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tion. For instance, in a recent discussion at the Institu But we have still to deal with the heat set up by the tion of Civil Engineers, Dr. Siemens asserted that not a percussive force of the explosion. This we may assume single unit of heat would be set up in the body of the gun to be some direct function of the induced strain. It will by compressive action, and maintained that the whole therefore, as regards the tube, be a maximum at the heat produced was due to the heated products of com inner and will be zero at the outer surface, whilst it will bustion of the powder. But an experiment recorded by be greater at the inner surface of the hoop as compared Hirn in his Treatise on Thermodynamics seems to sup- with the outer in the proportion of 11 to 2} (assuming it port the view we have above set forth. He found that if to vary directly with strain). an elastic bar of india-rubber was extended by tension it Lastly, as regar is the heat imparted from the powder grew sensibly warıner, if then it was allowed to contract gases. It may be shown that in the very short time of by the gradual decrease of the extending force, it cooled the operation this is confined to a very thin layer of the again to its original temperature ; but if on the contrary inner surface of the tube. The final result then is, that it was let go suddenly, it did not cool, but remained at its the inner surface of the tube is heated, whilst the outer higher temperature. In the one case the mechanical surface is probably actually cooled, at the same time the energy was given out in work done in the extending force, inner surface of the hoop is considerably heated, and the whilst in the other no external work was done. This is outer surface also heated, though to a much less degree. exactly what happens in the gun.
The effect of the changes must therefore be to weaken There is moreover another cause which operates in the gun, though in a very different manner from the case heating the body of a gun. The explosion of powder is of the homogeneous gun. an impact. Now in the impact of two elastic bodies one We come now to the wire gun, diagram E. Here the portion of the vis viva is expended in overcoming the work done by the powder gases is represented by the elastic force of the material; another portion is converted arm B HOMNB, less the area BCN, that is, by the area into heat, and this portion remains in the body after the CHOMNC. When the internal pressure is removed, the elastic force has restored it to its original form, and can whole of this is converted into beat, but a portion or this only be got rid of by convection.
between c and n would be neutralised by the cooling Thus there are two causes operating in heating a gun effect of the wires whilst converted into mechanical energy exclusive of the very small effect due to the beated pro in passing from the compressive to the neutral state, and ducts of combustion. Let us now examine what would consequently the heating of the gun, though not absobe the result of this heating upon the various constructions lutely uniform throughout, would be very nearly so. The
heatiog from the percussive action would also be nearly Take first the homogeneous gun, of which the state of uniform, being rather greater towards the inner surface. strain is represented by diagram A, page 12. The strain Now it can be shown that if a gun properly constructed at the inner surface of the gun during explosion is about either with hoops or wire be uniformly heated, the strains 27 tons, whilst at the outer circumference it is only 3 tons are not affected, and it therefore follows that in the wire per square inch. Now when the internal pressure is re gun the effect of heating is very slightly to alter the condimoved, the energy stored up in this strained mass is con tions and strength of the gun, and the wire gun, thereverted into heat, and we may suppose the amount of heating fore, is in this respect far superior to the hooped systems. to be directly as the amount of energy so converted and We have now pointed out the difference in the mode of inversely as the quantity of material heated. This being construction with hoop and with wire, we have compare ! so, it follows that the inner layer of the gun would be the two systems and shown that for strength, facility, heated nine times as much as the extreme outer layer by and economy of construction, the wire system has greatly reason of conversion of energy, but the mass heated in the advantage; we have refuted the objections which each layer being in proportion to its length, and the have been taken to it, and the task which we undertook lengths being as 44 to 19, or as i to 4:3 nearly, the rise is completed. Doubtless it will occur to our readers to of temperature would be as 4'3 X 9 to i, i.e. thirty-nine ask how it is that a system which promises so fair, and tiines greater in the innermost than in the outermost which was brought prominently forward upwards of a layer, and it is easy to see how this inequality of tempera- quarter of a century ago, has never till quite recently ture must cause great internal strain by expansion, and been tried by the gun-makers. How is it that millions thus weaken the gun.
