« PreviousContinue »
Messrs. MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD., have in the press an portance of the valuable experimental results he obtained English translation of Dr. Cohnheim's “ Chemistry of the in measuring the old and new bands on his large dispersion Proteids," prepared with the author's sanction from the photographs. second edition of that work by Dr. Gustav Mann, of the ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Cape OBSERVATORY.-In the report physiological laboratory at Oxford, and author of “ Physio
of the Cape Observatory for 1903 Sir David Gill records
several important additions to and modifications of the inlogical Histology." Dr. Cohnheim's book, which, in its
strumental equipment. second edition, has been entirely re-modelled, deals with all
The work of the new transit circle has been greatly facilirecent advances made in analysing and synthetising proteids. tated, and the results improved by the adaptation of a Several special features have been introduced into the English Repsold automatic transitting device to the instrument. translation, and some of the chapters have been re-written.
The line-of-sight spectroscope which is used in connection
with the Victoria telescope has been re-modelled, and an As English edition of Prof. Weismann's “ Evolution extremely delicate thermostatic arrangement has been fitted Theory," which has been translated, with the author's co
so that the temperature of the prism box can be maintained operation, from the second German edition (1904) by Prof.
constant, within 10°.05 F., during a three or four hours'
exposure. J. Arthur Thomson, of Aberdeen University, and his wife,
in the astrophysical department several stellar spectra will be published in two volumes by Mr. Edward Arnold have been completely reduced in the region 1 4200 to 1 4580, toward the end of this month.
and those of Canopus and Sirius have been discussed in con
nection with the corresponding terrestrial origins of their To commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the lines. The results of the line-of-sight work have been made founding of the firm of Burroughs, Wellcome and Co., Mr. more trustworthy by measuring only those lines which, on Henry S. Wellcome is arranging an exhibition of historical traversing either the thin or the thick ends of the prisms, objects in connection with the history of medicine, chemistry,
show no relative displacement, and a Phænicis has been pharmacy, and the allied sciences, the object being to illus
shown to have a very large radial velocity. In December
this star was apparently receding from us at the rate of trate the art and science of healing in all ages. The date
105 km. per second. of the opening of the exhibition is not yet fixed.
A large amount of routine work in connection with the
maintenance of an efficient time service and the completion The Cambridge University Press will publish very shortly
of the Cape zone for the astrographic chart was accomplished in the Cambridge Biological Series Morphology and
during the year. Important operations were also carried Anthropology,” by Mr. W. L. H. Duckworth. The volume out in connection with the geodetic survey of South Africa, will present a summary of the anatomical evidence bearing whilst the Government survey of the Transvaal and the on the problem of man's place in nature. The Cambridge
Orange River Colony and the topographic survey of South
Africa University Press has also in preparation
have been planned, the former having been “ Studies from the
commenced. Anthropological Laboratory in the University of Cam
THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMARY TO SECONDARY SPECTRA.bridge," by Mr. Duckworth.
Some very interesting experimental results, obtained with Tue November number of the Popular Science Monthly the idea of determining as definitely as possible the points is devoted entirely to the St. Louis Congress of Arts and
at which, under various conditions, the primary is replaced Science. The representative administrative board, it will
by the secondary spectrum in gases, are published by Mr.
P. G. Nutting in No. 2, vol. xx., of the Astrophysical be remembered, adopted the plan proposed by Prof. Münster- Journal. berg, of Harvard University, to hold one congress of the The general method was to determine what current arts and sciences which should attempt to promote and capacity caused the above named change when either the demonstrate the unity of science. An appreciation of the
wave-length, the pressure, the nature of the gas, the in
ductance or the resistance was altered, and this was called fork of this international congress, interspersed with
the “critical capacity.” portraits of representative men of science from various parts
Among other results the experiments showed that this of the world, is contributed by Mr. W. H. Davis, of Lehigh critical capacity is a function of the wave-length, and that University, one of the secretaries. A selection from the it increases slightly as the pressure decreases down to about addresses given at the congress completes an interesting
i mm. of air, when it suddenly becomes infinite. All the number of the magazine.
