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OF SEDITIONS AND TROUBLES.1

SHEAPARDS of people had neede knowe the Kalenders of Tempests in State ; which are commonlye greatest when things growe to equalitie; as naturall Tempests are greatest about the æquinoctia. And as there are certaine hollowe blasts and secrett swellings of Seas before Tempests, so are there in States.

cæcos instare tumultus
Sæpe monet, fraudesque, et operta tumescere bella.

Certainly, libells and licentious discourses are amongst the signes of troubles. Virgile giveinge the pedegree of fame, saieth shee was sister to the Gyants.

Illam terra parens ira irritata deorum
Extremam ut perhibent Cæo Enceladoque sororem

Progenuit. As if fames and rumors were the reliques of seditions past; but they are no lesse the præludes of Seditions to come. But he notes it right, that seditious tumults, and seditious fames, differ noe more, but as masculine and fæminine. Also that kind of obedience (which

Tacitus describeth in an Army) is to be held suspected ; Erant in officio, sed tamen qui mallent mandata Imperantium interpretari, quam exequi. When mandats fall to be disputed and distinguished, and new sences given to them, it is the first Essay of disobeying. Also as Machavvell well notes, when Princes that ought to bee common fathers make themselves as a partie, and leane to a side in the Estate, it is as a boate that tilts aside before it overthrowes. Also when discordes, and quarrells, and factions are carryed openly and audaciously, it is a signe the reverence of governement is lost. And reverence is that wherewith Princes are girt from God, who threatneth the dissolving thereof, as one of his great judgements: Solvam cingula regum. So when anie of the fower pillars of governement are mainely shakened, or weakened, which are Religion, Justice, Councell, and Treasure, men had neede to pray for faier weather. But let us leave the part of predictions, and speake of the materialls, and the causes, and the remedyes. The matter of seditions is of two kindes; much povertye and much discontent. Certainely, so manie overthrowne estates, so manie votes for troubles. Lucan noteth well the state of the tymes before the civill warre :

1 Harl. MS. 5106.

Hinc usura vorax, rapidumque in tempore fonus,
Hinc concussa fides, et multis utile bellum.

This same Multis utile bellum is an assured and infallible signe of a State disposed to troubles and seditions. For discontents, they are the verie humors in the politique body apt to gather a præternatural heate and to inflame. And let not Princes measure the danger of them by this whether they are just or unjust; for that were to imagine people to reasonable ; nor yet by this, whether the greifes whereupon they arrise be in true proportion great, or smale ; for they are the most dangerous kindes of discontents where the feare is greater then the feeling. The causes and motives of Sedition, are Religion, Taxes, alterations of Lawes and Customes, breakeing priviledges, generall oppres

sion, Advauncement of unworthie persons, Straungers, Dearthes, and whatsoever in offending people joyneth them in a common cause. For the remedyes, there maie be some generall preservatives ; the cure must aunsweare to the particuler disease. To give moderate libertye for greifes to evaporate, so it be without bravery or importunitye, is a safe way; for hee that tourneth the humours or makes the wound bleede inwardes endaungereth maligne ulcers and pernicious impostumations. Also the part of Epimetheus may become Prometheus in this case. Hee when greifes and evills flewe abroade yet kept hope in the bottome of the vessell. The politike and artificiall nourishing of some degree of hopes, is one of the best antidotes against the poyson of discontents; and it is a certaine signe of a wise governement if it can hold by hope where it cannott by satisfaction. Also the foresight and prevention, that there be noe likely or fitt head whereunto discontents may resort, and under whom they maie joyne, is a knowne but an excellent pointe of caution. I understand a fitt head to be one that hath greatnesse and reputation, that hath confidence with the discontented partie, and upon whom they tourne theire eyes, and that is thought discontent in his particular. Also the deviding and breaking of anie combination that is adverse to the State is none of the worst remedies. For it is a desperate case if the true parte of the State be full of discord and faction, and the false, entyer and unyted. Lastlie lett Princes against all events not be without some great person of militarye valew neare unto them, for the repressing of seditions in theire beginnings. For without that, there useth to be more trepidation in Courts upon the breaking out of troubles

then were fitt, and the State runneth the daunger of that which Tacitus saieth ; Atque is habitus animorum fuit ut pessimum facinus auderent pauci, plures vellent, omnes paterentur. But lett such one be an assured one and not popular, and holding good correspondence with the gowne men; or els the remedy is worse then the disease.

III.

ESSAYS ATTRIBUTED TO BACON WITHOUT AUTHORITY.

At the end of the Resuscitatio (published in 1657) Dr. Rawley gives what he entitles “A perfect list of his Lordship’s true works both in English and Latin ;” which he concludes with these words : “ as for other pamphlets, whereof there are several, put forth under his Lordship's name, they are not to be owned for his."

Any work therefore (not contained in this list) which had appeared before 1657 in any publication which Dr. Rawley knew of, and had been there ascribed to Bacon, must be regarded as distinctly denied by him to be Bacon's.

Now in December 1642, in which year several of Bacon's smaller political pieces were published in separate pamphlets without any editor's name or any account of the source from which they were taken, there appeared among others a 4to of eight pages with the following title: An Essay of a King, with an explanation what manner of persons those should be that are to execute the power or ordinance of the King's Prerogative. Written by the Right Honourable Francis, Lord Verulam Viscount Saint Alban. December 2. London, Printed for Richard Best, 1642.

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