upon millions have been spent at Woolwich on hoop guns Let us now consider the case of the 9-inch gun, the and that this system has been persistently neglected ? strains of which are shown by diagrams B, and Rg. As We know that not only was it brought before the regards the steel tube, the result of the explosion is to Ordnance Select Committee, twenty-seven years ago, and change the inner surface from a state of compression of that not as a mere idea, but accompanied with experiu tons to a state of tension of 12 tocs per square inch, mental facts, which, as the late Mr. Bidder, then (1860) and the outer layer from about 7 tons compression to President of the Institute of Civil Engineers, stated about 24 tons tension. Whilst this is going on the tube publicly, established such a primâ facie case as should is giving out work in aid of the powder guns until it have received the attention of Government, but we know arrives at the neutral state, after which it is absorbing further that at various times since it has been fruitlessly work ; the whole tube is therefore cooling. Now let us urged that trials of the system should be made. take the outer hoop. The effect of the explosion here is We presume that those who had the decision of such to increase the initial tension of 6 tons to 17 tons at the matters were so satisfied with what they were doing, and inner, and from 2 tons to 4 tons at the outer surface. had so much confidence in their own system that they Now when the internal pressure is removed the energy never gave their serious attention to what they thought to given out is expended, first in the compression of the be the dream of a theorist. The inexorable logic of facts tube, and this part of the energy gives rise to no change seems, however, at last to have come into play, and we of temperature, but the whole of the rest of the energy believe that the recently-constituted Ordnance Committee represented by 11 tons at the inner and 24 tons at the is at present seriously engaged in the reconsideration of outer surface is converted into heat, and taking into con the whole subject of gun construction, and that wire guns sideration the masses the relative rise of temperature will will be admitted to be within the region of practical gunbe as
We trust it may be so, and that the system may be pears that whilst from this cause the tube is cooled, the fairly tried, but in order that the trial may be fair, it is hoop is heated and expanded, which is equivalent to
essential that it be conducted with due regard to those reducing the initial shrinkage of the hoop.
principles which it has been our object to explain—that
the initial tensions of the wire coils be duly calculated Colin Cameron, the guide, accompanied me. The track and applied We insist specially on this, because not was snowed up, and it was necessary to force a way only has the Woolwich practice hitherto been to treat the through great banks and drifts of snow.
The average shrinkage question in a hap-hasard rule of thumb method, depth was two feet; once we got off our course in the but also Sir William Armstrong, in bis_late address as blankness of thick cloud-fog and trackless snow. To-day President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, made the weather was very bad on the summit, the hut was light of the precise degree of initial tension, and spoke of partly filled by drift, and the south-east gale was so the tendency of the explosive force to effect an adjust-violent at times that I could hardly make way. Possibly ment of the strains.
I shall attempt weekly or periodical ascents during the We cannot too strongly protest against such a view, as winter to keep up the registrations of the rain-gauges and crude and unscientific, and any results which may be self-recording thermometers. obtained from guns so constructed must be inconclusive I have to-day commenced provisionally a three-hourly as regards the principle of wire construction.
system of observation at Fort William (including 3 a.m.). In concluding this article we bring before our readers The special features are sea temperature, ozone, and the sketches of three types of wire guns showing the applica- reading and setting of the self-registering instruments on tion of the principle. The first is a heavy muzzle-loading each occasion. Of course all the other usual elements gun, designed by the writer for land defences (Figs. are three-hourly observed also. Further particulars are 1 and 2). The gun is furnished with rollers on the reserved for a future number. CLEMENT R. WRAGGE trunnions at G, and recoils up a curved inclined plane, 111, Fort William, November i which is mounted on turnable, so as to be capable of training in any direction in azimuth. The elevation is given by a hydraulic lift at k. The construction of the
THE OYSTER INDUSTRY OF THE UNITED gun is shown in Fig. 1, in section. A A is the inner tube ;
STATES BB the wire coiled on it ; C the breech plug ; EE is a heavy casting of cast iron, against which the breech plug A VERY complete account of the history and present rests, and which also forms the trunnions, GG; K K is a
condition of the oyster industry of the United cast-iron casing covering the chase of the gun, and
States has been recently prepared by Ernest Ingersoll, attached to the casting E E by strong iron bolts, F F. In under the direction of Prof. Baird, United States Comthis gun there is no longitudinal strain on the chase; the missioner of Fisheries. The importance of this industry recoil being taken up by the insertion of the heavy mass it is not easy to over-estimate, and the United States behind the breech plug and by the force of gravity on the Government deserve every credit for their efforts to preascending planes of the carriage, aided by compressors.
