Page images
PDF
EPUB

should work hand in hand to aid one another in the The investigation brought out in a striking manner supreme object of education. A beginning in that the different effects of atmospheric absorption in the direction has been made in the United States and in solar spectrum, and put one on a firmer footing as some towns in England, where the young are taught regards the variations due to atmospheric influences. in the lecture theatre and are then conducted by the After the publication of these results, McClean teacher to the section of the museum dealing with the turned his attention again to terrestrial spectra, and subject of the discourse. In this way the young are made a minute study of the comparative photographic familiarised with the objects and uses of museums, to spectra of the sun and metals. The first results were which they will surely more readily return in after life, connected with the spectra of the gold and iron groups and in the development of which they will take a keener of metals. These spectra were collated by means interest than they do at present.

R. F. S. of their common air lines with the iron spectrum,

and so by means of the iron lines with the solar

spectrum. In the gold group he found many lines DR. FRANK McCLEAN, F.R.S.

due to these metals which up to that time had not been IN N Dr. Frank McClean astronomy has not only lost observed, and he also remarked some curious coinci

one of her most devoted and painstaking fol- dences that existed between the air lines in the metallic lowers, but a generous benefactor that can ill be spectra and lines in the solar spectrum. That he had spared, especially in this country. His death came as a

in his mind the eventual spectroscopic study of the surprise to most of his friends, for, although it was

heavenly bodies is shown even in his brief 'accounts known that his increasing years were beginning to

of these experiments, for in one case he writes, “ the tell on his general activity, it was thought that there spectra of the metals appear to me to be fairly within was still much work left in him. Unfortunately,

the scope of astronomy, as our knowledge of them however, this was not to be, for, at the latter end of forms the basis of any knowledge we possess of the his usual trip on the Continent, he was taken ill at composition of the heavenly bodies.” Brussels, and very shortly afterwards passed away on

At the end of 1891 he published another set of comNovember 8 at the age of sixty-seven, surrounded by parative spectra of the sun and metals. The two members of his family.

series consisted of six sections, corresponding to six Dr. McClean was the son of the late distinguished sections of Angstrom's chart; they were as follows :engineer, Mr. J. R. McClean, F.R.S., and was born

Section i. contained the spectra of the sun, iron, in 1837. After the completion of his education at platinum, iridium, osmium, palladium, rhodium, Westminster, the College, Glasgow, and Trinity ruthenium, gold, and silver. The last eight conCollege, Cambridge, of which he was a scholar, stitute the platinum group of metals. graduating in 1859 as a wrangler, he took up the Section ii. contained the spectra of the sun, iron, profession of his father, and became apprenticed in manganese, cobalt, nickel, chromium, aluminium, the same year to Sir John Hawkshaw; three years and copper. These seven metals constitute the iron later he was taken into partnership in the firm of copper group. Messrs. McClean and Stileman.

Throughout McClean's scientific career his greatest Up to the year 1870 his energy was directed to work was undoubtedly the spectroscopic survey of engineering matters, but retiring from his profession, every star brighter than 3} magnitudes scattered he devoted the remaining years of his life to spectro- throughout the whole celestial sphere. scopic researches in connection with the sun and stars. Such a programme seemed large for one man to The success which rewarded his endeavours is best tackle single-handed, but McClean was equal to the shown by the numerous important papers which he occasion, and succeeded not only in accomplishing it, communicated to the Royal Society and Royal but in discussing and publishing the results. Astronomical Society, and by the fact that the council For the northern stars the photographs were secured of the latter society awarded him, in 1899, the gold at his home, Rusthall House, Tunbridge Wells. medal, their highest honour for astronomical research. The instrument employed was a photographic teleThe crowning work, which he fortunately completed, scope having an object glass of twelve inches diameter, and with which his name will always be associated, and carrying an objective prism of the same aperture, was the conception and carrying out of the great with a refracting angle of 20°. spectroscopic survey of the brighter stars over the To secure the southern stars McClean worked at the whole celestial sphere.