elements tested have the same critical capacity for the same wave-length and pressure, although the critical point is more marked in some elements than in others. The introduction
of inductance always relatively weakens the secondary and OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
strengthens the primary spectrum, although no amount of Excke's Comet (1904 b).--A telegram from Prof. Max inductance will completely annul the effects of capacity. Wolf to the Astronomische Nachrichten (No. 3975) states Resistance acts similarly to inductance. The critical that on October 28 the ephemeris published by M. capacity of any vapour in a mixture of vapours was shown Kaminsky in No. 3973 of that journal needed corrections of to be the same as when no other gases were present. + 118. –2'-4, and, further, that the magnitude of the comet isual observations have not, as yet, been fruitful. Prof. NEW BUILDINGS OF THE UNIVERSITY E. Milosevich vainly sought for this object on September 15
The George Holt Physics Laboratory. DESLANDRES'S FORMULA FOR THE LINES IN THE OXYGEN by Mr. O. C. Lester concerning the oxygen bands in the
, solar spectrum, which appeared in these columns valued by the University of Liverpool as a magnificent October 20, Prof. Deslandres directs attention to the fact addition to its fabric, as well as a memorial to one of the that a modification of his first formula (viz. N=a+bno), wisest and most generous supporters of that college from equivalent to that now proposed by Mr. Lester, was pub- which the university has been developed. lished by him in his original (Comptes rendus, August, 1886)
The laboratory covers an area of 9600 square feet, and and succeeding memoirs on this subject.
has an average height of 55 feet. The architects are Mr. Lester's statement that the first law requires the Messrs. Willink and Thicknesse, of Liverpool, with whom modification which he proposes is obviously justified, but he
there is associated Prof. F. M. Simpson, now of University appears to have omitted to study the original memoirs, and
College, London. The external walls, which are very subto have accepted the epitomised and generally known results stantial, are built in best common brick with broad courses as being complete. This does not, however, lessen the im- of red brick and dressings of Storeton stone.
and October 5.
Bano Series --Referring to a note on the results obtained THE George Holt Physics Laboratory, which was de
ment floors are asphalte on a bed of concrete resting on experimental purposes to all points of two vertical walls the continuous rock which is the foundation of the whole which extend to the full height of the tower, about 75 feet. building. All the upper floors are fire-proof; they consist In another part of the laboratory access over a horizontal of a bed of concrete which encases a lattice-work of steel distance, about 90 feet, nearly equal to the whole length girders, and supports a layer of coke breeze, upon which of the building, is secured. tongued and grooved pitch-pine boards are stuck down with The rooms are heated by low pressure hot water, and bitumen and nailed. The resulting surface is both noise- are ventilated by an exhaust fan in the roof. They are less and steady, and the whole building is made very rigid adequately supplied with gas, with sinks to which hot and by the girders employed.
cold water are led, with electric power from the corporation In the basement there is a large workshop, fully fitted mains, and with wires from a switch-board in the basement with machine tools, store-rooms, a room containing a liquid to which the accumulators are connected. The wiring is air plant, a furnace room, an accumulator room, a room run in wood casing on the surface of the walls; all pipes for the custody and comparison of standards, and a number are fully exposed, and, wherever a floor or wall is pierced, of research rooms in which extra steadiness, complete an opening is left through which further permanent or darkness, or constancy of temperature, can be respectively temporary connections can be made as required. secured.
The apparatus and preparation rooms have galleries round On the ground floor, close to the entrance hall and cloak- them, so that their whole wall-space is rendered available rooms, are the doors of the large lecture theatre, a smaller for cupboards and drawers. Special devices have been class-room, and a large laboratory for elementary students. adopted for the ready darkening of the lecture theatre, and This floor also contains the preparation room, the apparatus for the provision of rigid points of attachment above the
whole length of the lecture table. The counter-shafting in the workshop is supported so as to be entirely independent of the rest of the building, and thus silence and freedom from vibration are secured.
The erection of the laboratory was rendered possible by the munificence of a small body of donors, Mrs. and Miss Holt, Sir John Brunner, the late Sir Henry Tate, the executors of the late Rev. J. H. Thom, Mr. Alfred Booth, Mr. Holbrook Gaskell, Mr. J. W. Hughes and Mr. John Rankin, who together subscribed the sum of 23,600l., which by the addition of interest has increased to 25,90ol. The cost of the building, with furniture and fittings, is 21,600l. A sum of 1200l. has already been spent upon machinery and new apparatus, and thus about 3000l. is available for the completion and maintenance of its equipment.
