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awaken sinners, as- well as to comfort and establish saints. Knowing the terrors of the Lord, they persuade men, and use every means to fix con* viction upon their hearts; urging every motive, and addressing every passion of the human mind, to bring t''em to serious reflection and concern about their eternal interests.' pp. i 7, 38.
• It is indeed a wonderful patience that can bear with such repeated slights, so many repulses and provocations, and not so res. nt them as to give us up entirely to our own depraved hearts, and suffer us t;j reap the fruit of our doings! Such wonderful forbearance is not owing to the want of power to execute his anger, but to a power over his anger. His arm is not so short that it cannot reach us, nor his hand so feeble that it cannot strike us.' p 39.
'All this must be considered as the fruit of free and unmerited grace. Here we have a remarkable and undeniable instance that God's thoughts are not as our thoughts, nor his ways as our ways. When injured and offended, we find it difficult to pass by the affront: when overtures of reconciliation are rejected, we are seldom disposed to renew them, especially if the opposite party were most or altogether to blame, iiut it is otherwis ; with the great God! We are for war, but he is for peace: we begin the quarrel, but he puts an end to it. He seeks us before we seek him,' and continues to seek, notwithstanding the slights we put upon him. Well may the word "behold" be prefixed to our text. It is as if he had said, * Wonder, oh heavens, and be astonished, oh earth! Let it be considered as a singular instance of my grace and love; let it be remembered in time and to all eternity; I, the justly incensed God, the affronted and abused Saviour, whose laws they have broken, whose mercy they have despised, whose blood they have trampled upon, and whose wrath they have deserved—yet I stand at the door and knock! I have often done it before, and now do it again: I do it this day—this hour—in this sermon! I am now calling to you by my word, and knocking at the door of your hearts. Notwithstanding all your ignorance, obstinacy and unbelief, I still persist in my gracious design, and would fain win those to a compliance, from whom I have met with so many neglects and denials.' p. 41.
We shall only refer to another sermon, on the encouragement to hope, which likewise we select for its comparative freedom and copiousness. Joel ii. 14. Who knoweth but he. will return and repent, and leave a blessing behind him? The kind of hope here implied,
« Is indeed far from being what is called the full assurance of hope, or a confident persuasion that the blessing hoped for shall certainly be received; for it rises no higher than a peradventure. A peradventure, lest they should sink into despondency; and a peradventure only, lest they should give way to presumption and carnal security Their hope must be mixed with fear, and their joy with trembling. There are other instances in which the hopes of the godly are thus expressed, and thus supported; such as the following. « 7/ may be that the Lord will work for us ; for there is no restraint to the Lord, to save by many or by few— It may be that the Lor I God of hosts will be gracious unto the remnant of Joseph—Who can tell if God will turn and repent, and turn away from his fierce anger, that we perish not ?—Seek ye the Lord, seek righteous-ness, seek meekness: // may be ye shall be hid in the day of the Lord's anger." 1 Sam. xiv. 6. Amos v. 15. Jonah iii-9. Zeph. ii. 3.
• A possibility, and much more, a probability o£ obtaining mercy at the hand of God, is a sufficient encouragement to a poor perishing sinner to seek, to trust in, and wait for him. Self-destroyed and self-condemned, destitute of all help in himself, and despairing of all help from creatures—Who knows! This is his last refuge, and perhaps for a time his only one! A possible hope in such a situation as this, affords a motive to activity, and a strong inducement to apply for mercy. If, said the starving lepers at the gate of Samaria, w say we will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there; and if -we sit still here, we die also. Now therefore come, and let us fall into the host ef the Syrians; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall hut die. The most profligate of characters, whose former lives have been one continued scene of Wickedness and rebellion, when they come to be seriously concerned about their souls, may reason like these lepers. 'Our present condition is desperate; if we continue in it we must unavoidably perish. There is a possibility that God will save us; for he is able.' And the first attribute upon which such generally fasten is, the divine power: Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean! This is also represented to sinners as a ground of hope: Trust in the Lord for ever; for in the Lord Jehovah is everlasting strength. And as God's power creates a possibility, so his mercy creates a probability, especially that mercy which is manifested in the gift of his Son. There is forgiveness with thee, says the humble penitent, prostrate before the divine throne. I have no merit: thou requirest none. I can do nothing: thou art able to do all. Others have found favour in thy sight: why may I not hope for it? To thee then will I come: at thy feet will I bow: and if I perish, I perish!' pp. 82, 84.