Cape of Good Hope from May to November, 1897. He commenced his spectroscopic work with several He took with him the prism he had already used for important researches, all of which were carried out the northern work, and fixed it in front of the object with zeal, patience, and thoroughness; these were glass of the well-known Cape astrographic instrument, naturally closely allied, in fact preliminary steps, to which had been placed at his disposal by Sir David the great work to which he later devoted his energies. Gill. Both series of photographs were thus secured The first of these dealt with the photography of with practically identical instruments, the advantage metallic spectra by means of an induction spark, after of which it is difficult to overestimate. which he turned his attention to the nearest star, the Space does not permit, nor is it here necessary, to sun, and made an elaborate series of comparative enumerate at any length the results of such a farphotographs of the spectra at high and low altitudes. reaching research, which were so ably discussed, and An account of this, accompanied by a beautiful atlas received such high praise. Mention, however, may be of plates, was submitted in 1890 to the Royal Astro made of the originality he displayed in referring the nomical Society. The high sun spectrum was taken stars to galactic latitude and longitude, instead of emas far as possible when the sun's altitude was more than ploying the usual system of right ascension and de45°, and the low sun when it was under 73°, so that clination. The celestial sphere he divided into four the depth of atmosphere traversed was in the pro- equal areas by drawing a circle at a radius of 60° portion of one to five respectively. For securing these from each galactic pole. By means of a great circle photographs he employed a fixed heliostat to reflect passing through the galactic poles, he cut the sphere the solar light into a telescope fixed parallel to the into two halves, so that each of the four areas was polar axis, in conjunction with a spectroscope in which again equally divided. This apparently simple porwas used a large Rowland plane grating.

tioning of the heavens was amply rewarded.

un

In discussing the relation of special type stars to | Astronomical Society, the British Association, the the Galaxy, one of the chief facts that made itself at Institution of Civil Engineers, Greenwich Observaonce apparent was that “ Helium " stars were not tory, Solar Physics Observatory, and the Cambridge indiscriminately scattered over the heavens like the University Observatory. solar or other type stars, but were more thickly con

W. J. S. L. centrated in the two zones north and south of the galactic equator. In addition, among many other outcomes of this survey was the discovery of oxygen in the spectrum of 6 Crucis, and in the helium stars

NOTES. generally.

The seventieth birthday of Prof. G. H. Quincke, the The energy and stamina displayed by McClean in doyen of German physicists, will be celebrated at Heidelall his work will be best understood when it is men- berg on Saturday next, November 19. Prof. Quincke's tioned that he employed no assistants. In his labora- laboratory formed the subject of a contribution to our series tory he was the sole operator, and in the observatory of scientific centres in Nature of April 24, 1902, and his at night every manipulation was accomplished by his own hands. To quote the words of the president of portrait was reproduced in the article. Reference was then the Royal Astronomical Society when presenting him

made to the admirable manner in which the laboratories with the gold medal, “.... it was his eye that

at Heidelberg are arranged, and the many ingenious devices measured the lines, and his was the pen that worked

to be found in them, as well as to some of the investigations out the calculations. Need I add more to prove that

carried on. It is therefore unnecessary to attempt to what Mr. McClean's hand had found to do he did with describe again the results of Prof. Quincke's all his might?"

interrupted work in physical research for nearly half a Turning now from this very brief and incomplete century. Among Prof. Quincke's many pupils have been summary of McClean's scientific work, reference must Prof. Lenard (Kiel), Prof. Braun (Strassburg), Prof. W. be made to his generosity in presenting munificent König (Greifswald), Profs. Elster and Geitel (Wolfenbüttel), gifts for the advancement of astronomy. Being a the late Prof. Willard Gibbs, Prof. Michelson, Dr. J. T. worker himself, he was in a position to know in what direction monetary aid could be best employed. As

Bottomley, F.R.S., Dr. J. McCrae (Glasgow), &c.; a comthe founder of the Isaac Newton studentships at

plete list would include many other English and American Cambridge University, requiring an endowment of

students. To celebrate the occasion of Prof. Quincke's 15,000l., he rendered a service to astronomical science

seventieth birthday, a committee, with Prof. Kohlrausch which it would be hard to overestimate, and the (Berlin) as president and Dr. R. H. Weber (Heidelberg) results that will accrue from it will, we hope, be a as secretary, has arranged for the presentation of a large fitting memorial to his name.

and handsome album containing the autograph photographs Not content with providing in this way the means of many of the leading physicists of all nationalities and of by which the study of astronomy will be encouraged, Prof. Quincke's former pupils. A convincing testimony of he presented the Cape Observatory, ten years ago, the high value set on Prof. Quincke's work in this country with a large telescope, fittings, and dome, with all the is supplied not only by the lists of universities and learned latest improvements, to accomplish work which otherwise would have been delayed possibly for many years.

