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of making collections of things which have no other-merit than that of being old, or having belonged to some eminent person, and are not illustrative of any point of history. Such is the Scull of Oliver Cromwell, preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford; and pieces of the Royal Oak, hoarded by many loyal old ladies. That Oliver had a scull, and brains too, would have been allowed without this proof; and those who have considered the Royal Oak, do not, I believe, find it essentially different from the wood of a common kitchen^table! These may be rather styled Reliques than Pieces of Antiquity; and it is such trumpery that is gibed at by the ridiculers of Antiquity.' p. xvi.
Fragments of the Royal Oak, like those of Shakespeare's Mulberry Tree, or of Cowper's Judith, have indeed no more to do with the science of Antiquity,'than supposed pieces of the Cross have to do with Religion: yet who would not place some stress on the possession of any of these? But as to the skull of Old Noll, we confess ourselves so far physiognomists, as to regard it in a very different light; and we should think it no small advantage to have an opportunity of comparing it with that of Bonaparte.
The re-printing of this extra-official repertory, after fifteen volumes of the Archaologia have been published by the Society of Antiquarians, augurs favourably of the progress of science in this department among us. The present Editors, however, have not rested their hopes of acceptance, for the new edition, merely on the merits of the former. The arrangement. is much improved, by collecting together those treatises, of which the subjects are similar, from their dispersion through the four original volumes. The contents are also augmented by the insertion of several curious articles from MSS. or from tracts which had become extremely scarce. Some account of those which are inserted in the first volume (the only 6ne of the new edition yet printed) may gratify our readers, and we presume will be all that they expect from us on a work, the substance of which has so long been made public.
The first of these articles (p. 12—2l)has nothing to do with the science of Antiquities, but is inserted as a token of respect to the author, the late Capt. Grose. It consists of rules for drawing caricatures, and an Essay on Comic Painting, and is accompauied by four plates of illustration, and sixteen etchings, by the author, never before published. In these, as well as in the treatises, there is much of the vis comica, by which Capt. G. was distinguished; and in many instances it presses rather hard on his brother Antiquarians. He seems, however, to have handled either the pen or the pencil more expertly than the graven
The next additional article, (p. 188-—195) is re-printed front a very rare tract, published 1606, intitled, " The Arraignment
Vol. III. Qq
s and Execution of the late Traitors; with a relation of the oth'rr Traitors which were executed at Worcester, ihe 27th of January last past." "It abounds," says the Editor, "with many curious particulars of the conduct of Digby, the two Winters, &c. concerned in theGunpowder plot, which are nowhere else to be met with." It describes, notwithstanding, only their latter end; and is little else than a rhapsody against popery.
The third (pp. 196—210) is a parallel of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, and George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham," and is followed by "The difference between the estates and conditions" of these two celebrated favourites, written by the first Earl of Clarendon, in his youth, after reading the parallel. These papers are illustrated by portraits of the Earl of Essex, the Duke of Buckingham, and the Earl of Southampton. The first of these is beautifully executed by Bartolozzi from a miniature by J. Oliver. The countenance is so prepossessing, that the attachment both of the sovereign and the people to Essex excites no surprise. His frankness of disposition, and disinterestedness of conduct, concurred, doubtless, to palliate, with both, the roughness of his manners* the violence of his passions, and the extreme imprudence of his proceedings. The parallel between him and th,e first Duke of Buckingham, is drawn by one who appears to have been personally acquainted with each of those unfortunate ministers, notwithstanding the distance of the times in which they nourished! It strongly discriminates their characters, yet not sufficiently, in the judgement of Lord Clarendon, /vho regards them as perfect contrasts. Of the former, however, he could only have traditionary knowledge; and for the latter he betrays a flagrant partiality. Who could imagine, that the multiplicity of preferments which Villiers held himself, and profusely distributed among his relations, would be recorded to his commendation? Yet these, says the courtly historian, " certainly in the next age will be conceived marvellous strange objections!" p. 221. Equally unlucky is the writer's prediction, that the memories both of Essex and Buckingham, "shall have reverend favour with all posterity." p. 225. Pity, indeed, is mingled with our disapprobation of the former: but even the execrable murder of the latter has not exempted his memory from detestation. These papers, however, are highly valuable, as they throw light on important epochs of our history. Statesmen may learn from them, that a contempt of personal emolument, and a noble superiority to domestic interests, are the surest paths to public estimation. Even the atrocities of a Robespierre could not, for a long time, shake these pillars of his security. A list of King James's army, as they lay encamped on
Hounslow Heath, 30th June, 1686, is here first published. The person who at that time sent it to a great man who died hot long since, styled it " aii invincible army, which all Holland and the protestant powers united could not overthrow." It consisted of more than ten thousand privates, beside officers of all descriptions. "It shews," as the gentleman who communicates it to the Repertory very properly remarks, '* the wonderful hand of providence in defeating the boasted strength and grandeur of such an army," which was expected "to bring this obstinate nation in dutiful subjection to the See of Rome." p. 230.