It is hoped that the general scheme according to which the laboratory is arranged will prove favourable to simplicity and economy of administration, and will allow teaching and research to flourish side by side, not hampering but supporting each other.
New Medical Buildings of the University of Liverpool.
The new medical buildings opened at Liverpool on November 12 go far to complete the university school of medicine in that city in a thoroughly efficient and modern manner. The provide accommodation chiefly for the subjects of anatomy, surgery, and materia medica, the school of dental surgery and the school offices, and forensic medicine. There are four full floors to the building, and the ground plan is of an L shape. One limb of the L-shaped figure joins the fine Thompson-Yates laboratories opened six years ago for physiology and pathology. The other limb forms a wing ending freely towards the north. In the angle of junction of the two portions of the building are placed large theatres, one on the ground floor for surgery, the other upstairs for human anatomy. The pitch of the benching is steep, and the lighting is extremely good from a series of long windows following the curve of the rounded angle
of the building. In the wing, lighted by windows east and Fig. 1 - The George Holt Physics Laboratory, Liverpool.
west, is a spacious museum for anatomical preparations.
Above this is a large room for dissection, especially well room, and a sitting-room, office, and private laboratory for lighted from the east. An excellent theatre for operative the professor.
surgery forms a feature of the surgical equipment. The first floor is set apart for the teaching of senior In addition to the theatres, museum, and dissecting room students. It contains two large students' laboratories, four are rooms for a library, and for smaller classes than those smaller rooms suitable for optical and acoustical experi- the theatres are intended to accommodate. In the front ments, a students' workshop, a library, and two sitting- portion of the building is the medical faculty meeting rooms for demonstrators.
room for transacting the business of the faculty and of The second floor consists almost entirely of research rooms its various committees, also for meetings of the veterinary of various sizes. Of these some are designed for special board which manages the newly started university school purposes, such as spectroscopy, but the majority are planned of veterinary medicine. Next to the medical faculty meetso as to be adaptable to as great a variety of needs as ing room is the spacious room providing an office for the possible.
Dean of the faculty. No effort or expense has been spared A photographic dark room is provided on each floor; that in making the construction at once durable, well lighted in connection with the preparation room is adapted for the within, and handsome from the exterior. Admirable lightmaking of lantern slides and enlargements. There is also ing has been secured throughout, even to the basement a small observatory on the roof, containing a four-inch rooms, which are particularly good, so as to provide a equatorial telescope.
much needed reading room for students. The erection was An electrically driven lift, working in the centre of a begun three years ago, and part of the building has already tower, is available for the conveyance of heavy apparatus been in occupation for more than a year. The architects from floor to floor. It can also be used to give access for are Messrs. Waterhouse, of London, who have designed
most of the older buildings of the university. The group of Mendeléeff passes next to the so-called rare elements. medical school buildings now in use have cost altogether Leaving aside historical details concerning them, he reabout 80,00ol., including, with the building opened on
marks that it is the more necessary to dwell upon them Saturday, the Thompson-Yates laboratory and the Johnston as they complete to a great extent our knowledge of the Laboratory. The Chancellor of the university, Lord Derby, periodic law. "Our information about them, he conformally inaugurated the new buildings on the same after- tinues, can also, in our opinion, contribute towards noon as Lord Kelvin opened the new university laboratory explaining the relations between the phenomena and the for physics. With these fresh additions to its accommo- substances in nature; because for the understanding of a dation and teaching equipment, and with the fine new multitude of natural phenomena it is necessary to resort laboratories for zoology and for electrical engineering now the conception of the so-called luminiferous ether, rapidly nearing completion, the University of Liverpool will which by all means must be considered as a ponderable rank among the best provided university institutions in the substance, and consequently must have its place in the country.
system of elements, inasmuch as it reminds us of the properties of helium, argon, and other similar elements. The
conception of the ether was resorted to at the outset exPROF. JENDELÉEFF ON THE CHEMICAL clusively for explaining the phenomena of light, which, as ELEMENTS.