societies which have conferred their honours on him, but also He saw at once the field that was open and the ad

by the fact that among the English physicists and personal vance that was possible if the southern heavens were

friends who have contributed photographs are Lord Kelvin, surveyed by a prismatic camera of large dimensions,

Lord Rayleigh, Sir W. Huggins, Sir W. Ramsay, Sir and he took this opportunity to supply the necessary

H. E. Roscoe, Sir N. Lockyer, Sir W. H. Preece, Prof.

J. J. Thomson, Sir A. Rücker, Prof. J. Larmor, Prof. J. A. The fact that Sir David Gill in his recent report for Ewing, Mr. C. V. Boys, Sir 0. Lodge, Prof. J. H. Poynthe year 1903 writes, " The Zeiss prism is a very ting, Prof. G. Carey Foster, Prof. A. Schuster, Dr. W. N. perfect and transparent piece of glass, and I have no Shaw, Prof. J. Perry, Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. J. G. doubt that its performance will do credit to the fame MacGregor, Prof. J. T. Joly, Prof. G. H. Darwin, Prof. of its makers. The observatory is indebted to Mr.

W. G. Adams, Prof. W. M. Hicks, Prof. H. Stroud, Prof. McClean for this splendid gift, as also for the costly | A. P. Chattock, Prof. A. S. Herschel, and many others. alterations to the spectroscope,” shows that McClean's original gift has been greatly increased. As the in- The American Consul at Bermuda describes in a United auguration of the “Victoria " telescope forms an States Consular Report the steps which have been taken to epoch in the history of the Cape Observatory, may the establish there a biological station which will be to North results obtained with it play a like rôle in the advance

America what the Naples station is to Europe. For several ment of stellar spectroscopy for the southern hemisphere.

years American naturalists have carried on investigations McClean was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of the natural history of the Bermudas and the surrounding in 1895; the university of Glasgow conferred on him

sea, and have made efforts to establish a biological station the honorary degree of LL.D., while, as previously in these islands. Upon the advice of the Royal Society, our mentioned, he obtained the gold medal of the Royal Government has given its assent to the project. The Astronomical Society.

Colonial Government has expressed its willingness to purIn 1865 he married Ellen, the daughter of Mr. John chase the land and erect the building, and grants toward Greg, of Escowbeck, Lancaster, who now mourns equipment and support of tables have been made by the with her three sons and two daughters his loss. They Royal Society and the Carnegie Institution. Harvard Uniare not, however, alone in their grief, for his death is versity and New York University, in connection with the deeply felt by a large circle of friends, among whom

Bermuda Natural History Society, have already commenced are many astronomical colleagues who will miss his familiar face.

work in a temporary laboratory close to what will be the The funeral, which took place on Friday last, was

permanent quarters of the station, and the United States attended by representatives from many societies and

Government has been asked to give generous support to the institutions,

among which may be mentioned the station. America has already founded a tropical botanical Cambridge University, the Royal Society, the Royal laboratory in buildings of the Government of Jamaica at

means.

Cinchona, and has now secured a biological station, so that In a letter to the Speaker of November 5, Mr. J. A. Reid it appears as if the Americans are rapidly getting the control urges that educationists should consider the desirability of of the scientific interests of our western tropical possessions. teaching children the principles of evolution in schools. In While we cannot but admire the interest shown in the considering how the subject might be taught, Prof. W. K. establishment of these stations by universities and colleges Clifford remarked in 1878: “ The teacher, knowing what in the United States, it is impossible not to regret the apathy is to come in the end, may so select the portions of various with which our home and colonial Governments regard subjects which he teaches at an earlier stage that they shall such matters. Surely it is the duty of the State to encourage supply in a later stage a means of understanding and the pursuit and cultivation of natural knowledge through- estimating the evidence on some question of evolution." out the Empire, and to realise the richness of its possessions in material for scientific study as well as in precious

The inaugural meeting of the Association of Economic minerals. It is a reproach to our nation that a biological Biologists was held at Burlington House on Tuesday, station has not been established by us in the Bermudas;

