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JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
LITERATURE AND LIFE
WILLIAM H. ELSON
CHRISTINE M. KECK
Grand Rapids, Michigan
SCOTT, FORESMAN AND COMPANY
For permission to use copyrighted material grateful acknowledgment is made to The Mark Twain Company, the Estate of Samuel L. Clemens, and to Harper and Brothers for “How Tom Sawyer Whitewashed the Fence" from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain; to Ererybody's Magazine and the author for "The Elephant Remembers," by Edison Marshall; to Macmillan and Company, Ltd for "The Wonders of the World We Live In” from The Beauties of Nature, by Sir John Lubbock; to Fleming H. Revell Company for “America” from From Alien to Citizen, by Edward A. Steiner; to Small, Maynard and Company for “Trees” from April Airs, by Bliss Carman; to Colliers and the author for “The Citizen," by James Francis Dwyer; to the author for “1620-1920,” by L. B. R. Briggs; to the Century Magazine and Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt for “Working Together in a Democracy” from “Fellow-Feeling as a Political Factor," by Theodore Roosevelt; to Henry Holt and Company for “The Tuft of Flowers” from A Boy's Will, by Robert Frost; to The Macmillan Company and the author for “The Hemp Fields" from The Reign of Law, by James Lane Allen; to Charles Scribner's Sons for “Trees and the Master” from Poems, by Sidney Lanier; to Poetry and the author for “April—North Carolina," by Harriet Monroe; to D. Appleton and ompany, Poetry, and the author for “On the Great Plateau" from The Wind in the Corn, by Edith Wyatt; to Doubleday, Page and Company for “Plowing on a Wheat Ranch” from The Octopus, by Frank Norris, and for "The Romance of a Busy Broker," from The Four Million, by O. Henry; to Amy Lowell for “Lilacs"; to Letta Eulalia Thomas for “What America Means to Me”; to Edwin Markham for “Lincoln, the Man of the People" and "Creed.” “Opportunity," by Edward R. Sill, is used by permission of and special arrangement with Houghton Mifflin Company, the authorized publishers.
For permission to use copyrighted pictures our thanks are tendered to Small, Maynard and Company for the halftone copy (in With Stevenson in Samoa, by J. B. Moors, copyright 1910) from which the picture on page 83 was adapted; to Agnes C. Gale for the halftone copy (in The Children's Odyssey, copyright 1912 by the Public School Publishing Company) for the picture page 210; to Joseph Pennell for the drawing (in Pictures of the Wonder of Work, copyright 1916 by J. B. Lippincott Company) for the picture on page 563; to Underwood and Underwood for the photograph on page 480; and to The International News Service for the photograph on page 514.
This volume, like Junior High School Nature. As Emerson rightly held, these Literature, Books One and Two, provides three relations are the foundation of all a one-year course in literature so organized education: the mind of the past, the world as to make deep and lasting impressions of action, the world of Nature. The book, upon the student.
by such organization, cannot fail to reënThe book includes an abundant supply force powerfully the study of history, of of carefully chosen selections from the social and political conditions, and of best writers of all time. Of the fifty or science the three main divisions into more authors represented, one half are which school and college courses masters of former times whose works have grouped. The study of literature, therebecome classics; the other half are recent fore, is not an occupation for leisure hours or contemporary writers who are recog- but is made the heart of the school. nized interpreters of our own time. Thus To this end, care has been taken not the book gives full recognition not only to only to secure the right selection of litthe past but also to the living present. erature, grouped under these fundamental To this abundance of material taken from divisions, but also to secure proper
underthe rich heritage of song and story comes standing of them as individual units and the added zest of variety.
also as parts of a group. This is accomA glance at the Contents will show that plished, first, through the various introthe editors have not regarded it as their ductions, written for the pupil, as in task merely to supply a large amount of Books One and Two of this series. The carefully chosen material in rich variety general and special introductions, taken and of recognized excellence. They have together, are an elementary treatise on how felt, as many other teachers also have felt, to read, on literary criticism, on the service that many anthologies are mere scrap- of literature to life. They are better than books. But the purpose of the study of such a mere treatise would be, for they literature is more than momentary recrea- are accompanied by the selections from tion. The collection of literary master- great literature that aptly illustrate the pieces used in a school year may leave an various points. They should be studied impression but little more permanent than by the pupil and made the basis of disthe impression left by the current maga- cussion in class. At intervals they should zine. The editors of this book recognize be reviewed in the light of the literature the value of the magazine for its own par- that has been read. These introductions ticular field; they do not believe that the cover a great variety of subjects: the textbook of literature should be a sort of nature of literature, the characteristics of glorified magazine, ten months' issues poetry, the relation of literature to human bound within a single cover. On the con
history and the development of institutrary they believe the material should be tions, the types of literature, etc. so organized as to make permanent im- The other aids to study are equally pressions of the dominant ideas and ideals distinctive. Classics are provided with a of the literature.