The conclusion of this sermon is striking.
'Does any one obstinately persist in an evil course, to gratify his lusts at all adventures, on the presumption that he may find mercy at last? Let him remember what is written: If it come to pass, when any one heareth the words of this curse, that he bless himself in his heart, saying I shall have peace, though I walk in the imagination of my heart, to add drunkenness to thirst, the Lord will not spare him. But then the anger of the Lord, and his jealousy shall smoke against that man, and all the curses that are written in this book shall lie upon him, and the Lord shall blot out his name from under heaven! (Deut. xxix. 19, 20.) If any should say, who knows, according to the text which 1 have heard to-day, but God will return to me, though I do not return to him; who knows but he may pardon my sins, though I do not repent of them; may accept me through Christ, though I do not believe in him ; may grant me repentance and faith, as he did the dying thief, when I am on
the verge of an eternal world !Who knows, do you say?
Why, 1 know. And tenderness, as well as faithfulness to thy soul, constrains me to let thee know, that this can only be the language of a resolute and obdurate sinner whom God will not spare, but will pour out upon him the vials of his wrath and indignation. Oh sinner 1 If thou goest hardened through the world, thou art likely to go hardened out of it, and wilt be miserable for ever. God shall iiround the head of his enemies, and the liairy scalp of such a one us goetk on still in hit trespasses' pp. 90, 91.
The wish we formerly expressed, that the sermons might be longer in the present volume, is partly gratified.; it is consequently the better suited of the two, without any amplification from the reader, for the purposes specified in the title. We cannot close this critique, without adding our approbation of the cheap and disinterested manner of publishing the wo-k; a little vunagement, justifiable by molera usage, might easily have doubled the cost. A new edition of both volumes, is, we find, in contemplation ; and we hope the treasury of MSS. is not yet exhausted.
Art. XIV. A Musical Grammar; in Four Parts: 1. Notation. 2. Melody. 3. Harmony. 4. Rhythm. By Dr. Callcott, Organist of Covent Garden Church. 12mo. pp. 308. Price 8s. Birchall, 1806.
T~)R. Callcott's rank in the -musical world, will be a strong recommendation to this work: and we are of opinion that the expectations of the public, which it must excite, will not be disappointed. The author evinces a thorough knowledge of the science of music, and has certainly taken great pains to give correct and satisfactory information on the subjects which Be discusses. The extent of his research is not less worthy of praise, than the ability with which he has condensed and methodised the principles thus collected. He has quoted no less than seventy authors or works in' various languages, and illustrated the rules and definitions, throughout this performance, with numerous explanatory examples from the best composers. We have scarcely ever seen the principles of musical science treated with so much perspicuity; and we know of no publication in which they are so commodiously displayed. The work will prove a valuable acquisition to the student, and even to the proficient, in this interesting branch of human knowledge.
In addition to its merits as a compilation, Dr. C.'s Grammar embraces several subjects not usually found in similar treatises. We refer particularly to Part IV., which is very ingeniously and.judiciously managed. The original notes, also, occasionally inserted at the foot of the page, manifest peculiar nicety of discrimination, and accuracy of definition.
We find some difficulty in giving any particular part of the work as a specimen; the frequent occasion for applying the following remarks, however, intitles them to the preference.
Article 151 describes Melody to be a particular succession ©f single sounds ; and it is followed, as an example, by the first strain of God save the King; but the author observes, in his marginal notes, that,
« This simple and popular definition of Melody, only presents an outline of the true idea annexed to the term. In a more extensive sense, Melody implies not only the progression of one single part, but also that general result of the.various parts in Harmony which produces the effect of Melody by the proper distribution of their sounds. Prinz seems to have been the first who distinguished between the Monadic style, in which the Melody is confined to one single part, and the Polyodic style, in which the Theme and its dependent subjects are distributed among the different parts of the composition.