November 8. Mr. F. V. Theobald occupied the chair, and for now, instead of American investigators carrying on their

in the course of his introductory remarks he detailed the work in a British station, we have to face the fact that,

steps taken by Mr. Walter E. Collinge to found the associthough the station will be on British soil, it will belong to

ation. He hoped that the association would welcome all the United States, and our own countrymen will be guests

investigators in economic biology, whether agricultural, in it. So far as the interests of science are concerned,

medical, or commercial. The relationship between biology probably this does not matter ; for, as Mr. Balfour wrote a

and agriculture was apparent to all, but only recently had few days ago to the translator of his British Association the importance of its relationships with medicine and comaddress, community of aim “ binds together the scientific

merce been realised. Membership of the association will men throughout the world into one international brother

be confined to workers in economic biology. The following hood." But it should be evident to some of our ministers,

officers have been elected for 1904-5:--president, Mr. Fred at least to Mr. Balfour, who has often expressed sympathy V. Theobald ; vice-president, Mr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S.; with scientific progress, that it cannot be to the advantage

council, Prof. G. S. Boulger, Prof. A. H. R. Buller, Prof. of the State for another nation to accept responsibilities Geo. H. Carpenter, Dr. Francis Marshall, Mr. Robert Newwhich belong to us. Mr. Balfour is gratified at the success

stead, Major Ronald Ross, F.R.S., Mr. Fraser Storey, Mr. of the translation of his address into German, but apparently

Cecil Warburton; hon. treasurer, Mr. Herbert Stone; hon. he does not consider that the interest shown in scientific secretary, Mr. Walter E. Collinge. The next meeting will matters in Germany is due to the active and practical part

be held at Birmingham in April, 1905. played by the State in helping scientific education and re- On December 4, 1804, Joseph Lebon, who is considered search. What we want here and in all parts of the Empire in France as the inventor of lighting-gas, was found is more practical help of the kind given by the United States murdered by an unknown hand in the Champs-Elysees, near and Germany to save us from the future regret of lost the site where is now the Grand Palais. In memory of this opportunities.

sad tragedy, and to pay due honour to the celebrated inREUTER's Agency states that a long report has been re

ventor, the Compagnie Parisienne du Gaz has given a ceived from the members of the expedition of the Liverpool

certain quantity of gas, free of charge, to the Aëro Club and

Société française aërienne. Ascents will accordingly be School of Tropical Medicine now investigating sleeping sickness in the Congo. Complete observations have been made

made on December 4 by members of these two societies. on the spread and distribution of sleeping sickness along

On December 5 an exhibition will be held in the Grand

Palais by the Automobile Club. the Congo River for a distance of nearly 1000 miles between Stanley Pool and Stanley Falls. From Leopoldville to

At a meeting of the Société astronomique de France held Bumba cases of sleeping sickness were present in every town in Paris on November 2, M. Lippmann being in the chair, visited, and a large percentage of the population harboured

the Comte de la Baume-Pluvinel gave an address on the trypanosomes. From Basoko to the falls only imported forthcoming total eclipse of the sun on August 30, 1905. cases were met with, with two exceptions, and trypano- He mentioned the intentions of American astronomers to not found among the general population.

send expeditions to Labrador, Spain, and Upper Egypt. Observation seems to show that enlarged cervical glands are After the address the society decided to appoint a committee an early sign of the disease, recognisable before trypano

for determining the part which France should take in somes make their appearance in the general circulation, and observing the eclipse. It is fairly certain that the principal in a little fluid withdrawn from a gland with a hypodermic work of this committee will be concerned with observations needle trypanosomes may be detected. Tsetse flies were

in Algeria and Tunis, through which the line of totality incessantly present up to Basoko, the species being Glossina

passes. This eclipse was also commented upon at the last palpalis, after which they became infrequent, their distri- meeting of the St. Petersburg Scientific Aëronautic Conbution thus corresponding with that of sleeping sickness.

gress, officially held in the rooms of the Imperial Academy MR. W. H. PICKERING, late chief of the inspecting staff

of Sciences under the chairmanship of the Grand Duke for the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire mining districts, has

Constantin Constantinovitch, president of the academy. been appointed Chief Inspector of Mines in India.

