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become poffeffed of. To this purpose, I determined, as the next proof of my zeal, to explore the most unknown parts of them, and to Spare no trouble or expence in acquiring a knowledge that promised to be fo useful to my countrymen. I knew that many obstructions would arife to my fcheme from the want of good maps and charts; for the French, whilft they retained their power in North America, had taken every artful method to keep all other nations, particularly the English, in ignorance of the concerns of the interior parts of it: and to accomplish this defign with the greater certainty, they had published inaccurate maps and falfe accounts; calling the different nations of the Indians by nicknames they had given them, and not by thofe really appertaining to them. Whether the intention of the French in doing this, was to prevent thefe nations from being difcovered and traded with, or to conceal their discourse, when they talked to each other of the Indian concerns, in their prefence, I will not determine; but whatsoever was the cause from which it arofe, it tended to mislead.
As a proof that the English had been greatly deceived by thefe accounts, and that their knowledge relative to Canada had usually been very confined, before the conqueft of Crown-Point in 1759, it had been efteemed an impregnable fortrefs: but no fooner was it taken, than we were convinced that it had acquired its greatest fecurity from falfe reports, given out by its poffeffors, and might have been battered down with a few four pounders. Even its fituation, which was represented to be so very advantageous, was found to owe its advantages to the fame fource. It cannot be denied but that fome maps of thefe countries have been published by the French with an appearance of accuracy; but these are of fo fmall a fize and drawn on fo minute a fcale, that they are nearly inexplicable. The fources of the Miffifippi, I can affert from my own experience, are greatly mifplaced; for when I had explored them, and compared their fituation with the French charts, I found them very erroneously reprefented, and am fatisfied that these were only copied from the rude fketches of the Indians.
Even fo lately as their evacuation of Canada they continued their schemes to deceive; leaving no traces by which any knowledge might accrue to their conquerors: for though they were well acquainted with all the Lakes, particularly with Lake Superior, having conftantly a veffel of confiderable burthen thereon, yet their plans of them are very incorrect. I difcovered many errors in the defcriptions given therein of its iflands and bays, during a progress of eleven hundred miles that I coasted it in canoes. They likewife, on giving up the poffeffion of them, took care to leave the places they had Occupied in the fame uncultivated state they had found them; at the fame time deftroying all their naval force. I obferved myself part of the hulk of a very large veffel, burnt to the water's edge, juft at the opening from the Streights of St. Marie's into the Lake.
Thefe difficulties, however, were not fufficient to deter me from the undertaking, and I made preparations for fetting out. What I chiefly had in view, after gaining a knowledge of the manners, cuftoms, languages, foil, and natural productions of the different nations that inhabit the back of the Miffiffipi, was to afcertain the breadth
of that vast continent, which extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, in its broadeft part between, 43 and 46 degrees northern latitude. Had I been able to accomplish this, I intended to have proposed to government to establish a poft in fome of thofe parts about the Straits of Annian, which having been first discovered by Sir Francis Drake, of course belong to the English. This I am convinced would greatly facilitate the difcovery of a North Weft paffage, or a communication between Hudson's Bay and the Pacific Ocean. An event fo defirable, and which has been fo often fought for, but without fuccefs. Befides this important end, a fettlement on that extremity of America would anfwer many good purpofes, and repay every expence the establishment of it might occafion. For it would not only difclofe new fources of trade, and promote many useful discoveries, but would open a paffage for conveying intelligence to China, and the English fettlements in the Eaft Indies, with greater expedition than a tedious voyage by the Cape of Good Hope, or the Straits of Magellan will allow of.
How far the advantages arifing from fuch an enterprize may extend can only be afcertained by the favourable concurrence of future events. But that the completion of the fcheme, I have had the họnour of first planning and attempting, will fome time or other be effected, I make no doubt. From the unhappy divifions that at prefent fubfift between Great Britain and America, it will probably be fome years before the attempt is repeated; but whenever it is, and the execution of it carried on with, propriety, thofe who are fo fortunate as to fucceed, will reap, exclufive of the national advantages that must ensue, emoluments beyond their most fanguine expectations. And whilft their fpirits are elated by their fuccefs, perhaps they may bestow fome commendations and bleflings on the perfon that first pointed out to them the way. Thefe, though but a shadowy recompence for all my toil, I fhall receive with pleasure.
