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25. क्यभीमनामा [s] तिलिविषयनिवासिनी राष्ट्रकूटप्रमुखान् कुटुंबिनः ।

26. इत्यमाज्ञापयति बिदितमस्तु वोस्मभिः या सा अप्सरोषमा

(1) थुण्ड

27. कारख्या तस्याः यः पुत्रः [तुं](") बुरूसमानो मल्लपाख्यः तत्सुताया चल। “मृण्मयन्तु चतुरंगबलं वा । क्षिप्रमेवविलयंगतमाजौ” (Plate II,

(

"07-8).

भत्त

.

28. वाख्या तस्य (13) समस्तगान्धव्वं विद्यावेदिन्ये लिनाम ग्रामेशाया।

29. न्दिशोसहसंक्रमुकतरूस्थानं तस्मिन्ने वनामे वायव्यान्दिशि पं

30. चाशत्खण्डिकावि (15) हिबीजवापक्ष रहस्थानञ्च दत्त अयो

31. परि न केनचिट् बाधाकारणीया करोति] यस्म पञ्चमहापातकसंयु

32. तोभवति [i] व्यासेनाप्य कम् (16) ष्टष्टिवर्षसहस्राणि स्वर्ग-मोदति

33. भूमिदः [*] आक्षप्त (17) चानुमन्ताच तान्येव नरके वसेत् [४] आज्ञाप्तिर

31. स्य धर्मस्य कडेयराजः । भट्टवामनेन रचितेयं शासनपद्धतिः (18)।

35. चामिकुर्राचार्येण लिखिता [*] |

(11) Read पमा । (12) The Anuswara is on बु ।

(1) Read तस्यै। (1) Read वैदिन्ये । (5) Read वीहि । (16) Read घट । (") Read याचप्ता | 18 The विसर्ग is at the beginning of the next line.

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III.-The Antiquity of Writing in India.*

By Rai Bahadur Bishun Svarup,

V.-Indian Alphabet. The alphabet contained in the grammar of Páņini consists of fourteen groups of letters arranged in a way that facilitates the rules of his grammar. Letters which undergo similar changes in grammatical constructions are put together. This enables the grammarian to include a lot of matter in short rules. The story about the origin of these fourteen Sabdas or groups of letters is that they emanated from God śiva’s Damroo, which indi. cates that Śiva was their originator. We know on the authority of Nagoji Bhatti and mention in Kátyáyana's Vártika that Páņini's grammar is mainly based on śiva Sútras. These grammatical sútras of Śiva do not exist now probably as absorbed in Páņini's grammar, which fact has caused his grammar to be regarded as a Vedánga. In the list of grammarians that preceded him Páņini does not however mention the name of Šiva. The reason for this is obvious as Śiva was considered a god and not an ordinary man.

We thus see that Páộini's alphabet (by which term I mean the arrangement of the fourteen groups) was originally contained in Śiva Sútras, and was therefore much older, and this was, after all, not the original alphabet, but taken from it and rearranged in order to facilitate the rules of grammar. The original was the same alphabet as we possess now, as can be seen from a comparison of the two, and deduced from certain rules in Páņini's grammar,

The arrangement of the existing Indian alphabet is as follows:

Vowels~a, á, i, í, u, ú, ri, rí, li, e, ai, o, au.
Continged from the J. B. O. R, H., March 1922, page 64.

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3. e, o,

Gutterals-k (hard), kh (hard aspirate), 8 (soft), gb (soft

aspirate), n (pasal). Palatuls—ch (hard), chb (hard aspirate), j (soft), jb (soft

aspirate), n (pasal). Linguals— (hard), th (hard aspirate), ļ (soft), db (soft

aspiratej, n (nasal). Dentals—t (hard), th hard aspirate), d (soft), dh (soft

aspirate), n (nasal). Labials-p (hard), ph (hard aspirate), b (soft), bb (soft

aspirate), m (nasal).
Semi-vowels-y, r, 1, v.
Sibilants-ý (palatal), § (lingual), s (dental).
Aspirate-b.

The arrangement of the Páộini's alphabet in the fourteen groups of letters is as follows:

I. a, i, u 2. ri, li,

Vuwels. 4. ai, au 5. b, y, v, r--aspirate and semi-vowels. 6. 1. 7. n (palatall, m (labial), n (gutteral), n (lingual), n (dental)

nasals.

jb, bh 8. ubi qh, dh} soft aspirates, five classes. 10. j, b, g, d, d, soft, five classes. 11. kh, ph, chl, tb, th, ch, ļ, t7bard aspirates and hard

j letters of five classes. 13. $ (palatal), § (lingual), s (dental)-sibilants. 14. h, aspirate again.

From a perusal of tbe two sets it is not difficult to be convinced that the fourteen Sabdas were derived by a rearrangement from the alphabet as existing at present. Further, Páņini when meaning to express all the 1 tters of one class, gutterals, pal.tals, etc., what we now call " Vargas” adds a "" to the first letter of the particular" Varga " ; for instance, " ku" meansk,

12. k, P

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