Colonel Vives y Vich has announced that he will make

an aëronautical ascent from Burgos on this occasion, for Dr. Catto has been awarded the Craggs prize of the the purpose of ascertaining the part the clouds may possibly London School of Tropical Medicine for his discovery of a play in the apparent brightness and shade of the corona. new schistosomum parasite of man. The Craggs prize, of In addition, the international committee of ballons-sondes the value of gol., was founded some years ago by Sir John has decided that atmospheric observations shall be made at Craggs, and is awarded annually in October to that student the great altitudes of the various observatories connected of the London School who is considered to have carried out with the institution during August 29, 30, and 31 for the best piece of research work, or made an important dis- ascertaining the changes the eclipse may introduce in the covery, in tropical medicine during the preceding year, prevailing winds and temperatures at different altitudes.

somes

were

raccoon.

resources

The Scientific American of October 22 contains the be the descendants of boreal plants which flourished on unportrait of a white raccoon-dog from northern Japan, in glaciated areas in the midst of the ice-sheet. Apart from the New York Zoological Park, which is regarded as repre- these, there was firstly a wave of plant-life from the skirts senting a new species, and is accordingly named Nyctereutes of the ice-sheet. This was followed by a northern wave, albus. The ordinary racco

ccoon-dog of Japan and China is many of the species of which, forming the bog-plants of an animal closely allied to the true dogs, but with a marked the old Glacial lakes, soon occupied the tundra left by the superficial resemblance to a

If the New York ice; the conifers developed later, and restricted the bogspecimen really indicates the existence of a white species of flora. Hence came the modern bog and swamp floras, raccoon-dog, the fact will be of considerable zoological while the existing Poccona flora is due to a third invasion. interest.

The work of the Forestry Bureau of the United States Is the second part of the Bergen Museum Aarbog for the

Department of Agriculture stretches far afield, and the current year Prof. G. O. Sars describes a small crustacean

forests of the Hawaiian Islands form the subject of one (Paracartia grani) recently discovered in the oyster-beds of

Bulletin by Mr. W. L. Hall, while Mr. W. L. Bray in another reviews the forest

of Texas. The western Norway which is of great interest from the point of view of distribution, since the only other known repre

succession of the forests in Texas indicates that their dissentative of the genus inhabits the Gulf of Guinea. The

tribution is primarily influenced by the amount of rainfall, author considers that the creature reached Norway from

and only secondarily by the nature of the soil. A remarkthe south during a warm period, and that it survives on

able instance of the spread of a successful type is furnished the bays of the west coast owing to the circumstance that

by the mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa, which has spread a superincumbent layer of fresh water renders the subjacent

from the Rio Grande eastwards across the Rio Brazos, and salt water unusually warm. The same explanation accounts

northwards into the adjoining States of Oklahoma and for the prolific oyster-beds on this coast.

Kansas. In the Hawaiian Islands a mesquite, although an

alien, has established itself as a pure forest from sea-level In the November number of the Century Magazine Prof. to an elevation of several hundred feet, and is regarded as H. F. Osborn publishes in extenso the lecture on the evolu- a valuable asset, because, in addition to the fuel and posts tion of the horse in America which he delivered at the obtained from the wood, the pods furnish excellent food for recent Cambridge meeting of the British Association. stock. Omitting reference that portion of the article devoted

In view of the difficulties of obtaining zygospores of to the origin of the Equidæ generally, we may mention that the author regards North America as the ancestral home

species of Mucor and allied genera, considerable importance of the genus Equus, the American horses passing into South

attaches to a paper--"Sexual Reproduction of the MucorAmerica by way of Panama, and into Asia by a land-bridge inræ,” by Mr. A. F. Blakeslee-which is published in the across Bering Strait about the early or middle portion of August number of the Proceedings of the American Academy

of Arts and Sciences. The author found that the greater the Pliocene period, giving rise in the latter area to the

number of these fungi failed to produce zygospores in pure Siwalik horses (which, by the way, are not later than older

cultures, but some would do so when a mass of spores taken Pliocene age). Horses of all kinds died out both in North

from an impure culture was sown together. This suggested and in South America, according to the author's belief, before the European conquest. The American Miocene and

that in the latter case zygospores were produced from

different mycelia or plants, and eventually experiments Pliocene horses are considered to have been striped ; but

demonstrated that two different strains, which may be rethe splitting of Equus into the true horses, asses, and zebras

garded as a (+) and a (-), were required ; thus two groups, probably took place in the Old World. Przewalski's horse

the heterothallic of Mongolia is regarded as representing the ancestral stock

and homothallic, distinguished. of the ordinary horses of the Old World, the long manes

