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the Roman Catholic church appeared to him to be the maintenance, perhaps, of truth, but perhaps only best entitled. For some time after this, he studied the profession of it, in one place, and the oppression of at the Jesuits' college at Douay; but his friends in- it in a hundred ? What will follow from it but the duced him to return to Oxford, where, after addi preservation, peradventure, of unity, but, peradven. tional study of the points of difference, he declared ture, only of uniformity, in particular states and in favour of the Protestant faith. This drew him churches ; but the immortalising the greater and into several controversies, in which he employed more lamentable divisions of Christendom and the the arguments that were afterwards methodically world? And, therefore, what can follow from it but, stated in his famous work entitled The Religion of perhaps, in the judgment of carnal policy, the temthe Protestants a Safe Way to Sal ration, published in poral benefit and tranquillity of temporal states and 1637. This treatise, which has placed its author in kingdoms, but the infinite prejudice, if not the desothe first rank of religious controversialists, is con- lation, of the kingdom of Christ?

But they sidered a model of perspicuous reasoning, and one that know there is a King of kings, and Lord of lords, of the ablest defences of the Protestant cause. The by whose will and pleasure kings and kingdoms stand author maintains that the Scripture is the only rule and fall, they know that to no king or state anything to which appeal ought to be made in theological dis- can be profitable which is unjust; and that nothing putes; that no church is infallible; and that the can be more evidently unjust than to force weak men, apostles' creed embraces all the necessary points by the profession of a religion which they believe not, of faith. The latitudinarianism of Chillingworth to lose their own eternal happiness, out of a rain and brought upon him the appellations of Arian and needless fear lest they may possibly disturb their temSocinian; and his character for orthodoxy was still poral quietness. There is no danger to any state from further shaken by his refusal to accept of prefer- any man's opinion, unless it be such an opinion, by ment, on condition of subscribing the thirty-nine which disobedience to authority, or impiety, is taught articles. His scruples having, however, been over

or licensed (which sort, I confess, may justly be come, he was promoted, in 1638, to the chancellor- punished as well as other faults), or unless this sanship of Salisbury. During the civil war, he zealously guinary doctrine be joined with it, that it is lawful adhered to the royal party, and even acted as en

for him by human violence to enforce others to it. gineer at the siege of Gloucester in 1643. He died Therefore, if Protestants did offer violence to other in the succeeding year. Lord Clarendon, who was men's consciences, and compel them to embrace their one of his intimate friends, has drawn the following reformation, I excuse them not. character of this eminent divine :

-He was a man of so great a subtilty of understanding, and so rare

[Reason must be appealed to in Religious Discussions.] a temper in debate, that, as it was impossible to But you that would not have men follow their reaprovoke him into any passion, so it was very diffi- son, what would you have them follow? their passions, cult to keep a man's self from being a little discom- or pluck out their eyes, and go blindfold! No, you posed by his sharpness and quickness of argument, say; you would have them follow authority. In and instances, in which he had a rare facility, and a God's name let them ; we also would have them folgreat advantage over all the men I ever knew.. low authority; for it is upon the authority of univerWriting to a Catholic, in allusion to the changes of sal tradition that we would have them believe Scriphis own faith, Chillingworth says—I know a man, ture. But then, as for the authority which you would that of a moderate Protestant turned a Papist, and have them follow, you will let them see reason why the day that he did so, was convicted in conscience they should follow it. And is not this to go a little that his yesterday's opinion was an error. The same about to leave reason for a short turn, and then to man afterwards, upon better consideration, became come to it again, and to do that which you condemn a doubting Papist, and of a doubting Papist a con in others? It being, indeed, a plain impossibility for firmed Protestant. And yet this man thinks him- any man to submit his reason but to reason ; for he self no more to blame for all these changes, than a that doth it to authority, must of necessity think him. traveller, who, using all diligence to find the right self to have greater reason to believe that authority. way to some remote city, did yet mistake it, and after find his error and amend it. Nay, he stands