serve and extend it. The second type, Fig. 3, is a muzzle-loading gun
As having an important bearing on the question, the mounted on an ordinary carriage. The main trunnions oyster-beds of the maritime provinces of Canada are are behind the breech and are connected to the carriage briefly referred to. The eastern coast of the province of trunnions B by side links C, so that the longitudinal strain New Brunswick is washed by the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; is transmitted direct from the breech to the carriage with
down in the bottom of the Gulf lies the long, irregularly out the intervention of the chase of the gun.
shaped Prince Edward's Island, between which and the Figs. 4 and 5 represent the type for heavy breech-load- mainland Aow the shallow but troublesome currents of ing guns.
In this case the breech plug is fixed in a Northumberland Strait. The shores on either side of this massive block, A A, which slides backwards and forwards Strait are for the most part low bluffs of reddish soil and along the side rods, B B. Through this block passes an
sloping meadows; there is little solid rock, few prominent eccentric shaft, C, which terminates on each side in the headlands, but a continuous line of shore, shelving very side rods B B. When the eccentric is in its forward posi- gradually into water, nowhere deep; many rivers come tion the sliding block closes the breech. In the backward down along the coast of the Gulf, and at the mouth of position the breech is open and the gun tops up on the each there is an estuary proportionate to the size of the forward trunnions E, so as to allow of the introduction of stream, from the mighty channel of the St. Lawrence to the charge as shown in Fig. 5. When the charge is in the miniature bay of Bedeque. Most of these estuaries troduced the preponderance is restored to the breech end, are shallow, and most of them are protected from the gun falls back to its normal position, the eccentric is gales. This condition of affairs seems well suited for removed, tbe breech closed, and the gun is ready for oyster growth, since nearly all of these estuaries either firing.
contain or contained large colonies of these mollusks. In all these cases it is obvious that there is no longi- | Except at its western end, Prince Edward Island is tudinal strain on the chase of the gun, and it is obvious engirdled with oysters. That most beautiful salt-water that so far as construction is concerned 'there is no limit lake in the world, the Bras d'Or, which occupies the to the possible size of the gun.
whole interior of Cape Breton Island, fattens multitudes JAMES A. LONGRIDGE of oysters. These Canadian oysters are of large size, and
have thick, strong shells; oysters with shells from eight
to ten inches in length are not extraordinary. The best BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY
are not the longest, but those with straight and narrow, or
evenly-rounded shells. All the oysters on the eastern THĘ "HE conditions of weather on Ben Nevis are now such shores of North America, belong to the species known as
as to render it impracticable and hazardous to con Ostrea virginiana, which embraces many varieties, of tinue the daily observations satisfactorily. I have there. which 0. borealis is perhaps the best marked. Except at fore judged it best to discontinue them, after a very wholly unsuitable places, it is to be found almost without successful season, under the auspices of the Scottish interruption from the northern shores of the Gulf of Meteorological Society, of five months from June 1, with Mexico and the coast of Florida to the Canadian districts out the break of a single day. The work at the six just referred to. It is, however, said not to be found intermediate fixed stations has, I am very pleased to say, along the eastern shores of Maine, nor in the Bay of been well and generally punctually kept up throughout, Fundy, though the shells, in a semi-fossil state, are dug and I trust that much good will result. Simultaneous
up in quantities from the deep mud in the harbour of observations were of course made at the observatory at Portland, Maine. Achintore, Fort William. The Stevenson's screens at Mr. Ingersoll gives a very interesting account of the these stations have now been made firm by wire former extent and condition of the native beds in the stays to withstand the storms of winter. Yesterday Gulf of Maine, and of the evidence of the immense con