Sporodinia is homothallic, Phycomyces, Rhizopus, and

several species of Mucor are heterothallic. Differences of and tails of the latter being probably due in part to domestication. On the other hand, the author accepts the view that

colour, luxuriance and duration of conjugating ability were the blood-horse may have had a different ancestry, although

noted, but the most interesting results obtained were inhe does not refer to its suggested derivation from the Indian

cipient attempts at hybridisation by opposite strains of allied Equus sivalensis.

heterothallic forms.

We learn from the Standard that, under the auspices of Some interesting experiments in blasting tree butts with

the Meteorological Council, a new observing station for gellignite-a safety explosive-have recently been carried

London has just been established in St. James's Park. The out at Lord Leigh's Stoneleigh Abbey Estate, near Kenil

station is situated in an open spot a few yards distant from Worth. The usual boring was made and filled with the the iron railings bordering on the Horse Guards Parade, explosive. An electric detonator was used which enabled

and is equipped with a set of thermometers, mounted in a the operator to retire under cover at a safe distance. The

Stevenson screen, and two rain gauges-one of quite an butts operated upon were of various sizes and species, but

ordinary kind, the other a self-registering gauge of the in each case the method was found to give satisfactory

pattern designed by Mr. F. L. Halliwell, of Southport. results. It is also claimed to combine efficiency with Just within the park railings are placed two ornamental economy.

wooden frames, one containing, for the previous twentyThe comparative age of the different elements of the flora

four hours, automatic records of bright sunshine, of rainof eastern North America forms the subject of a paper by

fall, and of temperature, all made in Westminster ; the other, Dr. J. W. Hashberger in the September issue of the Pro

copies of the latest weather charts and forecasts prepared at

the Meteorological Office. ceedings of the Philadelphia Academy. Most of the flora cannot be older than the close of the Glacial period, which, We have received a copy of the results of the magnetical from the rate of cutting of the Niagara gorge, is estimated and meteorological observations made at the Royal Alfred to have occurred not more than 15,000 years ago. Some of Observatory, Mauritius, in the year 1901. The observatory its elements may, however, be much older, since they may has a complete equipment of instruments recording photo

are

snows.

graphically the variations of the principal magnetic and ice by the work done in its descent. This work is converted meteorological elements and of earth movements, in addition into heat in overcoming friction, viscosity, and similar reto a self-registering “ Beckley " rain gauge and other auto

A

sistances, just as in Joule's classical experiments. matic apparatus. The tables, containing hourly and mean further increase in the internal melting during the winter values, have been carefully prepared on the Greenwich is probably due to the pressure produced by the winter pattern, and are, therefore, quite clear and convenient for reference. Mr. Claxton prints the results of an interesting investigation of the degree of accuracy of self-registering

A SPECIAL report of the seventy-sixth meeting of the

German Association of Naturalists and Physicians is conmaximum and minimum thermometers. He finds that maxi

tained in the number of the Physikalische Zeitschrift for mum thermometers read higher in a horizontal position than

October 20. The meeting was held at Breslau from when inclined to the horizon ; the excess may amount to 1° F. Also, that the indications of spirit minimum thermo

September 18 to 24, and the physical papers include the meters are untrustworthy, owing chiefly to evaporation of

following :-E. Hoppe, constitution of magnets; H. Haril, the spirit. They should be used in conjunction with an

lecture apparatus; C. Pulfrich, coast surveying, &c.; R. ordinary mercurial thermometer.

Müller, vacuum apparatus; C. Dieterici, energy of water and

its vapour ; W. Scheffer, stereoscopic problems; A. Köhler, A PAPER on Britain's place in foreign markets is con

photomicrography by ultra-violet light; J. Stark, mercury tributed to the Economic Journal for September by Prof.

lamps of quartz glass; O. Lummer and P. Weiss, n-rays; A. W. Flux. The author has had considerable difficulty

W. Nernst, chemical equilibria at high temperatures ; in drawing up statistics owing to the great discrepancies

L. Grunmach, properties of emanium and liquid nitrous which he finds in the returns from different countries. He,

oxide ; A. Wehnelt, negative ions from incandescent metallic however, considers that the market for British goods in

oxides; O. Lumier, resolution of fine spectrum lines; Germany, France, and the United States, though narrowed

