Himalayan Bronzes: Technology, Style, and Choices

Front Cover
Associated University Presse, 1997 - Art - 341 pages
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In many low- and middle-income countries, if civil service reforms are to succeed, governments must improve their performance in a cost-effective manner. To do so requires that they strengthen the capacity of government employees to do their jobs. This book assembles a group of essays that reflect the complexities of designing civil service pay and employment reforms. It builds on a previous set of studies that identified problems and introduces current work that offers prescriptions based on better information, deeper analysis, and more extensive experience with reform implementation. The volume is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the new studies and documents the nature and extent of prevailing difficulties. Chapters on Somalia and Tanzania offer detailed strategies for reform based on empirical findings. Part II examines lessons learned from the implementation of reforms in civil service pay and employment. It draws on evidence from the World Bank's decade-long experience in helping governments implement such reforms and on the extensive reform process in Ghana.
 

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Contents

Introduction
15
Himalayan Artists and Statues
16
Technology and Provenance Origin Studies
17
The Technological Approach to Art History
18
Casting and Decorating Methods
19
Clay Core Materials
20
Interpretation of Results
21
The Concept of Technological Style
22
Iron
107
Clay Core Materials
110
Mineralogical Analysis
112
Minerals and Features Recorded
113
General Mineralogy of Himalayan Cores
116
Regional Variations in Core Mineralogy
120
Elemental Analysis
121
Regional Variations in Elemental Composition
122

Geography Religion and Archaeology of the Himalayas
25
Northwest India
26
Functions of Himalayan Bronzes
27
Hindu
28
Bonp§
29
Afghanistan
34
North Pakistan
35
Kashmir
38
Himachal Pradesh
40
West Tibet
41
Central Tibet
44
East Tibet
47
Nepal
49
Preliminary Regional Attributions of Bronzes
51
Casting and Decorating Methods
53
Ethnographic and Historical Studies
55
Statue Examination
56
Features Recorded for Analysis
58
Statue Manufacture in the Himalayas
60
Structure
62
Repairs
65
Finishing and Decoration
66
Pigments
70
Consecration Rites and Relics
71
Back Hole
72
Casting and Decorating Technology and Regional Origins
73
Conclusions
76
Metals
77
Metal Analysis
79
Raw Materials for Copper Alloys Copper
80
Tin
81
Himalayan Alloying Practices
82
Implications of Iron Content
83
Conditions Necessary for Valid Provenance Inferences
85
Regional Variations in Elemental Composition
86
Copper Ore Sources Available to Himalayan Craftsmen
87
North Pakistan
89
Kashmir
91
Himachal Pradesh
96
West Tibet
98
Central and East Tibet
100
Other Regions Adjacent to the Himalayas
101
Sources of Other Metals
105
Gold
106
Conclusions
123
Using Technology to Identify Regional Origins
124
CastingDecorating and Metal Data
125
CastingDecorating Metal and Mineral Data
126
Validation of Statistical Results
127
The Jackknife
128
Deducing Probable Origins of Bronzes
129
Final Results Regional Styles and Iconography of Himalayan Bronzes
132
North Pakistan
139
Kashmir
150
Himachal Pradesh
175
West Tibet
180
Chinese Style
181
Kashmiri Style
182
Northeast Indian and Nepalese Styles
187
West Tibetan Synthesis
193
Central Tibet
198
Northeast Indian Style
202
Nepalese Style
208
Yab Yum Images
212
Teachers and Mahdsiddhas
215
East Tibet
216
Nepal
220
Bronzes of Uncertain Origin
248
New Approaches to Interpreting Worts of Art
264
Geological Factors
265
Conclusions Regarding Technological Choice
266
A Tibetan Case Study
267
Regional Variations of TechnoVisual and Technical Features
268
The Use of Technological Style Analysis
270
Female Deities versus Male Deities
271
Appendices
272
B Metal Compositions
281
C Clay Core Mineralogy
291
D Clay Core Elemental Compositions
294
2 Stepwise Discriminant Analysis
296
3 Thermoluminescence and AMS Carbon14 Tests
302
Glossaries
304
2 Selected Tibetan Terms
307
3 Selected Technical Terms
308
References Cited
310
Index
330
Index of Analyzed Sculptures
338
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