sumption of the oyster by the Indian tribes. The shell 68,140 barrels went to Liverpool. Each barrel contained mounds discovered are of immense size, and the shells on an average 1200 oysters. themselves reached a quite monstrous dimension; the Along the New Jersey shore a large quantity of oysters animals were killed either by fire, or by smashing in are raised, and the western shore of Delaware Bay is the the shell at the attachment of the adductor muscles, and scene of planting the southern oysters, which are brought possibly even by the opening of the shell by stone knives. annually from the Chesapeake, and are fattened for the În many localities north of Cape Cod, the disappearance markets of Philadelphia. This city is credited with an of the oyster has been comparatively recent. Some intake of oysters, amounting in 1880 to about 800,000,000, ascribe this to the pollution of the water hy mills, but but then, unlike New York, this quantity is not wholly Prof. Verrill thinks a change of climate may have had consumed in Philadelphia, but is in part distributed to something to do with it. Oyster culture has been tried, the surrounding regions, but the calculation has been but unsuccessfully, on this coast ; a great business in made that this million peopled city consumes on “laying down” oysters is still carried on at Wellfleet. average during half the year, 300,000,000. The retail
Coming south of Cape Cod, we find Buzzard Bay and trade gives employment to over 3500 people. Vineyard Sound, early known for their fine beds of The oyster fisheries of Maryland are among the most natural oysters. More than a century ago, strict regula- | important in America, and it is claimed that the beds of tions were made about their take and export, but these Chesapeake Bay, about equally divided between the two beds would seem to be nearly worked out.
States of Maryland and Virginia, contain the best oysters The charter of Charles Il. gave the colony of Rhode in the world. The oyster trade of this region is immense, Island (1683) free fishing in every form. At one period giving employment to thousands. A body of police, with large quantities of oysters were destroyed for the sake of a steamer and two tenders, with eight sloops, watch hourly the lime in their shells. Now statutes are in force over the grounds, but the territory to be watched is so specially guarding the mollusc, and the oysters are now vast--the beds of Maryland extend for a distance of 125 yearly increasing in quantity and lessening in price, and miles-that the police sometimes fail to catch illegal over 960 acres of oyster-ground were let in Rhode Island dredgers, and serious encounters, as in the winter of 1879in 1879. About one-half of the oysters raised are natives, 80, have occurred. and the other half are Virginia oysters brought to the It cannot be too often asserted that even the splendid grounds to be fattened. The probable amount of capital | beds of this district may, by unrestricted dredging, become invested in this district may be about 1,000,000 dollars, exhausted. Properly protected and cared for, this wealth and the yield and value as against this is about 600,000 might be increased manyfold. Thirty years ago we read, dollars at wholesale prices.
the depletion of the beds at Pocomoke Sound and in The Virginia trade began some fifty years ago, when Tangier seemed a thing impossible, now from want of a Capt Farran gathered a sloop-load of some 600 bushels. period of rest they have fallen off in their produce, the Now the profits of a single firm in 1856 were 25,000 dollars former by four-fifths, the latter by two-thirds. The a year. When the native supply grew slack, very successful statistics of this great fishery extends over many pages. efforts at cultivation were made. Out of seven to eight It was at Baltimore the “steamed” oyster trade began, thousand acres marked for oyster-culture in New Haven and this city, the great oyster market of the United States, Harbour, only one-half are in use. One proprietor packs more of this mollusc than any other city in the operates on 1500 acres, and full details of the various world. methods of culture adopted are given in this report.