To what power, or authority this, new world will become dependent, after it has arifen from its prefent uncultivated ftate, time alone can difcover. But as the feat of empire, from time immemorial has been gradually progreffive towards the weft, there is no doubt but that, at fome future period, mighty kingdoms will emerge from thefe wilderneffes, and ftately palaces and folemn temples, with gilded fpires reaching the fkies, fupplant the Indian huts, whofe only decorations are the barbarous trophies of their vanquished enemies.
As fome of the preceding paffages have already informed the reader that the plan I had laid down for penetrating to the Pacific Ocean, proved abortive, it is neceffary to add, that this proceeded not from its impracticability (for the farther I went the more convinced I was that it could certainly be accomplished) but from unforeseen difappointments. However, I proceeded fo far, that I was able to make fuch difcoveries as will be useful in any future attempt, and prove a good foundation for fome more fortunate fucceffor to build upon. These I fhall now lay before the Public in the following pages; and am fatisfied that the greatest part of them have never been published by any person that has hitherto treated of the interior nations of the Indians; particularly, the account I give of the Naudowefies, and the fituation of the heads of the four great rivers that take their rife
within a few leagues of each other, nearly about the centre of this great continent; viz. The River Bourbon, which empties itfelf into Hudfon's Bay; the Waters of Saint Lawrence; the Miffiffippi, and the River Oregon, or 'the River of the Weft, that falls into the Pacific Ocean at the flraits of Annian.
The impediments that occafioned my returning, before I had accomplished my purposes, were thefe. On my arrival at Michillimackinac, the remoteft English poft, in September 1766, I applied to Mr. Rogers, who was then governor of it, to furnish me with a proper affortment of goods, as prefents for the Indians who inhabit the track I intended to purfue. He did this only in part; but promised to supply me with fuch as were neceffary, when I reached the Falls of Saint Anthony. I afterwards learned, that the governor fulfilled his promife in ordering the goods to be delivered to me; but thofe to whofe care he intrufted them, inftead of conforming to his orders, difpofed of them elsewhere.
• Disappointed in my expectations from this quarter, I thought it neceffary to return to La Prairé Le Chien; for it was impoffible to proceed any farther without prefents to enfure me a favourable recep tion. This I did in the beginning of the year 1767, and finding my progress to the Weftward thus retarded, I determined to direct my courfe Northward. I took this ftep with a view of finding a communication from the heads of the Mifliffippi into Lake Superior, in or der to meet, at the grand Portage on the North-weft fide of that lake, the traders that ufually come, about this season, from Michillimacki nac. Of thefe I intended to purchafe goods, and then to pursue my journey from that quarter by way of the lakes Le Pluye, Dubois, and Ouinipique to the heads of the river of the Weft, which, as I have faid before, falls into the ftraits of Annian, the termination of my intended progrefs.
I accomplished the former part of my defign, and reached Lake Superior in proper time; but unluckily the traders I met there ac quainted me, that they had no goods to fpare; those they had with them being barely fufficient to answer their own demands in thefe remote parts. Thus difappointed a fecond time, I found myself obliged to return to the place from whence I began my expedition, which I did after continuing fome months on the North and Eaft borders of Lake Superior, and exploring the bays and rivers that empty themselves into this large body of water.
As it may be expected that I fhould lay before the Public the reafons that these discoveries, of so much importance to every one that has any connections with America, have not been imparted to them before, notwithstanding they were made upwards of ten years ago, I will give them to the world in a plain and candid manner, and without mingling with them any complaints on account of the ill treatment I have received.
On my arrival in England, I prefented a petition to his Majesty in council, praying for a reimbursement of thofe fums I had expended in the fervice of government. This was referred to the Lords Commiffioners of Trade and Plantations. Their Lordships from the tenor of it thought the intelligence I could give of fo much importance to the nation that they ordered me to appear before the Board. This
meffage I obeyed, and underwent a long examination; much I be lieve to the fatisfaction of every Lord prefent. When it was finished, I requested to know what I should do with my papers? Without hefitation the first Lord replied, that I might publish them whenever I pleafed. In confequence of this permiffion, I difpofed of them to a bookfeller: but when they were nearly ready for the prefs, an order was iffued from the council board, requiring me to deliver, without delay, into the Plantation Office, all my charts, and journals, with every paper relative to the discoveries I had made, In order to obey this command, I was obliged to re-purchase them from the bookfeller, at a very great expence, and deliver them up. This fresh disbursement I endeavoured to get annexed to the account I had already delivered in; but the request was denied me, notwithstanding I had only acted, in the difpofal of my papers, conformably to the permiffion I had received from the Board of Trade. This lofs, which amounted to a very confiderable fum, I was obliged to bear, and to rest fatisfied with an indemnification for my other expences.
