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madversions on his opponent, John Love, quibbles miserably upon the authority of Melvil's Diary or Life, till his bigotry fairly consigns Buchanan to hell, which the humanity of his biographer bas softened and suppressed. Ruddiman's Animadversions, 13. Chalmers' Life of Ruddiman, 130.
The story of Buchanan's repentance was revived in 1714, by the author of the Life of Sage, who received it in a letter from Sage himself, who had it from Lady Rosyth, an old lady, who had it from David Buchanan, an old man, who was present, and an ear witness to Buchanan's confession. As Sir George Buchanan of Buchanan died in 1651, Lady Rosyth, his daughter, might have conversed with David Buchanan, the editor of Knox's history, before his death. David Buchanan, however, was the second son of William, fourth laird of Arnprior; John the first laird was killed in 1547, at the battle of Pinkey ; Andrew the second laird was alive in 1560; but that his great grandson was old enough to witness Buchanan's confession in 1582, is altogether incredible. Again, David Buchanan published Knox's History in 1643, sixty-one years after Buchanan's death. His elder brother John was killed in the Irish massacre, 1641; his younger brother William fought as a captain at the battle of Inverkeithing, 1651, and he was alive himself cultivating letters in 1619; facts utterly incompatible with his presence as a witness at Buchanan's confession. Buchanan's Family and Surname of Buchanan, 35–61. Nicholson's Scot. Hist. Library, 75. That confession should have convinced him of Mary's innocence; but the continuation of Knox's bistory, which, as it is found in no preceding MS., must be ascribed to David Buchanan the editor, is written under a strong impression of her guilt. Sage was probably iguorant of David Buchanan's Treatise De Scripto
ribus Scotis Illustribus; (MS. Adv. Lib.) containing an account of Buchanan, in which the author would not have omitted, had he witnessed, the circumstances of his confession and death. Spottiswood, who was seventeen at Buchanan's death, was equally ignorant of his repentance and confession, which James himself, to whom it was frequently uttered, and from whom Camden's information must have proceeded, durst not insert among his invectives against Buchanan in his Basilicon Doron. Such confessions are the usual resort of party : at the instigation it is said of James, who furnished the materials, a recantation was once forged for Calderwood, on a report of his death, which he survived, however, to refute; and Sage, though silent in his controversial works concerning those confessions, has been made to vouch for another, of Henderson the covenanter, which, from Baillie's letters and the declarations of the general assembly, is demonstratively false.
Having mentioned Spottiswood,whom I seldom quote, let me bestow just approbation on his memory as an historian. Of the same age nearly with James, he conversed and lived with Mary's contemporaries, and had every opportunity to refute Buchanan if his facts were false, and every inducement to misrepresent them if true. When desired by James to undertake his history, Camden's Annals must have taught him what was expected; yet though he blames Buchanan for the bitterness of his writings, he adopts his facts, of which nothing less than contemporary evidence could have convinced him in opposition to his inclination and interest. Buchanan's narrative receives the strongest confirmation, when exposed to the same test both by Thuanus and by Spottiswood.
No. XX. Vol. I. Page 261.