In North Carolina the business in oysters and their Coming further south, the southern shore of Long culture is of small proportions, and not much is known of Island was early famous for its oysters, and we know the fisheries of Georgia. Of the oyster interests in how the old blue point oysters were relished by the Florida there is little to be said. Coming to the Gulf of Dutch settlers. In 1853 they were sold for an average of Mexico, the Mobile supply must be noted, as they have a ten shillings a hundred from the beds. In 1873 Count high reputation for excellence. The New Orleans Pourtales called attention to their getting scarce, and market is supplied from an extent of coast comprising since 1879 it has required an importation of 100,000 the whole water front of North Mississippi and Louisiana. bushels of seed to keep up the supply. This seed then had Appended to this report there is a condensed account only to be gathered, or was worth but little, now its price of the anatomy and development of the oyster, taken has increased threefold. The principal market now-a- from the memoir of Dr. W. K. Brooks, of the John Hopkins days for these Blue Points is Europe. In the markets of University of Baltimore, and accompanied by a full London they commanded a high price, retaining their series of drawings of the growth of the young oyster. supremacy over all other sorts, until in 1879 when the season being a bad one, the oysters grown in Staten Island Sound surpassed them. Not only are they of a superior
NOTES flavour, but they have a round thin shell, and are of a
The following is the list of names nominated for the Council medium size. The Rockaway district supplies an immense
of the Royal Society to be balloted for on November 30 :quantity of oysters; it is but the western end of the south shore of Long Island. While most of the stock finds its President, William Spottiswoode, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.
Secretaries : Prof. way to New York, lately the oysters from this district have Treasurer, John Evans, D.C.L., LL.D. found their way into the European market, selling as George Gabriel Stokes, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Prof. Michael “French" stock. In New York Bay the growth of trans- Foster, M.A., M.D. Foreign Secretary, Prof. Alexander planted oysters is fairly rapid, and a great many are sent William Williamson, LL.D. Other Members of the Council : from there to Europe. In New York City the oyster trade Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., F.C.P.S., John Ball, M.A. is of very considerable importance, which centres itself | F.R.A.S., Thomas Lauder Brunton, M.D., Sc.D., Prof. Heinin two localities at the foot of Broome Street, East River, rich Debus, Ph.D., F.C.S., Francis Galton, M.A., F.G.S., and of West Tenth Street, North River. The quantities Prof. Olaus Henrici, Ph.D., Prof. Thomas Henry Huxley, handled each year in the city has been approximately LL.D., Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., Prof. Joseph Lister, estimated as about 765,000,000 oysters. A large number go to England, where the “ Blue Points" having lost M.D., Prof. Joseph Prestwich, M.A., F.G.S., Prof. Osborne favour, the “ East Rivers” and “ Sounds” have taken, in Reynolds, M.A., Prof. Henry Enfield Roscoe, B.A., LL.D., a measure, their place. Between October 9, 1880, and Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., M.A., Osbert Salvin, M.A., May 14, 1881, being one season, there was exported from F.L.S., Warington W. Smyth, M.A., F.G.S., Edward James New York to Europe a total of 70,768 barrels, of which Stone, M.A., F.R.A.S.
THE death is announced, at the early age of thirty-two years, was there during the signing of the American and other treaties, of Prof. Marino Palmieri, Professor of Physics at Naples Uni- and was even in this early time constantly employed by the versity, and so well known for his seismological researches. We Japanese Government in advising them how to thread their way hope to refer to Palmieri's work in an early number.
through the difficulties of their new position. On one of his preWe also regret to announce the death of Prof. J. Th. Rein
viuus journeys to Yedo he had received permission to reside there hardt, Professor of Zoology at Copenhagen University and
for a period, provided he taught western medicine to a number of Inspector of the Natural History Museum of that city, an orni- Japanese students
. He got into serious danger through having
in his possession a complete native map of Japan, which one of thologist of great merit; he died at Copenhagen on October 23, aged sixty-six. The death is also announced of Dr. F. H.
his pupils had succeeded in conveying to him. The latter is said Troschel, Professor of Zoology at Bonn, and of Dr. Julius second return to Europe with his large collection of Japanese
to have lost his life, and Siebold returned to Deshima. On his Friedländer, the head of the well-known Berlin publishing books, maps, specimens of the artistic productions of the country, house and scientific agency of that name.
