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shall be imprisoned for three months and this or to any other country, has nothing forfeit ten pounds, excepting magistrates to do with anything like a monopoly. of corporations and persons of higher The question involves no principle of rank. And if any person, knowing his interference with individual rights, or servant 10 offend against this law, do not that is at war with the most perfect freedom put him forth of his service within four- and success of international commerce. teen days, or shall hire him again, shall Even Secretary Walker admits the right forfeit one hundred pounds.”

and expediency of laying duties for reIn 1565, Queen Elizabeth granted a venue-and that being admitted, all idea Monopoly to Armigell Wade, Esq. and of Free Trade is at an end. William Herle, for the sole making of . We do not on this occasion desire, or brimstone, for thirty years, and also for intend to go into the discussion of the the sole making or extracting from cer- right and policy of laying duties for the tain herbs, roots, and seeds, an oil proper protection of our labor—the writer of to be used for wool, and for the making this article considers that question fully and dressing woolen cloth, &c.”

settled, from the superabundant testimony Monopolies of various kinds were already so often and publicly adduced. granted by King Charles I. of England, He wishes simply to disabuse the pub. such as special privileges for the making lic mind from all idea, that the advocates of soap, for starch, playing.cards, salt- of protection are, in any manner or form, petre, gunpowder, glass-making, wines the advocates of monopoly of any nature from raisins, for gold and silver thread, or kind whatever ; and he appeals to the for malt and brewing, &c., &c. Also a recent elections, as abundant evidence Monopoly for the sole selling of coals at that the majority of the people of this Newcastle.

country have decided the question. The Monopolies of the same kind were question of protection to the labor of the granted in France, such as the making of country is one of the most prominent woolen cloths at Sedan and other places. doctrines of the Whig party-and what These were real Monopolies, the benefits is the verdict that is found recorded in of which inured to particular individuals; the successes which have everywhere but they and all other privileges of a crowned their cause in the elections similar character are wholly foreign to, which have been held since the passage and directly at variance with, our free in- of the Tariff of 1846. stitutions, and no portion of our citizens Until the passage of that law, many are more opposed to them than those con- States which have since shown their cerned in manufactures and the mechanic preference for Whig, principles, gave the arts.

suffrage of their citizens in favor of These monopolies, and many charters President Polk; that they should bave that were granted, containing peculiar changed their political complexion, shows privileges of trade and commerce with that they are in favor of American indusforeign nations, given by various sove- try, and will not consent to the doctrine reigns of Europe, were considered as they that Congress have no power over the really were, restrictions upon trade, and commerce of the country, further than to it was in contradistinction to these that make it merely subservient to the public the term “ Free Trade” first originated. revenue.

It is only since Great Britain, perceiy. We look, therefore, for brighter days ing that her monopoly in manufactures in the future, when the times created by is to be broken up by the rival nations, the wise enactment of the Tariff of 1842 and that her system of securing all the will return, and give a new impulse to markets of the world for them, is in great the whole industry of the country. danger, that the idea of levying duties or We desire no monopolies, no privi. imposts in other countries, had anything leges, but those for which our instituto do with the freedom of trade.

tions were specially framed, to be enWhat trade in the United States is not joyed alike by every citizen, be his conas free to one of its citizens as to any dition in life what it may. other ? Surely there is none in which Our principles are, that our country all may not embark upon equal terms, so should avail itself of all its natural enfar as legislation is concerned. The ques. dowments-should cultivate its rich and tion tben, of the rate of duties to be paid genial soil, and fill the garners of our ag. on the introduction of foreign goods into riculturists with stores of grain, and out

mills with the fleeces of their flocks; that peace should flourish to the utmost limits our miners should extract the rich miner- of our widely extended borders-and 10 al treasures from the teeming bosom of reach this happy consummation, nothing the earth, that our planters should reap more is necessary than to protect our rich rewards in the abundance of their well-conditioned laborers from the vicious crops of cotton, rice and tobacco, and systems by which men are kept down the surplus of our productions should be and depressed under the monarchical insti. carried to the various marts of the world tutions and privileged orders of foreign by our gallant ships; that the arts of despotisms.

THE CREATION OF VALUES.