is known, can be best understood as the result of vibrations
of the ether. However, later on, ether, considered as being THE last half-volume (eightieth) of the new Russian distributed throughout the universe, was resorted to in order Encyclopædic Dictionary contains a remarkable
to explain, not only electrical phenomena, but also gravitapaper by Prof. Mendeléeff on the chemical elements, of
tion itself. In consequence of that, a very great importance which the following is a slightly abridged translation. has to be attributed to the ether; and as it cannot be conTogether with the articles on matter and on the periodic
sidered as anything but ponderable matter, we are bound law, which Mendeléeff contributed to previous issues of
to apply to it all the conceptions which we apply to matter the same dictionary, and a paper, “ An Attempt at
in general, including also the chemical relations. But as, Chemical Comprehension of the World's Ether," published at the same time, we are bound to admit that this matter in a Russian review, this article represents the fundamental is not only distributed throughout stellar space (in pöysical and chemical conceptions of the great chemist order to explain the light which reaches us from the stars), as they now appear in connection with the discoveries of
but also penetrates all other substances; and as also we recent years.
must admit that the ether has no capacity of entering into “Human thought," he begins,“ has always endeavoured
chemical reactions, or of undergoing any sort of chemical to simplify the immense variety of phenomena and sub- condensation, therefore the above mentioned elements, stances in nature by admitting, if not the full unity of the helium and argon, which are characterised precisely by the furdamental elements (Democritus, Epicurus), at least absence of that property of entering into chemical reactions the existence of a limited number of elements capable of with other substances, show in this respect a certain producing all the variety of substances. In antiquity this similarity with the ether.'” tendency often resulted even in confusing the phenomena Referring further to radium, Mendeléeff remarks that with the substances (earth, water,
air, and fire).' there can be no doubt as to its being a separate element, Since the time of Lavoisier such a confusion has become extremely rare in nature. As to the emanation of heliumi certainly impossible: the substances are sharply separated by radium, and the presence of the helium spectrum in the from the phenomena which are associated with them.
spectrum of radium, he explains these facts by the occlusion there may be partial returns the old
of helium in a compound of radium, and considers that view,
However," Mendeléeff continues, “the solidity nothing gives us reason to think that radium should be of the now prevailing conception as to the profound transformed into helium." “Notwithstanding the exdifference existing between substances and phenomena is tremely small quantities of radium occurring in nature, the result of such a mass of coordinated knowledge that Madame Curie has succeeded in obtaining a compound of it cannot be shattered in the least even if a small portion of it, and in establishing its kinship with barium, as also in the men of science return to the “ dynamism " of old which
finding its atomic weight to be near 224, which permits us Endeavoured to represent matter also as one of the forms of to complete the periodic system of elements by placing phenomena. Consequently we are bound now to recognise radium in the second group, in the 12th row, in which we the substances (the inasses) and the phenomena (the move- have already thorium and uranium, the ores of which are ments) as two quite separate, independent categories, such possessed of radio-activity. as space and time, the substance of which our thought “ As to argon and its congeners-neon, krypton, and has not yet penetrated, but without which it cannot work. Thus, for example, we
xenon-these simple gases, discovered by Ramsay, differ are far yet from understanding from all the known elements in that, up till now, notthe cause of gravitation, but with its aid we understand withstanding the most varied attempts, they could not many phenomena, even though up till now it is not be brought into combination with any other substance, or quite evident whether attraction acts through the aid of with each other. This gives them a separate place, quite an intervening medium or represents a fundamental force distinct from all other known elements in the periodic which acts at a distance. Progress in the understanding system, and induces us to complete the system by a new of nature depends, therefore, not upon our reducing everything to one final conception—to one principle of all
separate group, the group zero, which precedes group i.,
the representatives of which are hydrogen, lithium, sodium, principles '—but in reducing the great variety of substances and so on. and phenomena which act upon our senses to a small number “ The placing of these elements in a new group is of recognised fundamental conceptions, even though these fully supported by the atomic weights which are deduced last be disconnected. One of such conceptions is that of for these gases on the basis of their densities, if we admit the recognised chemical elements.
