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sitcr-of ancient gardens, which have yielded to the encroachments of the sea, against which indeed the town is still but inadequately defended.
'Nice has been continually involved in a succession of misfortunes. In the year 12] 8, 1618, ahd 1644, but principally in July and August, 1564, the villages of St. Martin, tioleiaa, Belvidere, Venanson, &c. were nearly destroyed by an earthquake. It-is said that the shock was so great, that it stopped the course of the Vesubia for some hours, that chasms opened large enough to receive intire mountains, and that others fell with a frightful crash. Since then the bottom of the port of Villefranche is observed to be lowered.' pp. 13, 14.
Iii 1799, the inhabitants suffered severely from an epidemic, imputed to the passage of tioops.
The manners and character of the Nissards are described as mild, humane, peaceable, complaisant, and lively; they are hospitable, and commonly moral. Their language is the dialect of Provence, mixed with words of Italian derivation; but the French is likely to supplant it in time, as this is the language of the edicts, &c. All the religious ceremonies in use amongst Catholics, are scrupulously observed by the Nissards. Dancing, singing, and music, are their favourite amusements, and the general intercourse of society is similar to that in the neighbouring districts of France. The government is mentioned with praise, though the frequent changes of fortune, and the uncertain state of present affairs, preclude that public confidence which is necessary to general comfort and prosperity; the police is well regulated; a board of health is formed by the principal physicians and surgeons of the town, who frequently assemble to discharge the duties of their office. The commerce of Nice is trifling; but it possesses valuable manufactories of soap, paper, and leather. Provision is high, though the market is well supplied, and the dessert is at all times rich and abundant. House rent also is dear, and,the apartments are not very comfortable. The view of Nice, its port, bridge, river, and suburbs, is delightful." The country on the opposite side of the Var, is the seat of picturesque beauty and fertility, though the sad traces of.republican fury are distinguishable, in shattered villas and a scanty population. Indeed Nice and its territory contain scarcely two thirds of the numl>er of inhabitants resident there previous to the war; sofatal'has been'the influence of conquest, disease, and emigration. The vicinity of Cimiez and the plain of Fouchaud are particularly mentioned for striking scenery. Our readers shall now judge of Mr. D.'s descriptive powers.
« There are many agreeable coufi tTalb from the banks of this river, (th» Var) which are not a little heightened by the murmuring noise of the waves So distinctly heard, owing to the silence of the rallies, through which several streams run to join their waters with those of the Var. In rainy weather, and during the melting of the snows, this river becomes equally rapid and dangerous.
'On every side valleys and hills alternately charm the eye with the end« less variations of their height, figure, position, and cultivation. Not a mountain can be ascended without producing the agreeable contrast of hill and vale, enriched with a profusion of sweet scented herbs, and diversified with flowers in all the various garbs and glowing hues of nature. In one pan a sterile rock lifts its lofty head amidst luxuriant vegetation, and attaches us yet more fondly to the surrounding gaiety. In another, the industrious spirit of man has covered the base and summits of a lofty hill with the vine, the olive, or the fig tree. The valleys are enchanting, and produce every where oranges, grapes, and almonds.
• 1 here are several pleasant villages in the plain of Nice, none of which however comprise more than a few houses; one, amid its rural beauties, contains an •excellent house, which commands a view of the sea, a good garden, reservoirs, and fountains. To this delightful residence a small chapel is annexed. Jt is situated in a valley, directly under the abrupt division of one of the hills, surrounded by olives, almonds, figs, and corn.
'Not less eminent for its striking scenery is Chateau-neuf, the abode of the prefect of the Maritime Alps. What exquisite gardens, and how elegantly adorned with foustains, cypress trees, and all kinds of fruits and flowers! I do not in truth recollect a walk, whichever road you may choose, where there are not some interesting objects, now meeting, now retiring from the view, something romantic and picturesque, ever varying the interest of the scene. An endless variety leaves no satiety on the mind. There may be some spots, particularly at the foot of mountains, where the soil is not so productive ; but I remember none where fruit'trees, corn, and vines do not flourish in perfection.