The next two additional papers relate to the city of London. The first, Fitz-Stephen's description of its state in the twelfth century, is reprinted from a very scarce and very curious tract. There were then, " on the north of the suburbs, choice fountains of water, sweet, wholesome, and clear, streaming forth among the glistering pebble stones: and in this number, Holywell, Clefkervwell, and Saint Clement's-well, were of most note, and frequented above the rest, when scholars, and the youths of the city take the air abroad in the sum'mer evenings." p. 243. "Very near-lay a large forest, in which were woody groves of wild beasts. In the coverts thereof lurked bucks and does, wild boars and bulls." ibid. Smithfield (quasi, Smooth-field) then served the different purposes of a market and a race-ground, p. 245. Moor-fields, being covered with water, was the chief place for skaiting. p. 249. But the principal sports of the youth were military, both by land and Water ; and " the maidens had their exercise of dancing and tripping till moon light." ib. "Representations of those miracles which the holy confessors wrought, or of the sufferings, wherein the glorious constancy of martyrs did appear," were the only theatrical exhibitions, p. 247. Hence, perhaps, it may be accounted for, that "the matrons of the city could be parallelled with the Sabine women" for chastity, p. 244. In this sine qua non of female excellence; we by ho means wotild detract from the present superiority of our city ladies above their western neighbours. Good eating seems "to have beeri always a favourite custom Of our citizens: and at thai time, "the only plagues of London were, immoderate' dTiiikino- of idle fellows, and often fires." pp. 245, 247. Alas! that wTiile the=e are continued, so many others should since have been added to them! The second paper, by Sir Thomas Chaloner, relates chiefly to the military state of the city in the reigns of Henry 8th, and Elizabeth. He extracts from 'Sir Thomas Moore's Utopiaj a description of what he supposes London then to have been. It was what that ingenious writer judged it ought to be.
An article, which the present Editors seem to prize ahove every other, is an account of the expenses of Robert Sydney, Earl of Leicester, by his steward, now first printed, (pp.274, 295.) It throws light on various circumstances of a polite mode of living in former times; and is, perhaps, the most complete specimen of the kind ever published. We cannot, however, appreciate papers of this description, of which multitudes have been printed, so highly as they are exalted in the preface. Without greater knowledge than is usually to be expected iii readers, they are more likely to be surprised and mis-led, than instructed, by differences in the nominal value of money, at distant periods, which appear in lists of this nature.
The following paper, (pp. 296—341, also printed from MS.) details the ceremonies that were appointed to be observed at court, on a great variety of occasions, in the time of Henry 7th. It is certainly worthy of being preserved as illustrating the manners of the age; although otherwise of small utility, compared with the space which it occupies.
The next article, which is also added in the volume now before us, though unnoticed in tiie preface, is called, "An humourous characteristic story of Sir Thomas Erpingham," who lived in the reign of Henry 5th. Some circumstances of this tale, which has been versified by Colman, are so extremely improbable, that very strong vouchers of its truth would be requisite to our conviction. Dr. Birch's account of Carr, Earl of Somerset, is aftervvards introduced to accompany a very good portrait of that infamous courtier. Most of the prints in this volume are executed in a style much beneath its dignity.
On the whole, the. publisher certainly deserves our thanks, for re-printing the Antiquarian Repertory, and for several of the additions which he has made to it. We doubt, however, whether the obligation would not have been augmented, by a reduction of the original work into a smaller size. Many of the articles have little or no connection with British Antiquities, and others might easily have been spared. Among such as ought positively to have been excluded, we do not hesitate to reckon a flagrant instance of human depravity, which could only be repeated by one to whom the discovery was gratifying. Hoping that the succeeding volumes will be cleared of such articles as may do harm, or can do no good, we shall be glad to pay that attention to them, which is due to the greater part of the first, now re-printed
Art. VI. The Ancient and Modern His'ory of Nice; comprehending an Account of ithe Foundation of Marseilles: to which are prefixed, Descriptive Observations on the Nature, Produce, and Climate, of the Territory of the former City, and its adjoining Towns; with an Introduction, containing Hints f Advice to . nvaiids, &c. liy J. B. Davis, M D. one of the British Captives from Verdun, &c &c. 8vo. pp. 348. Price 8s. Tipper and Richards. 1807. •"THE celebrated shores of Italy have long attracted the visits of the traveller, whether to gratify Ji:s cunosi'y, and enlarge his information, or to restore his declining nealfh. The general testimony of tourists to the beauty of the scenery ■ of Nice, and the mild salubrity of its atmosphere, is fully confirmed by Dr. Davis, whose work is designed equally to amuse the inquisitive, and to recommend a salutary retreat for the valetudinarian.
His introduction contains some sensible and useful advice to the invalid, which however does not extend to any thing more, than good sense and genera! medical knowledge have usually recommended in pulmonary complaints. The principal topic introduced is, the propriety of changing residence, in order to arrest the progress of disease, and which should be done in the earliest stage of consumptive complaints. One of the most important admonitions is, that such a journey should never be attempted by those who suffer the more alarming symptoms of the disease ; as hectic fever, violent cough, and purulent expectoration; another is, that a very rapid amendment should not be expected, nor a very short residence deemed sufficient. Several necessary precautions are suggested, which it is unnecessary for us to repeat, as every person who thinks of undertaking such an excursion, wiil doubtless become a purchaser of the book.
The History of Nice commences with a topographical description of the town, which is situated at the Western extremity of Italy, on the shore of the Mediterranean, and on the banks of the rapid Paglion, close to the foot of Montalban. It extends on the North to the Turin road, and on the East is barricadoed by an impregnable fortification of rocks. It is about a mile and a half in length, and one mile in breadth. The castle and all the fortifications are now in ruins, having shared in the general destruction produced by the convulsions of revolutionary France: the town itself suffered much in its appearance, and the inhabitants in their property, from its position in the route of the French troops; scarcely a hotel or mansion of grandeur being left without marks of dc-oradation. Nice has two fine squares, an university, a public library, a theatre, a hospital, and a botanical garden; but the streets are narrow and dirty; it has an inconsiderable port on the