* These two epithets, Prinz appears to have taken from Kircher; and this profound and original view of Melody has been very ably developed by Nichelman of Berlin, who clearly proves, that those pieces whieh are produced by the Monodic design of the composer, are far inferior to the Polyodic arrangement of the same ideas. In this last class we may place the Motetts of Palestrina, the Chorusses of Handel, and the Symphonies of Haydn. See Prinz (Satyrical Composer, Part III. chap. ii. p. 97. Chap, xviii. p. 131.) 1696. Kircher (Musurgia) I. p. 531. Niche/man (Melodie) 1755.'
We think, nevertheless, that the term Melody may, for general purposes, be restricted to what Dr. C. means by Monadic Melody. , . 5
Notwithstanding our general approbation of this work, we must say that we are dissatisfied with the frequent references to other works for necessary information ; as to Koch's Lexicon, art, Abk'urziing, &c. &c. This is the more censurable, where the information referred to might have been transcribed with so little trouble, as in a note to Article 85. Here we are told, that " the difference between Rinf. and Sforz. is explained by Mr. Shield (Introduction to Harmony) 1800, p. 88." Now this work of Mr. Shield's is, wc believe, scarce, and cannot be possessed by- every one who will provide himself with Dr. Callcott's Grammar; and Mr. Shield's explanation consists only of the following sentence: "Bin. Rinf. Bin/or. and Rinforz0, are contractions for Binforzando, which is the general director to strengthen the tones of a passage; but Sforzato is the term when onlv one note is to be played louder than the rest."
The defects of this kind may be remedied in the next edition, without any apparent increase in the size of the volume. The work will not preclude the expediency of consulting larger treatises, especially for the purpose of elucidation ; but it possesses great merit and utility as a methodical and compendious view of the science. Dr. Callcott's promised Musical Dictionary, we have no doubt, will be a. welcome present to the profession and to the public.
Art. XV. Dictionnaire Universe! des Synonymes de la Langue Francoise. Recueilles par M. de Levizac, 12mo. pp. 450. Price 6s. Phillips, Dulau, Sec. 1807. ""THIS volume is a compilation, extracted from the French Academy's Dictionary of 1802, of the illustrations which Girard, the Encyclopedists, Beauzee, and Roubard, had successively contributed, of terms that are uearly synonymous, and too commonly applied as *if they were identical. Nothing; can be a greater assistance to precision in the use of any language, *han a well-executed performance of this kind ; and such was the estimation in which Girard's work was held by Voltaire (whose judgement, in this case, hardly admits of appeal) that he predicted it would subsist as long as the language, and would tend to ensure the subsistence of the language itself.
The shades of signification by which corresponding terms are distinguished, are marked with perspicuity and elegance in most of the articles, to the whole of which the names of the respective authors are very properly affixed. If the palm of labour cannot be assigned to Mr. Levizac, to that of judgement, both in the design and execution of this work, he is indisputably intitled. The French Student and Speaker are indebted to him for a very useful performance; and we have only to regret the want of proper materials for a similar compilation of English words. Our language' equally needs it, having, like the French, been formed of several tongues, originally distinct, and consequently abounding with terms that are nearly, if not absolutely synonymous. The terseness and perspicuity for which the best French writers are remarkable, may be ascribed to the care with which their language has been illustrated; and our own inferiority in these respects, can probably never be diminished by other means.
As our English readers may have occasion to distinguish between the terms volume and tome, we translate a brief article on the subject.
'A Volume may comprise several Tomes; and a Tome may form *everal Volumes ; but the Volumes are separated by the book-binder, and the Tomes are distinguished by the arrangement of the work. We must not always judge of an author's knowledge by the size of a Volume. Many works that consist of several Tomes would be more valuable if they were reduced to a single one... Girard.'
Akt. XVI. The Domestic Guide, in Cases of Insanity; pointing out the Causes, Means of preventing, and proper treatment of that Disorder. Recommended to private Families and the Clergy. 12mo. pp. 116. Price 2s. Button.
'"THE author of this familiar treatise, though apparently not a regular member of the faculty, has furnished a collec