that the molecule of each of them contains but one atom. * The simplest way of conceiving matter in this case is to consider it as the result of combinations of elements
1 " About this resemblance between argon and helium and the substance which themselves are matter; and the phenomena as the
of the world's ether I have already written in a separate article entitled
'An Attempt at a Chemical Comprehension of the Ether,' in the review results of movements which are the property of these Messenger and Library of Self Education, in the first four numbers of elements or their aggregations. It was from this point
This article was transla'ed into German in the Prometheus of 1003 of view that the conceptions were elaborated as to the
by M. Tshulok, and into English by M. Kamenskiy under the title 'A distinction, not only between phenomena and substances,
Chemical Conception of the Ether' (Longmans, Green and Co., London,
1904) I must, however, remark that the German translation is a complete but also between simple bodies and elements; because the one, but that the editors of the English translation have omitted the intro. conception of a simple body implies the idea of an im
ductory general philosophical remarks about the fundamental distinction possibility of transforming certain bodies into other bodies,
between substances (masses), forces (energy), and spirit. This omission
deprives the article of the realistic meaning which I intended to give it while the conception of a chemical element is merely deter- by introducing ether into the system of elements." mined by the desire of diminishing the number of sub
2 "Some later researches lead us to believe that the atomic weight of radium stances which are required for explaining the great variety
is slightly above the figure found by Madame Curie, but it seems to me that of the latter."
it still remains doubtful whether the conclusion of Madame Curie has to
Thus, helium must be placed before lithium, and argon ception of the chemical elements is connected in the most before potassium, as is seen from the table, into which intimate way with the generally received teachings of radium has also been introduced. In this table there are, Galileo and Newton about the mass and the ponderability in the group zero, two unknown elements, x and y, which of matter, as also with the teaching of Lavoisier concernhave been introduced for two reasons : first, because in the ing the indestructibility of matter, * the conception of the corona of the sun, above the region of incandescent ether originates exclusively from the study of phenomena hydrogen, there has been noticed an element which has an and the need of reducing them tu simpler conceptions. independent spectrum, and therefore is named coronium ; Amongst such conceptions we held for a long time and although it is yet unknown (helium was also first the conception of imponderable substances (such as characterised by Crookes as an element, on account of the phlogiston, luminous matter, the substance of the positive independence of its spectrum), it must have a density, and and negative electricity, heat, &c.), but gradually this consequently an atomic weight, both smaller than those of has disappeared, and now we can say with certainty that hydrogen (in the table, this element is marked as y); and the luminiferous ether, if it be real, is ponderable, although secondly, because there is no reason to believe that the it cannot be weighed, just as air cannot be weighed in air, system of elements is limited in the direction of the lightest or water in water. We cannot exclude the ether from ones by hydrogen. The presence of the elements x and y any space; it is everywhere and penetrates everything, owing in the group zero makes us think that the elements which to its extreme lightness and the rapidity of motion of its correspond to these positions in the system will be dis- molecules. Therefore such conceptions as that of the ether tinguished by the absence, in a high degree, of the capacity remain abstract, or conceptions of the intellect, like the one of chemical combination-a property which belongs also, has been already pointed
Group zero Group I. Group II. Group III. Group IV. Group V. Group VI. Group VII out, to helium, argon, and their analogues.
“ The same property
F=19'0 extremely low density, and consequently a very
Cu=636 Zn=65'4 Ga=7o*o Ge=72°3 As=750 | Se=79 Br=79'95 atmosphere of the earth, but also from
| Ru=1017 Kr=8148 Rb=854 Sr=8746 | Y=890 | Zr=90°6 Nb=940 Mo=96'o
Rh=joz'o the atmospheres of our
(-) concerning the double
the of the stars which we know do not exceed the mass of our
Ir=193 sun more than thirty
Pt=1940 (Au) two times, while in other they are
Au=197'2 Hg=200*0 TI=204'1 Pb=2069 Bi=208
U=239 gases, we must admit,
the basis of the kinetic theory of gases, that its specific gravity must be very which also leads us to the very teaching about a limited much smaller than the specific gravity of hydrogen. In number of chemical elements out of which all substances in order that the ether may escape from the sphere of attrac- nature are composed." tion of stars the mass of which is fifty times greater than the mass of the sun, it must, while it chemically resembles
WELSH CONFERENCE ON THE TRAINING argon and helium, have an atomic weight not more than
OF TEACHERS. 0.000 000 000 053 (and a density, in relation to hydrogen, half as large, as have proved in the above mentioned article THE Welsh National Conference on the Training of on ether). The very small value of this figure already Teachers was held in Shrewsbury on November explains why there is little hope of isolating the substance and it, and although no special reference was made to of the ether in the near future, as it also explains why it science teaching, still the subject of education is now in a penetrates all substances, and why it is condensed in a small fair way to be considered a science, since it has been indegree, or collects in a physicomechanical way, round ponder- cluded as a section of the British Association. able substances-being mostly condensed round such The conference was convened by the Central Welsh immense masses as that of the sun or of stars.'
