboos that flowered, but he reports that they were ology, the collection, tabulation, and discussion of meteorsmall, growing to a height of about 4 metres, and that the ological data for all parts of the ocean, and the preparation stems averaged about 4 cm. in circumference near the and issue of charts and the supply of instruments to the ground. All the bamboos have died since flowering. Mr. Royal Navy and mercantile marine ; (2) the issue of storm Tingle points out that the bamboo will grow in Shantung warnings to all seaports willing to receive them, of daily only if carefully cultivated in a garden. The seasons, he weather forecasts, and of forecasts for agriculturists during remarks, have been in no way exceptional in Shantung. harvest seasons; (3) the climatology of the British Isles,

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