FLETCHER of Salton suggested to Ruddiman (Animady. 56.) that the Detection was not translated by Buchanan, and Patrick Anderson, (Hist. MS.) affirms that it was translated by another into the Scottish tongue. The title itself informs us, that it was “translated out of the Latine quhilk was written by Mr. George Buchanan;" and numerous examples might be produced to prove that the translator, was an Englishman, who has not always understood the original. The first is from Ruddiman; “ nam et libellis propositis et picturis,” (alluding to the placards and pictures after the murder,) which Buchanan would not have translated, “ for baith by buiks set forth,” instead of bills stuck up, nor any Scotsman who knew that no books had been published on the subject then. Ruddiman's Buchanan, i. Detectio. 30. The same mistake occurs in the Action, where Wilson repeats the word, “de libellis cædem coarguentibus," which he translates by “buiks accusing the slaughter.” When the queen went to Jedburgh, “ ad conventus juridicas ibi babendos,” is translated,“ to the assizes there to be halden;" an English term never known in Scotland, where the assize invariably signified the jury, and where the assizes were denominated circuit courts. 66 Tam vehemens dolor simul omnes corporis partes afflixit;" and again, “liventes pustulæ toto corpore eruperunt tanto cum dolore,” are translated “ all the parts of his body were taken with a sore ache,” “and certain black pimples broke out with such a sore ache;" but that the word was neither used, nor understood in Scotland, appears from the St. Andrew's edition, in which it is altered to,
sic a sair yuik, and sa great a yuik. “Dangerous for bringing the child to a rheum," a word unknown in Scotland, and the situation of Holyrood house, “ being set in a low place and a very marish" are an old Eng. - lish idiom and an English word. “ Confictis causis
neque satis justis neque idoneis ; " " by fayning certain fond and sclender causes;” in which fond for trifling, is neither a translation of the Latin, nor agreeable to the Scottish acceptation of the word. “ Cum uxoribus comitum Atholiæ et Marriæ;" “ with the wives of the earles of Athol and Murray," a mistake which no Scotsman, who knew the distinction between Mar and Murray, could have well committed. 6 Conveniunt ad comitem Argatheliæ quod is rerum capitalium perpetuŭs questor esset;" which a Scotsman who knew his office, would have expressed by hereditary justice general, is translated literally, with the same circumlocution, « for that he is by inheritance the justice to deal with such crimes punishable with death.” “ Ad consilium publicum judicum ;" « to the common assembly of the judges," instead of the court of session.
Though they touched some men shrewdly," which recurs in the Detection, “ to give naughty men shrewd occasions,” and in which the acceptation of shrewd is unknown in Scotch.“ Differtur questio in speciem, revera suprimitur," is translated properly, “ the enquiry for manners sake was adjourned,” but as that word was unknown, or little used in Scotland, it was altered in the St. Andrew's edition to continued, the legal term for the trial being deferred. “It was Killigrew's hap to mar the play,” an English word altered in the Scotch edition to, “spill (spoil) the play, and unvisor all the disguisings.” Every whit, God wot, for the nonce, expressions peculiarly English, are con
verted into, every quhit, God wait, for the nanis, in the Scottish edition. “ Ante quem diem judicium peragi volebant,” is translated, “ before qubilk day they wald nedes have the arrainement dispatched;" “ ut vel ipsi adessent vel procuratores mitterent," “ or to send their proctors ;" “ Comes Cassillissæ cum mulctam solvere mallet," “ willing rather to pay his amercement,” aré terms of English law, for which the technical words in Scotland, were indictment, procurator, mulct or amand.
Majestatis erat damnatus,” “ attainted of treason,' for which the only Scotch word is forfaulted; “non secus ac si in fiscum relata fuissent,” “ as if they had, upon atteinder, come to her by forfaiture;” the terms and procedure of the English law, not of the Scotch, in which the goods fell by escheat or confiscation, upon a sentence of forfaulture.
But the Detection and the Action are both translated into old English, in imitation of Scotch ; as ech for ilk, anely for only, banes (banns) for bandis in the Scottish edition. “ That Bothwell might be gorgiously beseene,” (right well beseen, Spenser) “she pastimed there certain days;" “ to disteyne with the maist foul spot of that shameful act;" “ to divert the blame thereof," in the Detection ; “ the crime diverted to others,” in the Action : “to observe decorum and comely convenience;" “ not governed by advised reason,” (advised respect, Shakspeare; advised determination, Hooker) are elegant combinations or phrases to which the Scottish dialect had not attained. Rathest, the obsolete superlative of Rath, soon, converted in the Scotch edition, into Ratherest (Tyrwhit Gloss.) quhilom, the old English whileom (the Scottish umquhile) altered in the Scottish edition to sometymes ; go to, (ga to, in the Scotch edition) forsooth, certes, perdy, are peculiarly