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Kalinga into relief and brings it into contact with the Cholas themselves almost with the beginning of the eleventh century. During all this period anterior to the advent of the Cholas, Kalinga occupied a place of some importance in history, but the features of that history are not quite clear. It is from this region that one set of colonists went over to Sumatra and Java, according to Javanese tradition. The region from which their traditional founder Aji Saka came in the first century A. D. seems indicated in the direction of Kalinga. Ptolemy's mention of Pālūr (on the Ganjan or Rishi Kulya river) as the starting point for overseas navigation is certain indication of the overseas communication of Kalinga. Whether the Kalinga objective in overseas. navigation was the country set over against it on the other side of the Bay of Bengal, or whether it went so far down as the islands, is open to doubt; but the constant references to Kalinga and arrivals therefrom in the history of Ceylon seem to lend historical colour to this far-off emigration to the eastern islands. Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa, referring to the kingdom of Kalinga, speaks of its capital being on the sea-shore, but does not give the name. It describes a king under the name Hémaǹgada and makes him the lord of Mahendragiri and Mahōdadhi, the great sea. He does not give any further information in regard to Kalinga. According to certain inscriptions, the Kesari dynasty began in the eighth century A. D., and counts four or five kings among them. According to one calculation, Yayatikesari gets referred to the beginning of the ninth century A. D. The eastern Gangas who were one of the most influential dynasty of rulers of Orissa came into great importanc in the eleventh century, and they carry their genealogy back to a little more than 300 years from the accession of their greatest ruler, Anantavarman Choda Ganga, whose accession took place in A. D. 1078. So, apparently, this dynasty would carry back its origin to almost the commencement of the ninth century. With this dynasty the country of Kalinga comes into full historical view.

Just about the period A. D. 1000 the rising power of the Cholas under Rāja Rāja the Great made itself felt in the north. He made an effective intervention in the somewhat disturbed affairs of the eastern Chaļukhyas, and achieved by a stroke of

policy the permanent alliance of the eastern Chāļukhyas with the Cholas, confirmed by a marriage alliance which was further cemented by a further marriage alliance under his son and successor Rajendra I, Gangaikonḍa Chola. Rāja Rāja claims conquest of Kalinga which probably meant no more than the attempt to bring the state of Kalinga under the suzerainty of the Cholas as was done in the case of the eastern Chaļukhyas. Perhaps the war did not go much further, but the understanding seems to have been established more permanently when the Kalinga, Rāja Raja, married a daughter of Rajendra, as did the eastern Chāļukhya Rāja Rāja. The son of the latter became the great Chola emperor under the name Kulottunga about the time when the other grandson of Rajendra, Ananta varman Choda Ganga, ascended the throne of Kalinga. It was Rajendra I that carried on a regular war of conquest against the country of Kalinga. The Cholas and the Chāļukhyas were for almost a century face to face on the frontier separating them, and this frontier extended from near the Western Ghats almost at the source of the Krishna along the river till its junction with the Tungabhadra, and then in an irregular line northwards to the Vindhya mountains. Rājēndra's effort was to reduce the whole of Kalinga to submission to him in order to carry on his over seas enterprise of bringing the Tamil colonies of Sumatra and the neighbourhood under his control as against the rising kingdom of Sri Bhoja in Sumatra. It is in the course of all this war that the various divisions of Kalinga came prominently into view. Having set the north-west frontier at peace his army seems to have marched into the heart of the Kosala country which then happened to be the asylum for Brahmans fleeing for shelter from the territory subject to the onslaughts of Mahmud of Ghazni. Having taken Chakrakota and Adinagar or Aádinagar or (Yayatinagar) there, the army marched northwards subduing various other parts of Kalinga till it reached the Ganges on the southern frontiers of Mahipāla, king of northern Bengal. Therefrom it turned back, defeated the king of Bengal proper and finally overthrew the ruler of Kalinga at the junction of the Garges with the ocean. In the meanwhile he brought up reinforcements from Kanchi and was encamped in Rajahmundri when his victorious general brought him the tribute of waters from the Ganges. The joint invasion marched