Board and the University of Wales, and in addition to In conclusion, Mendeléeff indicates that while the con- these bodies, representatives attended from every county
education authority in Wales, from every type of educational 1 "It is worth noting ibat all the incandescent, self-luminous celestial institution, from the National Executive of Welsh Councils bodies are immense as regards their masses, in comparison with the cooler and from all the associations of masters and mistresses. bodies like the earth or the moon; perhaps this depends upon the dis. Upwards of 200 delegates attended in all, most of whom tribution of the ether, which is condensed precisely round such very big
remained throughout all four sessions. masses as the sun and the stars. It is also worth noticing that the atomic weights of radium, as also of thorium and uranium, are very great in
At the first session, which was devoted to " The Special comparison with those of the other elements."
Aspect of the Problem of Training Presented in Wales,
Principal Griffiths, vice-chancellor of the University of THERAPEUTIC BACTERIAL INOCULATION.1 Wales, presided, and in his opening address submitted the points which it was most important that the conference ALTHOUGH the majority of diseases are produced should decide. Briefly they were these : What were the directly or indirectly by the invasion of microbes, it real demands of the Principality, and how far were they has come to be generally recognised that the soil in which met by existing institutions? Was Wales to import the they grow plays a cardinal part in determining the ultimate shortage of teachers, or to increase her own production ? effect or fate of the microbe. The finding of a pathogenic In what manner could the schools be best utilised as train-microbe, and even the accessory disposing factors of a ing grounds without injuring the schools? and should disease, are, however, after all only the beginnings of the local education authorities undertake the training of greater problem which is the end and aim of all medical Secondary teachers? To these questions no uncertain science, viz. the cure of the disease. ansver was suggested, although the conference abstained To attack the causal agent is manifestly a solution of from passing formal resolutions until an opportunity had the problem, and this was the method originally advocated been accorded the members to consider the verbatim report, by Lister, who may be regarded as the founder of the which it was decided to publish at an early date.
doctrine of the ætiological curative principle. Experience At the second session Mr. Lloyd George, M.P., presided, has, however, shown that the attempt to destroy by means and a paper was read by Lord Stanley of Alderley, chair
of ordinary chemical poisons the microbes in the living body man of the Anglesea Education Committee, and late chair- is fraught with danger, for long before the protoplasm of man of the London School Board, on “ The Point of View the microbe is destroyed the cells of the body are irreparably of the Local Authorities.” The debate was opened by Mr. damaged. Internal antiseptic therapy is a thing of the S. J. Hughes, county alderman of Glamorganshire. Both Lord
past. To-day we must rely on the stimulus produced by Stanley and Alderman Hughes emphasised the paramount
bacteria in the body whereby the cells of the latter elaborate importance of training for the elementary school teacher.
substances which are antagonistic to these same bacteria. In summing up the debate, Mr. Lloyd George replaced the
These substances-germicidal in the widest sense of the sword by the trowel, and emphasised the need for addi
word-differ considerably in their mode of action. Some tional accommodation and for subsidising the buildings and
neutralise the bacterial poisons, others produce a solution the staffs. Enthusiasm was required, he said, to meet the
-a lysis of the bacteria. In other
again, increased burden on the rates, but he believed that the
Metchnikoff claims that the destruction takes place by a enthusiasm would be forthcoming. At this stage the only
kind of digestion in the interior of certain cells of which resolution of the conference was passed. This was moved
the chief representatives are the wandering corpuscles of by Principal Griffiths, and asserted “ That it is the duty of
the blood. the Principality to undertake the training and supply of
The inoculation of a living microbe for the purposes of teachers sufficient to meet the requirements of the Principality
prophylaxis dates from the time of Edward Jenner, whose At the third session, which was presided over by Sir
work was widely extended by Pasteur. It is not even John Gorst,“ The Special Aspects of the Problem of the
necessary to use living bacteria, dead bacteria being like
wise capable of conferring immunity. In any case, with Training of Elementary Teachers ” was considered, a paper being read by Mr. T. John, vice-president of the National the exception of diphtheria antitoxin, previous attempts have Union of Teachers. The experiments already being tried in
aimed at prevention rather than cure. The authors of the the utilisation of the intermediate schools of Wales for the
papers before us are the first who have utilised bacterial
inoculations as a curative agent. Dr. A. E. Wright, late training of pupil teachers were described in detail, but the general opinion of the conference was unmistakable—that
professor in the Army Medical School, is already widely any half-time system should be a temporary expedient only.