Without going into the intricacies of ant ingredients for the well-being of its political economy, it is proposed in this population, at this particular time; and article to consider in a common sense having shown what we believe to be our manner, what it is that creates values, position in regard to them, we shall next and how they are accumulated.

consider what is the best policy for the If we inquire into the foundation of all government to pursue in the language values, we shall be led to the inevitable of the Constitution) most to promote the conclusion, that there are a multiplicity general welfare." In soil and climate, of ingredients in their creation : Labor, in the possession of forests, fisheries, skill, invention, soil, climate, the presence minerals, &c., indeed in all natural enof natural endowments, such as forests, dowments, is there any country upon fisheries, minerals, &c., and also water the habitable globe that can boast of such privileges, roads, canals, and other means a profusion. The Rev. Timothy Dwight, of using them and conveying them to in his valedictory address delivered 10 his market.

class in 1776, in speaking of the country, In considering, therefore, the power pos- thus describes it : “Whatever may consessed by a nation or people to create duce to health, plenty, and happiness, is and accumulate values, we must take into almost the spontancous products of its calculation how far they can command fields. Our corn is of every kind of the any or all of these ingredients; for ex- best qnality, and of a quantity that can. actly in the proportion in which they are not be measured. Our caille and fruits more or less present, will be the power of every kind are without number. Our with which values can be created. plants and flowers, for health and plea

We think this position so impreg. sure, appear to have been scattered by the nable that we shall not waste time in same benevolent band which called forth undertaking to fortify a self-evident truth. the luxuriance of Eden. All that the There is no fair way of estimating what wish of an epicure, the pride of beauty, ought to be the policy of any nation or the curious mind of a naturalist can without an examination into the pre- ask to variegate the table of luxury, to sence or absence of these original sources increase the shrine of splendor, or deof national wealth.

light the endless thirst of knowledge, is If it can be shown that they exist in showered in profusion on this, the lavor. an uncommon degree in any one country, ed land of Heaven. we shall contend that it is the bounden “ Nor are these bounties bestowed only duty of the people of that country, sepa. on the earth. The ocean, the lakes, and rate and apart from all other considera- the rivers pour forth an unlimited abun. tions of intercourse with any or all other dance of wealth and pleasure. Commoncountries, to frame its laws in such man- ļy the munificence of the Deity is equalner as shall best tend to the use of any ly distributed. Where the soil is barren, or all of them, so as to produce from them the sea is fruitful and supplies the dethe greatest amount in value and of com: fect. Where the land is fertile, the sea is fort and happiness to the people. empty and unfurnished. Here, ihe ocean

We have advanced these truisms with and ihe continent were evidently formed a view to examine in what degree the for each other by the same open hand, United States possesses these all-import- and stored with blessings by the same

unlimited indulgence of bounty. That “ This western world, not with so much this is the unstrained voice of truth, and propriety called new, from the date of its not the extravagant declamation of

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discovery, as from the unprecedented union gyric, might, with the utmost ease, be it exhibits of all those articles which are demonstrated by a bare enumeration of the basis of commerce, power, grandeur the articles which constitute the furni. and happiness ; this favorite region, by the ture of this mighty structure ; but as the knowledge of mankind till that period

hand of Heaven sequestered from the time will not suffer such an enumeration, when European greatness began to totter, and especially as none of my audience is destined to be the last retreat of science can be supposed to be ignorant of them, and of glory, beholding a rapid progress I shall barely notice them.

towards the consummation of excellence “Our forests are filled with the finest already commenced.” timber, and exude in the greatest abundance tar, pitch, and turpentine. Our Is it not so ? Have we not "those artifields may, with the utmost facility, be cles which are the basis of commerce, covered with hemp and flax. Our pro- power, grandeur and happiness ? Is visions can never fail. Our mountains ihere anywhere to be found such a happy are everywhere enriched with iron and combination of the elements of wealth lead. Our improvements in the art of and greatness? This question can only manufacturing are astonishing even to be answered in the affirmative. ourselves. Our uncorrupted manners, How, indeed, can a doubt exist, wben and our happy climate, nourish innume. it is well known that the canvas of our rable multitudes of brave, generous, and ships whitens every sea, and ibat the hardy soldiers, to improve those advan- proceeds of our skill and industry are tages, to strike terror into their enemies, ihus conveyed far and wide, to every naand brighten the glory of their country.” tion or people in the known world.