of the fauna, flora, &c., he was received with honour by the PROF. Virchow has had a serious attack of illness, but we
Emperor of Russia and other European potentates. He then are glad to learn from the latest intelligence that he is slightly commenced the publication in parts of his Magnum opus Nippon, better.
which he never lived to complete. This work might with much We see from The Gazette of Montreal that the meeting held | justice be styled the Encyclopædia Japonica. Besides native in that city on October 26, in connection with the proposed works, every book published in the East in European language visit of the British Association to Canada in 1884, was large
was consulted. Whatever the labours of subsequent students, and influential. Much enthusiasm was displayed at the prospect large sections of this book, such as the history of European disof the Association's visit, and several resolutions were passed coveries in the Eastern seas, will always retain their value. guaranteeing a hearty welcome and every provision for the After his death his vast collections were distributed among success of the meeting, and the comfort and entertainment of various museums on the Continent. The larger share, as was the visitors. A large committee was appointed to carry out only natural, went to Leyden ; but the British Museum sucarrangements, and at the close of the meeting a considerable
ceeded in obtaining his splendid library of Japanese books and sum was subscribed as a guarantee fund. Dr. Sterry Hunt maps, stated that in 1884 the American Association would probably meet at Newhaven, at such a time as to admit of the English schaft of Yokohama contains several papers of much interest.
The August number of the Mittheilungen der deutschen Gesellvisitors attending both meetings.
The numerous and curious New Year's customs of Japan are On October 9 was unveiled, at the University town of Würz- described by Mr. Sataro Hirose, a native medical student, while burg, a memorial to Von Siebold, the celebrated Oriental savant. Mr. Schült gives a topographical sketch of Mount Fugi and its For some years past the Horticultural Society of Vienna has neighbourhood. Dr. Scheube contributes a long paper on the collected subscriptions for this purpose, and it is interesting to food of the Japanese. He wus enabled, in the college with note that a considerable sum was subscribed amongst the which he is connected, to examine the food of various classes, Japanese, although they have already erected a colossal stone to and from his statistics, meat appears to play but a small part in his memory at Nagasaki. Siebold was the greatest of all the the nourishment of the people. Rice occupies about 50 per students of Japan during what may be called the Dutch period, cent. of their total diet. Dr. Baelz describes the various that is, from about 1620, when all Europeans except the Dutch infectious diseases of Japan, and Mr. Leysner furnishes statistics were expelled from Japan, down to 1854, when Perry succeeded for the past ten years of the climate of Niigata, the principal in making the first of the recent treaties with that country. town on the West Coast. The number and value of the contri. During this time the facilities for the foreign student were few. butions of this small society-it numbers only forty-nine resident The members of the Dutch factory were confined to the settle members-would be little short of astounding, did we not recolment at Deshima, which was about the size of a small London lect that most of the Germans employed by the Japanese Gosquare; all egress, except on certain rare occasions, was denied
vernment are men of scientific attainments, and devote much to them, and this intercourse with the people was confined to study to the country in which they live. the few interpreters and officials employed to watch their movements. Once a year the head of the factory, with a small
We have received from M. Georges Dary, of Paris, a note suite, journeyed overland to Yedo with presents to the Shôgun ; commenting on Prof. S. Thompson's article upon Electric but while on the road the foreigners were as closely guarded as
Navigation. M. Dary informs us that the source of power upon prisoners, and all opportunity of conversation or intercourse
which M. Trouvé has fallen back is a bichromate (primary) with the people was denied them. Notwithstanding these battery weighing only 120 kilogrammes, or less than one-tenth unpromising circumstances, however, Kaempfer, Titsingh, Thun of the accumulators used by Mr. Volckmar in the iron launch berg, and especially Siebold, succeeded in obtaining the materials Electricity. This battery, M. Dary states, has an electromotive for works which will for years to come retain their position as
force of 96 volts-equal to that of the 45 accumulators—but he the very best works in the country. About 1820 Siebold was
does not state what strength of current it will furnish, nor for how appointed surgeon to the Dutch forces in Java, and in 1826 made many hours. M. Dary adds that 500 similar apparatuses—he his first voyage to Japan, where he became physician to the
does not say whether this means 500 boats, or 500 batteries, or factory at Deshima. He seems first to have acquired a sound 500 motors—like that used by M. Trouvé in navigating the Seine knowledge of the language, and then, through the native in his skiff, ave already been exported from Paris. This employés, to have procured books as he required them. For bichromate battery, it appears, has enabled M. Trouvé to under: eight or ten years he remained quietly in Japan, accumu
take journeys which with little exaggeration may be called long luing vast stores of information for subsequent use, and voyages, as, for example, from Havre to Rouen ; and there are journeying occasionally with the annual mission to Yedo. numerous owners of electrical boats who run every day between On his return to Europe he proceeded to publish his places twelve or fourteen miles apart, using two sets of cells for great works, “Fauna Japonica,” and “Flora Japonica,” the run. We are glad to be able to do to so ingenious an the expenses of which were defrayed, we believe, by the inventor as M. Trouvé the justice of making more widely known King of the Netherlands. He again returned to Japan, and the real progress which he has made in this matter.
