« PreviousContinue »
ALPHABETICAL INDEX TO ARTICLES.
Antiquity of Writing in India, The. By Rai Bahadur
Asahaya tbe Commentator of the Gautama Dharmasutra
and the Naradasmriti. By P. V. Kano, M.A., LI.M. 120-124
Annual Report of the Bibar and Orissa Research Society for
Buddhaghosa's Visits to Ceylon and Burma and his remini.
scences of the Island of Lanka. By Bimala Charan
Chronology of the Nyaya System. By Mahamahopadhyaya
Haraprasud Sastri, M.A., C.1.Ě.
Ho Folk-lore. By Sukumar Haldar, B.A.
Journal of Francis Buchanan (Patna and Gaya Districts)
with Notes and Introduction. By V. H. Jackson, M.A. 145-366
Orissa. By Professor S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar, M.A.,
Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting of the Bibar and
Studies in the Cults of the District of Champaran in North
Bihar. The Cult of the Godling Birchhe Deo. By Sarat
Sisur-Angirasah Kavih. By Surendranath Majumdar, M.A.,
Printed by the Superintendent, Patna Law Press Co.
BEHAR AND ORISSA RESEARCH SOCIETY
For the year 1922,
Singh, G.C.I.E., K.B.E., Darbhanga.
K C.I.E , of Gidhour.
Singh Deo, K.C.I E., of Sonepur State.
BIHAR AND ORISSA
BY PROFESSOR S. KRISHNASWAMI AIYANGAR, M.A.,
HoN, PH. D.
This modern expression is a corruption of Odraddéga and takes into it the territories known by the names Kalinga, Utkala, Odra or Oddı and even a part of Daśārņa. It took in the whole territory which at one time in history was included in the name Kosala, obviously South Kosala, as distinct from the north. The exact territorial limits of this Kosala in the eleventh century seem to have corresponded more or less to the present day territorial limits of the Tributaris States of Orissa *
Of these the territory included in the name Kalinga seems to be the oldest, and in that name the whole may be referred to for any purposes of historical discussion.
I have not so far come upon any reference to Kalinga as such in Vedic literature. But among the kingdoms of the South the rulers of which are described in the Aitaröya Brāhmaṇa generally as assuming the title Bhoja, Kalinga seems capable of inclusion, though there is no explicit statement to the effect. There are specific references, however, in a number of places in the Malıābhārata to the kingdom of Kalinga. A part from stray references to Kalinga rulers as such, and the part
* Sec Inscriptions of Rajendra Chola I.
that the individual Kalinga rulers played in the Great War, Kalinga is described as a forest country beginning as soon as the river Vaitaraņi is reached. The ruling dynasty is referred to as the descendants begotten on the Queen Sushena of Kalinga, wife of Bali, by Rishi Dirghatama * and the five sons born to her a re said to have founded the five kingdoms: Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Suhma. Of these five, the kingdom of Anga comprised the territory round Bhagalpur (ancient Champa) on the Ganges. Vanga was the region probably on both sides of the Ganges, though the great bulk of its territory seems to have lain to the east of the river, extending from the frontiers of Vanga to the sea. To the west of this seems to have lain Kalinga. Pundra has been known to correspond to North Bengal, that is, the territory on the northern side of the Ganges and perhaps to the east of the kingdom of Kosala. The location of Suḥma is not quite so definite, but it seems to have comprised the territory on the southern side of the Ganges extending from the river south wards to the frontiers of Kalinga east of the territory of Magadha. This description would make Kalinga extend from the Ganges westwards, at any rate from the Rupnarain arm of the Ganges, at the mouth of which was situated the ancient port of Tāmralipti (the modern Damlok). Throughont the greater part of history Kalinga seems to have corresponded to the region extending from this river to the river Godāvari, and stretching from
into the interior marked by a vague line drawn along the course of the river Indrāvati to its junction with the Godavari and along its course northwards to meet the Ganges near the town of Burdwan.
In the Mabābhārata itself Kalinga is spoken of as one kingdom and its capital is named Rājapuri. In this particular connection the ruler of Kalinga is given the name Chitrangada, whose daughter the Kaurava Prince Duryodhana is said to have married. So far, then, as the Mahābhārata is concerned, Kalinga was a forest kingdom on both sides of the Vaitaraại. It seems to have been regard
in the ed as a single kingdom and its ruler is described as Mahābhārata war. There is mention of Kalinga in the Sūtras of Pāṇini. There are a number of references in the Arthaśāstra to Kalinga, particularly in reference to cotton fabric of a special kind.
*The Mahabharata, Bk. XII, Ch. 4 (Kumbh. Eda.).