Such are the glowing terms used by Why, then, should there arise a ques. this eminent divine in 1776, when we tion, wbether or no this country should were yet scarcely a nation, to set forth realize the destiny to which it is so well the endowments and advantages of our adapted by the bounteous treasures with country, the advances it had made, and which nature has endowed it. Is it bethe character of its citizens. What would cause we are an ignorant or an idle peobe the language in which he would por. ple? that we are deficient in intellectual tray its present condition, had he lived capacity? Does this question need a to witness the mighty advances we have reply? Where shall we go to find greater made in civilization, in science, and in inventive genius! Where shall we look every art which can minister to the com- for a higher state of enterprise ? wbere fort and happiness of man.

for a more indomitable perseveranceIn 1776, we numbered about three mil. both on the land and on the sea? Why, lions of inhabitants; we are now little then, we again ask, is there any question short of twenty. At that period we were of our continued advancement? Is there without manufactures to protect the hardy any satisfactory answer to this query? soldiers of whom he bears such honora. We unhesitatingly say there is none. ble testimony from the hidden severity of Left to ourselves, and uninfluenced by the elements. Our minerals lay in their any other political institutions but our native beds, untouched by the hand of own, nothing can arrest us in our career, man. No coal had been discovered to if true to ourselves. This is no speculasoften the rigors of a winter climate- tion; it is a fixed fact, tested by an expeno canals had been cut, nor rail-roads rience which cannot admit of a doubt. made to give a magic circulation to the We have so tested it on several occasions various proceeds of our skill and indus- to our sorrow, and at an immense cost, try. The mighty power of steam had from the Confederation, and before the scarcely become known as an agent in adoption of the Constitution, down to the human affairs. Yet the destiny of our present day. We have bad seasons of country was foreshadowed to the mind's the highest prosperity, and of the deepest eye of this great and good man, and we gloom. cannot forbear to give, in his own lan- Above all other benefits resulting from guage, his views of the then future pros. the peculiar institutions of the United pects which presented themselves to him, States, ihere is one, the value of which and which he describes in the following admils of no estimate, whether we cop. eloquent manner :

sider it in a physical or moral point of view_for it is the foundation of all the Can any man of common sense believe, blessings enjoyed by the great mass of the that if by any change in the institutions

people and that is, the remunerating of Europe, the people were to become, as - distribution of the proceeds of labor – they are in this country, the source of

giving to the laborer a much larger por- power, and that an attempt should be tion of his earnings than is yielded to made to establish a Republican Governhim in any other country on the globe. ment, that such a government could

It was, indeed, for this that our insti- stand, with the people in the condition tutions were established, and without it in which they can scarcely be said (at they cannot exist. Monarchies, with present) exist? If any such there be, privileged classes, may continue, as they let him cast his eyes towards the southern have continued from the earliest records portion of this continent, and there he of history, to hold masses of mankind will see the sad fate of fruitless attempts together by force and intrigue; and un- to found free institutions upon the basis der that form of government a greater or of ignorance ! a less degree of discomfort may exist, Bul enough of this argument, if arguaccording as the people have more or ment that can be called, which is little Jess power awarded to them, by what are more than an appeal to the pages of his. called Constitutional Monarchies, as sepa. tory, and to the notorious exhibitions of rate from absolute despotisms. But un- the every-day experience by which we der what potentate of so called enlight. are surrounded. ened Europe, can we find the great mass Let us now return to the inquiry of the population permitted to partake of which we proposed to pursue, namely, even the common necessaries of life? in what manner the greatest value can The writer of this article has recently be created out of the means at the dispomade it his particular study to investi. sal of the citizens of the United States; gale into the condition of those who preserving, at the same time, the precreate all the value which results from sent comfortable condition of the lalabor, in every country of the world ; and borers who are 10 contribute to its prohe solemnly avers it, as an indisputable duction. truth, that, with some very few excep- No one, we think, can doubt the ob. tions, where particular skill has been ac- jects of those now possessed of the quired in delicate and difficult manipula- power of the general government. The tion, nowhere, but in this blessed coun. President and the Secretary of the Treatry, does the working-man receive a sury have not left us in doubt upon sufficiency to feed and clothe him with that head. They have indeed told us anything approaching to comfort. almost in so many words, that their plan

În Christian England, the laborer is so is to confine the country to Agricultural robbed of his reward, that one-eighth, or pursuits, and abandon the Arts to their one-tenth, of the population, according fate, unless the people of this country to circumstances, are degraded to such can be made to work at prices regulated an extent as to receive assistance through by the price of labor in Europe. the poor-rates established by law. In Stripping their Messages and Reports France, Germany, Switzerland--all over of all the verbiage and plausible fallacies the Continent of Europe—it is little, if of which they are made up—this is the any better. Throughout Asia, it is much long and the short of their story: worse. In the United States alone, un- Now we shall endeavor to show that der a proper system of imposts, can the if it were in their power to accomplish mass be said to have a comfortable ex. this, there would be an end of all accuistence.