A COLOSSAL statue of George Stephenson, and another of thorough investigation with the more recent aids of microscopical James Watt, both after models by Prof. Keil, are now being art, of the mucous membrane of the bladder and urethra of both completed in the studio of the eminent German sculptor, Herr sexes, especially with reference to their gland-contents, and the Bock, and are intended for the new Poly'echnic at Charlotten- varying forms of the epithelial cells in expansion of the ducts. burg, near Berlin.
The philosophical faculty propounds two subjects, one of which The comet was seen at the Paris Observatory by M.
is an investigation and setting forth of the mode of development Bigourdan, one of the astronomers, on October 23. It was
of the flower of our common mistletoe (Viscum album), with found to be very brilliant. The observation was presented by critical consideration of the literature of the subject. M. Mouchez, with two others done by M. Thollon at the Nice
MOUNT ETNA has for some days been showing great and Observatory. The sodium lines, which were very brilliant on increasing activity, emitting flashes of fire and dense volumes September 18, had wholly disappeared on October 9, when the
of smoke. comet was seen for the first time after a very long observation of the sky.
AN Arabic manuscript of the year 1365, from which Herr
Gildemeister has translated several extracts for the Göttingen The first meeting of the One Hundredth and Twenty-Ninth Session of the Society of Arts will be held on Wednesday, Society of Sciences, affords an interesting peep at nautical matters
among the Arabians of those times. The author deals separately November 15, when the Opening Address will be delivered by Charles William Siemens, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Chairman
with the ships of the Mediterranean, of the Indian Ocean, and
Red Sea, and of the Nile and other rivers. Inter alia, be describes of the Council. The following papers are announced for reading at the meetings before Christmas :-). Hopkinson, D.Sc.,
a mariner's compass; and this is noteworthy, inasmuch as only F.R.S., Ice-making and Refrigerating ; W. H. Preece, F.R.S.,
one description of the instrument in an Arabian work has bitherto Electrical Exhibitions ; William A. Gibbs, the Artificial Drying picture :-“A ship (of the Indian Ocean] carries generally four
been known (it is of date 1242). The following is a curious of Crops ; P. L. Simmonds, the Utilisation of Waste ; W. K.
divers, whose only duty is, when the water rises in the ship, to Burton, the Sanitary Inspection of Houses. For meetings after
smear themselves with sesame oil, stop their nostrils with wax, Christmas :-). H. Evans, the Modern Lathe; Capt. J. H.