minimum of annotation, and this annotaThis volume, like Books One and Two tion is always directed to the needs of the of this series, is so organized as to bring pupil. The editors have sought to avoid out clearly certain fundamental relations, the over-annotation which always results with particular stress upon the ideal of from regarding the masterpiece as a unit good citizenship: a. the debt we owe the in itself. The notes are not designed to past; b. the relations of human brother- show editorial erudition or minuteness; hood; C. the relations between man and they are put in to enable the pupil to come to a complete understanding of his reading separate classics. Besides the advantage without interrupting that reading a mo- of economy, there is also in this plan the ment longer than necessary.
advantage of careful gradation and orTherefore, words that can be looked up ganization. Through many years of exin a good secondary-school dictionary are perience by hundreds of teachers there has not annotated. It is assumed that the grown up a fairly standardized list of pupil possesses such a dictionary, and that minimum essentials, a list of books that he will use it. The explanations of special every student should know. These are terms, printed as footnotes, are designed presented without curtailment except in to help the student to read intelligently, the case of some of the longer novels, in not to form the basis for questions by the which a plan for library reading with class teacher. At the end of the selection, or, discussion has been worked out. Teachers in the case of longer units, at the chapter may supply, through the school library, a or scene divisions, will be found helps sufficient number of complete copies of of two kinds. The first of these con- these few books to enable the pupils to sists of explanatory notes designed to read them in connection with the study give additional information necessary to plans given in the text. intelligent reading; the second and more The second point is that the editors are important consists of questions to guide in entire agreement with the statement of the pupil's reading as he prepares his the aims and scope of the course in English lesson and also as the basis for class dis- as set forth in the recent report of the cussion. In reading a selection such as Committee on English of the North Central Julius Caesar mainly for the story, notes Association of Colleges and Secondary intended for detailed study may well be Schools. This volume does not limit itself disregarded. Many of the questions in- to a few selections for intensive study; volve independent thinking. Many of around these major works are grouped them seek to connect the pupil's reading many others, so that there is abundant with other interests; for the relation be- material for choice. Teachers may decide tween literature and life in this series is no for themselves which selections are to be fanciful relation. It is organic, interwoven read rapidly and which are to be studied in many different ways into the body of carefully and with detail. They may also the book and its method. Teachers will condense and omit at will. The generous also find, at frequent intervals, exercises in quantity of literature makes this book oral composition, suggestions for library especially adapted for use in schools that reading, and suggestions for class reading organize classes on a basis of uniform and for dramatization. At the end of the abilities. book will be found a biographical index in The course here provided has been which the necessary information is given checked carefully with such documents as concerning the lives of all the authors the Report of the Committee of the represented in the book, major authors National Council of Teachers of English, being presented with due regard to the the Uniform Entrance and the Special special needs of the pupil who is reading the Requirements in English, and the special selections in the body of the book. These courses and syllabi provided by the states biographies are not essays such as older of New York, Pennsylvania, and others. students would use, but are written ex- Moreover, it illustrates the leading tenpressly from the standpoint of the book. dencies in the best modern teaching: There is also a brief dictionary of technical a. wide variety and interest of subject terms in criticism, for occasional reference matter; b. indisputable quality; c. the or for study as the teacher may decide. union of the contemporary and the classic;
In this book two general conditions d. the study of such types of literature as have influenced the choice of materials. the drama, the epic, the metrical romance, In the first place, the masterpieces re- the ballad, the lyric, and prose fiction. quired for admission to college under the The book thus provides for all the purposes conference plan are so fully represented as that a collection of literature for this grade to make unnecessary the purchase of should supply.
Introduction to Stevenson's Treasure Island
Introduction to Epic Poetry