W. Schmidt, models of wave motion ; H. T. Simon, a phaseby the tariff policy of the third, is still of great importance,

meter ; M. Reinganum, molecular volumes of halogen salts; and is expansive in some degree except in the case of the

L. Graetz, radiations from hydrogen peroxide; J. RosenUnited States. In all three cases, however, the trade done

thal, Sprengel pumps; W. Stern, tone-variators; K. by other countries as a whole has grown faster than their

Schreber, explosion motors, also force, weight and mass; trade with us.

G. Bredig and F. Epstein, kinetics of adiabatic reactions ;

and E. Meyer, combustion engines. In addition a disDURING March, 1903, several excursions were made

cussion took place on mathematical and scientific teaching to the Phlegræan fields of Naples by Dr. G. de Lorenzo and

in the higher schools, including addresses by K. Fricke, Sir Archibald Geikie. At the suggestion of the latter the

F. Klein, F. Merkel, and G. Leubuscher. In the general former has now published a short history of volcanic activity

meetings papers were read on the Ice age by Messrs. in this region (Rendiconto Naples Academy, May to July).

Brückner, Meyer and Partsch, on the Antarctic expedition Dr. de Lorenzo divides the volcanic formations into three

by Prof. Gazert, and on biological mechanics by Prof. periods, the first being represented by the pipernoid tufa

Roux. of the Campagna and by conglomerate and breccia at Cuma,

The scientific methods which have characterised Japanese Camaldoli and Procida, the second by the yellow tufa of

operations in the Far East are not the only results of the Posilipo, Nisida, Pozzuoli, Capodimonte, &c., and the

well developed system of education which the last thirtytrachitic masses of the Vomero, and the third period by the

five years has seen established in Japan. Some fifty years eruptions of the Solfatara, Monte Nuovo, the Lago d'Agnano

ago Japan was a hermit nation more than five centuries and similar formations.

behind the times, to-day she constitutes a new and important

factor in the problem of the distribution of the world's In the Rendiconto of the Naples Academy for March and

The story of the foreign commerce of Japan April, Prof. Orazio Rebuffat describes some interesting and

since the restoration of imperial authority in 1868 is told simple experiments with radium salts. When a glass rod

by Mr. Yukimasa Hattori in Nos. 9 and 10 of series xxii. was rubbed with wool in the common way for producing of the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and electric sparks the author found that if the experiment

Political Science, copies of which have reached us. Mr. was performed in a medium containing a radium salt a

Hattori considers his subject under three headings : the luminous glow followed the wool, and when the finger was

volume of trade, the character of Japan's commerce, and brought near the excited glass a glow was again seen.

the geographical distribution of trade. Two remarks By taking a vacuum tube and opening connection with a

towards the end of his paper will show the conclusions small tube containing a salt of radium, and then rubbing to which Mr. Hattori has come. " Japan must rely on the outside of the glass tube with wool, a brilliant glow | industrial development rather than on agriculture, and must seen within. By means of this experiment Prof.

try to excel in the quality of the goods produced rather Rebuffat considers it possible to demonstrate the production than in quantity.” Japan possesses all the advantages of emanations from radium preparations of very feeble

necessary to make her a great manufacturing country. Her activity.

people possess exceptional skill, and labour is relatively

cheap: coal is abundant, and the raw material is easily DR. R. von LENDENFELD, of Prague, has published in obtainable either at home or in the neighbouring cou tries." Globus, lxxxv., 24, a discussion of the melting of glaciers in Those readers who have followed the steps in Japan's dewinter. The author considers that the earth's interior heat

velopment since 1868 will be prepared to agree with Mr. is incapable of accounting for any considerable part of the Hattori that his country is but " at the very beginning of phenomenon; indeed, he only attributes about 3 per cent.

beginnings " of what will yet be seen. to 6 per cent. of the result to this cause. Another cause which may account for a further i per cent. is the slow A SECOND edition of Mr. Drinkwater Butt's Practical conduction of the summer heat to the interior. The main Retouching has been published by Messrs. Iliffe and Sons cause of the melting is attributed to the heating of the Ltd., at is, net.

commerce.

was

« PreviousContinue »