and, while the ship is sailing, jump into the sea. Each has two Colomb, R.N., Collisions at Sea ; A. J. Hipkins, the History hooks connected with a thin line; one of these he fixes in the of the Pianoforte; J. Donaldson, the Construction of Torpedo wood of the ship, and with the other he dives. He swims like Boats ; C. F. Cross. F.C.S., Technical Aspects of Lignification ;
a fish a little under the water, and uses only his ear. Where he W. N. Hartley, F.R.S.E., Self-purification of River Waters; James J. Dobbie, D.Sc., and John Hutchinson, the Application stopped with palm stems, and where there is sewing, he often
hears the trickling of water he stops with wax where there are hcles, of Electrolysis to Bleaching and Printing." Arrangements have been made for Five Courses of Cantor Lectures :—On Dynamo. | thing is easy to him ; in a day he stops over twenty or thirty
passes a piece of cocoa fibre through the fixed palm stem. The Electric Machinery, by Prof. Silvanus P. Thomson, D.Sc.; on
leaks. The diver comes up, without inconvenience, whether Solid and Liquid Illuminating Agents, by Leopold Field; on
there is wind or calm.” the Decorative Treatment of Metal in Architecture, by G. H. Birch; on the Transmission of Energy, by Prof. Osborne
Three new Lyceums, in which instruction will be given in Reynolds, M.A., F.R.S. ; on Secondary Batteries, by Prof.
Finnish, will be opened in a few weeks in Finland, at Abo, Oliver J. Lodge, M.A., D.Sc. The usual short Course of Uleaborg, and Björneborg, thưs raising the number of Finnish Juvenile Lectures will be given during the Christma holidays Lyceums to eight. In the Helsingfors University, lectures in by Prof. Henry Nottidge Moseley, M.A., F.R.S., on the
Finnish are delivered on all subjects in connection with the Inhabitants of the Ocean.
Archäology and History of the north, as also in Botany by
M. W. de FONVIELLE has just published (Hachette and Co.) and Fluids, with Applications to the Distribution and Flow of
a little volume on “ La Pose du Premier Cable,” in which the Electricity.” It aims at supplying a deficiency in the course of principal incidents connected with this great undertaking are mathematical physics usually pursued by the higher-class students
told in a dramatic and popular manner. in our colleges and universities, by enabling them to enter into MR. MUYBRIDGE has issued a series of his well-known instanthe study of kinetics with clear notions of acceleration and other
taneous pictures of animals in motion, adapted for the zoetrope. leading conceptions which bel to the province of kinematics.
Those sent to us include the horse under various conditions, the The delegates of the Clarendon Press have determined to deer, and the dog. They are exact reproductions of the photoissue a series of translations of important original papers in graphs, and in their faithfulness to reality are a great improve. foreign languages on biological subjects, and have committed ment on the existing zoetrope pictures. Mr. Muybridge is the editing of these memoirs to Dr. Michael Foster, Dr. Pye- preparing for publication a complete series of his original Smith, and Dr. Burdon Sanderson. It is proposed that the photographs, adapted for his zoopraxiscope. series should begin with a single volume of about 750 pages, to UNDER the title of "La Navigation Électrique” (Paris, be divided into three parts : the first to comprise the treatise of
Baudry), M. Georges Dary gives some interesting notes on Prof. Heidenhain on “ The Physiology of the Process of Secre.
electric navigation, with special reference to the experiments of tion”; the second a series of four papers by Prof. Goltz on M. Trouvé. Bemrose and Son bave issued a little handbook, “The Functions of the Brain," and a memoir by N. Bubnoff
“ The Electric Light Popularly ned,” by Mr. A. Bromley and Prof. Heidenhain on " Excitatory and Inhibitory Processes
Holmes ; and Macmillan and Co. a useful manual of “Electric in the Motor Centres of the Brain"; and the third a series of
Light Arithmetic,” by Mr. R. E. Day, M.A. memoirs by Prof. Engelmann on “ The Structure and Physiology of the Elementary Contractile Tissues.” It is intended that THE Austrian Archæological Expedition to Asia Minor has each part should be complete in itself, and should be published returned to Vienna, and the objeets found in the excavations separately.
made and packed in 167 cases have arrived there. The medical faculty of the Göttingen University has PROF. SIMONY has recently ascended the Dachstein in order announced as a subject of prize competition, for 1883, a to make some exact measurements concerning the decrease of