'The pasturage is plentiful,and kept in good order,though the roads are almost impassable in particular spots, which in some degree diminishes the pleasure that we might otherwise enjoy. One pathway leads to many others, and one fine scene discovers a thousand still more engaging. The freshness of an extended foliage on the summit of the hills tempers the burning rays of a meridian sun, and affords in the midst of summer a cool retreat. In winter a southern aspect receives those genial beams which are seldom felt in any other part of the world with equal delight and satisfaction. The • same mountains which protect you frbm the heat at one season, and save you from the unwholesome vapours of damp and cold at another, are covered with a copious growth of shrubs, fruit, and herbs, which encourage exercise, and amuse the mind.' pp. 47—51.
The olive, lemon, orange, palm, vine, and all the trees common to the climate, are found in the vicinity of Nice, as well as the pomegranate, pistachio, and jujube. The climate is temperate and healthy, though occasionally affected by the local winds of Provence, particularly the Mistral, which is cold and piercing; the Sirocco is felt, though very rarely. The winters are by no means severe. The opinion of Dr. pavis concerning the superiority of Nice, in this respect, la other countries in the same latitude, is confirmed by apt quotations from letters of La Lande, Sulzer, and Thomas. We copy his remarks:
'I have no doubt but that Pisa, Genoa, Hyeres, and Montpellier, have all certain advantages for the residence of invalids; but the exhalations from the plains of one, and exposure to the north wind of another, are inconveniences which do not accompany an abode at Nice. If you made choice of Pisa or Genoa to reside at, you could remain there during the depth of winter only, as the excessive heat of the sun would oblige you to decamp to the northward at the commencement of spring, whereas you may with pleasure remain at Nice till the month of May. You would, at least, be glad to quit Genoa long ere this; and, as far as regards a comparison of climate with Montpellier and Nice, I do not hesitate to say the latter has an infinite superiority,
'The countiy, for an extensive tract around Montpellier, is very level,and consequently exposed to the influence of winds coming from every point of the horizon. The air there is commonly too sharp for consumptive persons, and the extreme damp that prevails during the winter months would . be found highly detrimental to many constitutions. Where the atmosphere is loaded with vapour, as in the neighbourhood of Montpellier, and exceedingly cold at the same time, we must allow that a residence in it is not likely to favour the removal of a pulmonary complaint.
* Those, who quit Nice to pass a short time at Montpellier, always express the sense of cold they experience by the transition.
'If, for the sake of discussion, we were to place the two spots in the same geographical position, one open on all sides, as Montpellier, the other closely encircled by mountains, as Nice, we should have no difficulty in declaring in favour of the latter country for the abode of the valetudinarian.' pp. 108—109.
A copious meteorological table is given from March 1802 to January 1803 inclusive.
Dr. D. proceeds to describe the adjacent country and the surrounding towns, and mentions incidentally the celebrated mmesof Paul Lascaris, Cassini, and the two Maraldis, Theophilus Rainaud the Jesuit, the two Vanloos, Alberti the lexicographer, and others, who were natives of different parts of this vicinage.
The latter part of the volume, to the extent of about 150 pages, *is occupied with a History of Nice, including the foundation of the mother colony of Marseilles by the Phocaeans. It was built B. C. 340 by the Marseillois, who had been struck with the beauty of the-situation, in the course of the incursivc warfare which they had maintained with the Ligurians for more than two hundred years. Its name is supposed to be derived from tin, in allusion to the triumph of the Greek settlers over the barbarians. In 48 B. C. the Marseillois and Nissards were obliged to yield to the Roman arms. -After this period, Nice insensibly decreased in consideration,
while Cimiez was studiously encouraged by the Romans, who peopled it in the first century of the Christian sera. This latter city is situated on nn eminence opposite Montalban.