mulation of capital in the country. The question, then, of whether we We speak not now of the Tariff of shall, or shall not, carry out the system 1846—that will speak for itself soon of government under which we live-the enough-we war now against the prinvital question—is, shall we shut out ciple of abandoning the labor of the counfrom our borders the vicious institutions try to an unprotected competition with which degrade man in the scale of the labor of Europe, lowering the wages creation? or shall this glorious republic of our working.men so as to drive the follow the sad fate of those which cast population from the free States, to settle such a gloom over the pages of history, as Agriculturists in those of the Southas to sicken the heart with their decay and western part of the Union.

This we their ultimate downfall ?

have reason to believe is Secretary Walk

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er's plan. Premising that we have not covered from seven and a half to ten the most distant idea of his eventual suc- per cent. of their value. The demand cess, we still think much mischief may for grain in Europe and the short crop result to the capital and business of the of cotton doubtless effected this rise to a country in the attempt, even during the considerable extent, but we venture the short remnant of his inglorious career ; assertion that no Capitalist even now and would fain convince him, if he feels the confidence he did before the would listen to us, that in so doing he Tariff of 1846 and the Sub-Treasury would destroy much of the present capi- were enacted. Nor, we venture to say, tal of the country, and prevent all future will any settled state of things be expeaccumulation of the values, which under rienced so long as the principle of Prothe wholesome Tariff of 1842 were fast tection shall be repudiated, the Tariff of increasing; and had he permitted that 1846 remain as it is, and men remain at Tariff to remain undisturbed, would have the head of the General Government who saved him much trouble in providing the deny the right of Congress to legislate on ways and means which he now finds it the subject of a Tariff, except for the purso difficult to procure.

pose of raising “the largest amount of The moment the Tariff of 1846 was duty from the lowest revenue.” enacted, and the Sub-Treasury law pass- In the matter of accumulation, we can ed, a great sensation was produced in the look to nothing with so much confidence trading community, the Capitalists, the as to the arts. As we have said, invenManufacturers, and the Merchants. Alltion is one ingredient in the creation of felt that it was one of those sudden and values, and one of no mean order. It hurtful experiments, of which we have would be difficult to say wbat amount of had previous examples, and that the wealth has been created in this country wisest could form no certain estimate of from this single source of Whitney's what their enactment would produce. cotton gin, who can estimate the millions Hence the greatest caution was immedi- it has added to the values of the nation ? ately adopted; all new operations of bu. Fulton's steamboats, which if not his siness of every nature and kind were original invention were the first brought suspended. The purse-strings were drawn into use; Whittemore's carding machine, tight, Jest the money which might escape and Morse's telegraph, to say nothing of should not only not yield a profit, but the thousands of labor saving and ingemight never come back. For what in nious machines which continue to crowd such a state of things can be done with our patent office-many of which have Capital, with any hope of having even been adopted in Europe, as of more value a new dollar returned for an old one. In than their own. manufacturing operations it assuredly Next to invention, may be ranked in could not be invested-neither in mer. this category, the skill with wbich the chandise of any kind : there was no sort various manufacturing processes are acof inducement to purchase real estate, as quired, and the dexterity with which they that was sure to decline in value. Pro. are used. So much for our people as the duce then offered no gain in foreign mar. instruments—but who shall estimate the kets. Dry goods could not be imported interminable value of our iron, copper, without loss; so, to sum up the whole mat- and lead mines, our inexhanstible coal ter in few words, confidence was greatly measures, both anthracite and bituminim paired, and every man thought himself ous—who can calculate the value of the truly fortunate if he could save himself countless millions of sheep, whose wool from ruinous losses. If we estimate the can be worked into the finest cloih. value of the various articles of trade and Now, though we consider agriculture commerce in the country at $200,000,000, and commerce as of inestimable value, the enactment of these laws must have still they are not the parents of these imannihilated some 40 or $50,000,000 from mense sources of industry and wealth their value, as no one estimated the aver- and their accumulation. Iron must first age fall in prices at less than fifteen or be smelted before a plough can be made twenty per cent. That this was an un- or a harvest reaped—and a surplus must natural reduction, and arose from the be created before we can have any useful sudden want of confidence created by the commerce. They are therefore conjointpassage of the laws referred to, is rendered ly the three pillars of the social editice, more obvious from the fact that many, in: acting always in entire harmony when deed almost all articles, have partially re- mutually protected, existing only in

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