known for his method of the preventive inoculation against As regards the question of the concurrent instruction of
typhoid fever-a method which is admitted to have led to primary and secondary teachers, it was agreed that it is
a marked diminution of this disease in the British Army. necessary for the separation of the primary teacher's pro
His most important work, however, has been the discovery fessional training from his general education, and that
of therapeutic inoculation. To introduce bacteria into an under certain conditions it is possible and desirable that
individual already infected with the same bacteria would primary and secondary students should be trained together.
at first sight appear to be a paradox, but the results obtained The important question of the further training of those justify the means. By the invention of accurate methods of acting teachers whose qualifications are incomplete was
testing the effects produced in the body by the inoculations, introduced by Mr. Badger, director of higher education
Dr. Wright has been able to demonstrate that the elaborfor Monmouthshire.
ation of protective substances follows a general law, The relations between the various qualifying examina- characterised at first by a negative phase and followed by tions were considered, and there was practical unanimity a positive phase in which the protective substances in the that matriculation should be a condition of entering the
blood are increased in quantity. primary training departments of the three university col- In a series of papers he has likewise shown that in soleges of Wales.
called phagocytosis there is really a cooperation of the cells Mr. Humphreys Owen, M.P., chairman of the Central and fluids of the body, and that in the latter there are subWelsh Board, presided over the fourth session, which was stances-opsonins--which in some way or other act upon devoted to the “ Special Aspects of the Problem of the microbes and prepare them for subsequent destruction Secondary Training:" Two papers were read, by Miss E. P. by the leucocytes. This opsonic type of immunity is applicHughes, late principal of the Cambridge Training College able to a number of diseases, but the present researches for Secondary Teachers, and Mr. Trevor Owen, Swansea, show that the mere presence of these opsonins is not who acted as the official spokesman of the Association of sufficient to induce immunity. They must be in the proper Welsh County Schoolmasters. The conference was decidedly place and at the required time if they are to exert their of opinion that secondary training should be post-graduate action, and a great deal of art is required on the part of and completely differentiated from the degree course, but the inoculator to create the most advantageous conditions that the training college should be essentially attached to for his patient. The methods advocated by Prof. Wright the university college. Representatives of the Association are so new that it is difficult to foresee how far they may go, of Assistant Masters also addressed the conference and but the striking curative results obtained justify one in endorsed the views expressed by the readers of the papers. prophesying that the time is not so very far distant when
There can be no doubt that the ultimate result of the the abilities of the physician will be judged by his successes conference will be far-reaching and beneficial. The inter- an immunisator, for it must not be imagined that change of ideas always makes for good, and it is not too much to hope that from the deliberations there may be
1“On the Action exerted upon the Staphylococcus pyogenes by the
Human Blood Fluids, and on the Elaboration of Protective Elements in devised a scheme which will be workable for all parts of
the Human Organism in response to Inoculations of a Staphylococcus the Principality, and will in time produce a supply of fully Vaccine.' By Dr. A. E. Wright and Capt. Stewart R. Douglas, J.M.S. trained teachers of all grades, which, like her system of (Proc, Roy. Soc., September, 1904). Secondary education already established, will be a lasting
“On the Action exerted upon the Tubercle Bacillus by the Human Blood
Fluids, and on the Elaboration of Protective Elements in the Human and tangible proof of the enthusiasm of the Welsh people Organism in response to Inoculations of a Tubercle Vaccine." By the for education.
same Authors (Proc. Roy. Soc., September, 1904).