further north till it overthrew the king of Kalinga in his central headquarters. It was probably as a result of this invasion that the definitive treaty was concluded with Kalinga, and it was probably as one of the items of the treaty that the marriage was brought about, the outcome of which was peace for more than half of a century till Kulottunga found it necessary to go to war probably with Anantavarman Choda Ganga early in the twelfth century. It is in this war of Kulottunga that Kalinga gets described sometimes as comprised in three divisions, occasionally as five, and oftentimes as seven. As early as the days perhaps of Megasthenes Kalinga had been divided into three. The Gangetic Kalingam was the first division, the country probably answering to the part of Kalinga last conquerred by Rajendra's general, Then follows Modoklingae of Pliny which may stand as the Bengali form of Madhya-Kalinga. Then follows the third division Macco-Kalingae, which may be rendered perhaps as Mukhya Kalinga, and what is known as Mukhalingam may be the Mukhya-Kalinga-nagar, the capital of Mukhya-Kalinga which by mere phonetic decay gets worn into Mukhalingam. That kind of division seems to have continued more or less, and as was pointed out already there were other divisions such as Kosala answering to the tributary states and hill tracts, Utkala, the present day Orissa and the narrower designation at one time of the territory of North Kalinga, the country of Tamralipta and so on. When these had been brought under one ruler, these divisions must have retained something of their individuality and must have lent colour to the variety of division implied by the kingdom being described as comprised of three, five or seven divisions. According to Rajasekhara who lived in the late ninth and the early tenth century Kalinga belonged to the eastern part, the country east of Benares, of which these separate divisions which are referable to Kalinga get mention, namely, Kalinga, Kosala, Tosala, Utkala, Tamaliptaka, Mallavartaka, Malada. Probably all these were included in the larger geographical entity Kalinga as none of the divisions referable to Kalinga are included in his southren division which is located south of Mahishmati. What obtained in the age of Rajasekhara might well have continued in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and this division perhaps

accounts for the variety of division indicated in the term Kalinga qualified by such numbers as three, five, or seven,

The term Kalinga-nagara may not be a proper name and might simply stand for the capital city of Kalinga and may be indentifiable with Mukhalinga which might have remained the capital till it was transferred later on to Cuttack, there being other capitals as well, such as Dauli or Tosali, Yaugada, whatever that stood for, and even the old Simhapura and Kapilapura. In all probability Dantapura described by Hieun Tsang was identical with Kalinga-nagara now identifiable with Mukhalingam according to certain inscriptions. This identification may seem to militate against Kālidāsa's description of the capital of Kalinga being quite on the seashore. This need not however prove a serious difficulty. Anantavarman was the buil. der of Puri as his predecessors of the Kesari dynasty built and endowed Bhuvanesvar, and as his own son Anahga Bhima I built the temple at Kōņārka. The last of the dynasty Nrisimha suffered perhaps a Muhammdan invasion, and was finally overthrown by the usurper Kapilendra the first Gajapati ruler who set himself up with the countenance of the Muhammdans of Bengal. This dynasty consisted only of three generations and corresponded more or less in duration to the period of the first, second and a part of the third dynasty of Vijayanagar. During this period the capital seems to have been at Cuttack. Kapilondra exerted himself a great deal to extend the limits of the kingdom southwards, and carried it effectively to the Godavari with Rajahmundri as the outermost viceroyalty. This he was a able to achieve through alliances with the Sultans of the Bahmani kingdom. The break up of that kingdom into five, and the internal dissensions that it fell a prey to, made any further advance of the kingdom impossible in his time. His successor Purushottama was able to carry Kalinga raids as far south as the southern Pennar, and seems to have had a Governorship permamently as far south as Nellore and Udayagiri. When the great Vijayanagar king Krishnadēva Rāja came to the throne he found the Gajapatis in occupation of all the coast territory almost down to the frontier of Madras itself. The farseeing policy of this ruler saw at a glances the dangerous character of this situation for the empire, having regard to the fact that the Gajapatis

were inclined to enter readily into alliance with the Muhammadans against Vijayanagar, and to the fact that the Muhammadan states of the north were in habitual hostility to the empire. Krishna adopted the wisest course of letting the Muhammadans alone for the time being, and the Gajapati till he compelled to withdraw from the new conquests by carrying a successful war right up to the frontiers of modern Ganjam, and making the position of the capital Cuttack itself dangerous for the ruler of Orissa. He succeeded in the effort. Then the Krishna was agreed upon as the definitive boundary between the empire of Viajayanagar and the territory of the rulers of Kalinga, but it was still understood that the coast districts extending north. wards from the Krishna to almost Ganjam was the coast region of Telingana and not geographically an integral part of Kalinga. When this dynasty was overthrown by Mahammadan conquest the Muhammadan territory did not extend much farther south than the Mahanadi, and then the Telingana portion was easily absorbed into the Bhamani states chiefly that of Golconda. When the Moghulas took possession of Golconda territory it naturally passed into their hands, and when the Nizam founded an independent state in the Dakhan it remained an integral part of his territory till it was made over to the French as the result of a subsidiary alliance. When the French in their turn were overthrown in South India it passed into the hands of England. During this last period Kalinga had no history of her own, having been absorbed into the territory of Bengal since the Muhammadan conquests under Akbar. When the decline of the Moghul empire began the Bengal province found it difficult to maintain its hold on it, and the Mahrattas under the Bhonslas of Nagpur were able to take easy possession of it. It was then recovered from the Mahrattas after the overthrow of the state of Nagpur, and since then underwent the vicissitudes that Bengal itself did, till in the last few years it became an integral part of the province of Bihar & Orissa.

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