Few places perhaps have witnessed a greater variety of revolutions and of masters, than the city of Nice, from the commencement of the irruptions of the Gothic tribes, to its last subjection by the French republicans. These vicissitudes render it a more interesting subject for history, than might be expected from its actual insignificance. Dr. D. has evidently bestowed some pains on this part of his book, and deserves praise, in many respects, for the manner in which it is executed.
Our good author's constitution may have improved by his residence at Nice, but his style is not sound ; we mention two or three complaints which he may find it not impossible to cure before our next interview. Sometimes it has a sort of unnatural, dropsical swelling at the lower extremities; at other times it alarmed us by hysterical ohs and apostrophes, and when we were told how the mind "revolves" at the" sublime cogitations" of Zimmerman, we supposed it a little delirious. Exercise, good society, caution, and tranquil reflection, are the best remedies we can prescribe. Yet, on the whole, we have read Dr. Davis's work with pleasure; and must admit that he has displayed industry in the collection of materials, taste in the perception of beauties, and benevolence in earnestly recommending a salutary residence to the numerous sufferers from pulmonary diseases.
A view of Nice in aqua tinta is prefixed, of which the execution is much inferior to the design. .
Art. VII. The Beneficial Effects of Christianity on the temporal Concerns of Mankind, proved from History and from Facts. By the Right Rev. Beilby Porteus. D.D. Lord Bishop of London. Second edition, pp. 90. Price 5s. Cadell. 1806.
Art. VUI. Tracts on Various Subjects; all of which have been published separately before; anrf are now first collected into one Volume. By the Right Rev. Beilby Porteus, D.D. Bishop of London. 8vo. pp. 530. Price 9s. Cadell. 1807.
HTHE second of these publications came upon us like a reproach for having neglected the first, which it includes, with several other pieces by the venerable Bishop of London. .We shall endeavour to offer a sketch and estimate of the separate work, subjoining a cursory description of the other contents of the collection.
This essay is adapted to display the beneficial effects of Christianity on the temporal welfare of man, generally; not on that of Christians, specifically. This circumstance we state with a feeling of its importance, and with the greater anxiety, because wc have not perceived any express intimation of it in this sensible and useful iract. Christianity is considered here in its mediate influence on human concerns; in its operation on man's condition through the institutions of society, as amoral system,'not through the means of religious instruction, as a spiritual agent; as improving national manners and conduct, not individual character. In this view, it appears, not like a specific remedy for an epidemic disorder, to be applied to the patient, but like an improved and extended system of cultivation in a country, which has rendered this disorder less prevalent, and its fatal potency less obvious. Such a view of the subject is highly interesting, and on the candid observer must produce the most desirable effects; but he should remember that it is incomplete, lest the other department of the examination be wholly overlooked, or confounded with it as identical. An instance occurs very early in the discussion, where some attention to this distinction would have been peculiarly appropriate, and would also have given much greater strength to the argument advanced. The worthy prelate deems it worth his while to answer the foolish calumny, that Christianity has increased the sum of human misery, by introducing a spirit of cruelty and Intolerance, which has desolated the world with numberless wars, massacres, and persecutions. If he could have relied on the impartial good sense of all his readers, he would certainly have left this absurdity to their contempt, instead of claiming their censure against it by one single effort at refutation. He would have been contented with the insertion of his note,* as a full answer from the infidel king, to all. the objections of subsequent unbelievers. But in pursuance of his judicious plan, to support what he advances, by argument and fact, he repeats the usual rejoinder in the following terms.
'Whatever mischief persecution has done in the world, (and it has God knows done full enough) it was not Christ, but some mistaken followers of Christ, that brought this sword upon earth; and it would be as injurious to ascribe to Christianity, the false opinions and wrong practices of its disciples, however pernicious, as to impute to the physician, the fatal mistakes of those who administered his medicines.'
Now if all or even an v communities, or governments, had been truly the disciples of Christ, this argument would have been at least neeessanj to redeem Christianity from the hostile imputation. But we have a right to take much higher ground;
* ' To impute crimes to Christianity, says the celebrated king of Prussia, (in his Posthumous Works) is the act of a Novice. His word may fairly be taken for the assertion.'.