Thus fituated, my only expectations are from the favour of a generous Public; to whom I fhall now communicate my plans, journals, and obfervations, of which I luckily kept copies, when I delivered the originals into the Plantation Office. And this I do the more readily, as I hear they are mislaid; and there is no probability of their ever being published. To those who are interested in the concerns of the interior parts of North America, from the contiguity of their poffeffions, or commercial engagements, they will be extremely useful, and fully repay the fam at which they are purchased. To thofe, who, from a laudable curiofity, wish to be acquainted with the manners and customs of every inhabitant of this globe, the accounts here given of the various nations that inhabit fo vaft a track of it, a country hitherto almost unexplored, will furnish an ample fund of amusement, and gratify their most curious expectations. And I flatter myself they will be as favourably received by the Public, as defcriptions of islands, which afford no other entertainment than what arifes from their novelty; and difcoveries, that feem to promife very few advantages to this country, though acquired at an immenfe expence.
To make the following Work as comprehenfible and entertaining as poffible, I fhall first give my readers an account of the route I purfued over this immenfe continent (through which they will be able to attend me by referring to the plan prefixed) and as I pass on, describe the number of inhabitants, the fituation of the rivers and lakes, and the productions of the country. Having done this, I fhall treat, in diftinct chapters, of the manners, customs, and languages of the Indians, and to complete the whole, add a Vocabulary of the words mostly in use among them.
And here it is neceffary to befpeak the candour of the learned part of my readers in the perufal of it, as it is the production of a perfon unufed, from oppofite avocations, to literary purfuits. He therefore begs they would not examine it with too critical an eye; efpecially when he affures them that his attention has been more employed on giving a juft defcription of a country that promises, in fome future period, to be an inexhaustible fource of riches to that
people who shall be fo fortunate as to poffefs it, than on the ftyle or compofition; and more careful to render his language intelligible. and explicit, than fmooth and florid.'
Having now introduced our Readers to fome acquaintance with Mr. Carver, and informed them of his motives to this undertaking, we must defire them to shake hands with the Gentleman, and to part for the prefent. In our next we propose to have the pleasure of a fecond conversation with this intelligent and enterprizing Traveller: in which his difcoveries and obfervations will, if we are not greatly mistaken, afford us much entertainment, and not a litile information.
ART. III. O Halloran's Hiftory of Ireland, concluded. See our laft. N the Shandyan phrase, every man has his hobby-horse. That of Mr. O'Halloran appears to be the antiquity and honour of his country: though, as we remarked in our account of this Author's former work *, we cannot fuppofe it a matter of very high moment, whether the Highland clans defcended from the Irish, or the Irish from the Highland clans; neither can we abfolutely reprehend a zeal of this kind, if united with learning and judgment. Under their direction it may help to throw light on ancient history, and contribute to entertain and inform the inquifitive reader. It is but justice to this Author, to allow that he writes in a manner that bespeaks him a man of erudition; and we must acknowledge, that the proofs he offers in fupport of the Irish descent from Milefius, bear the marks of reason and probability: in this refpect we think there is ground to unite with Mr. Wynne, who, in his Hiftory of Ireland, produces fome of the fame arguments with Mr. O'Halloran +.
It was in the year of the world 2734, according to this writer, that the fons of Milefius determined to form a settlement in Ireland. This determination is faid to have been made in confequence of a prediction delivered fome years before by Caicer, one of their ancestors, that their pofterity fhould fettle in the moft wefterly island in the world. Accordingly Ith, a principal person among them, was appointed to vifit the country. He fet fail from Spain with a fmall force in the year 2735, and landed at a place called Daire-Calgach in the North, the prefent Derry, fays our Author. When the inhabitants enquired who this adventurer was, and what his business; he immediately answered, we are told, in the Irish language, that they were from one common stock, being both the descendants of Magog; that distress of weather threw him on their coafts; and that the
* Vid. Review, vol. xlix. p. 2c1.