A collection of nine sermons, preached by Chilupon his justification so far, as to maintain that his lingworth before Charles I., has been frequently alterations, not only to you, but also from you, by printed. From one of these we select the following God's mercy, were the most satisfactory actions to animated expostulation with his noble hearers :himself that ever he did, and the greatest victories that ever he obtained over himself, and his affections,

[Against Duelling.) in those things which in this world are most pre

But how is this doctrine [of the forgiveness of incious! In the same liberal spirit are written the juries) received in the world? What counsel would following passages, extracted from his great work :

men, and those none of the worst sort, give thee in

such a case ? How would the soberest, discreetest, [Against the Employment of Force in Religion. ]

well-bred Christian advise thee? Why, thus : If

thy brother or thy neighbour have offered thee an I have learned from the ancient fathers of the injury, or an affront, forgive him? By do ineans; church, that nothing is more against religion than to thou art utterly undone, and lost in reputation with force religion ; and of St Paul, the weapons of the the world, if thou dost forgive him. What is to be Christian warfare are not carnal. Apd great reason ; done, then? Why, let not thy heart take rest, let for human violence may make men counterfeit, but all other business and employment be laid aside, till cannot make them believe, and is therefore fit for thou hast his blood. How! A man's blood for an nothing but to breed form without and atheism with injurious, passionate speech—for a disdainful look ? in. Besides, if this means of bringing men to em- Nay, that is not all: that thou mayest gain among brace any religion were generally used (as, if it may men the reputation of a discreet, well-tempered murbe justly used in any place by those that have power, derer, be sure thou killest him not in passion, when thy and think they have truth, certainly they cannot with blood is hot and boiling with the provocation ; but reason deny, but that it may be used in every place proceed with as great temper and settledness of reaby those that have power as well as they, and think son, with as inuch discretion and preparedness, as thou they have truth as well as they), what could follow but I wouldest to the communion : after several days' rom

spite, that it may appear it is thy reason guides thee, fellowship under his friend Sir Henry Saville as and not thy passion, invite him kindly and courteously provost. Of this, after the defeat of the royal party, into some retired place, and there let it be determined he was deprived, for refusing to take the engagewhether his blood or thine shall satisfy the injury. ment,' or oath of fidelity, to the Commonwealth of

Oh, thou holy Christian religion ! Whence is it England, as then established without a king or that thy children have sucked this inhuman poison- house of lords. By cutting off the means of subsistous blood, these raging fiery spirits ? For if we shall ence, his ejection reduced him to such straits, that inquire of the heathen, they will say, They have not at length he was under the necessity of selling the learned this from us; or of the Mahometans, they greater part of his library, on which he had exwill answer, We are not guilty of it. Blessed God! pended £2500, for less than a third of that sum. that it should become a most sure settled course for a This he did from a spirit of independence, which reman to run into danger and disgrace with the world, fused to accept the pecuniary bounty liberally offered if he shall dare to perform a commandment of Christ, by his friends. Besides sermons and miscellanies which is as necessary for him to do, if he have any (the former of which compose the chief portion of his hopes of attaining heaven, as meat and drink is for works), he wrote a famous Tract concerning Schism the maintaining of life! That ever it should enter and Schismatics, in which the causes of religious disinto Christian hearts to walk so curiously and exactly union, and, in particular, the bad effects of Episcontrary unto the ways of God! That whereas he copal ambition, are freely discussed. This tract sees himself every day, and hour almost, contemned having come to the hands of Archbishop Laud, who and despised by thee, who art his servant, his crea

was an old acquaintance of the author, Hales adture, upon whom he might, without all possible im- dressed a letter in defence of it to the primate, who putation of unrighteousness, pour down all the vials having invited him to a conference, was so well satisof his wrath and indignation ; yet he, notwithstanding, fied, that he forced, though not without difficulty, a is patient and long-suffering towards thee, hoping that prebendal stall of Windsor on the acceptance of the his long-suffering may lead thee to repentance, and needy but contented scholar. The learning, abilities, beseeching thee daily by his ministers to be reconciled and amiable dispositions of John Hales are spoken unto him; and yet thou, on the other side, for a dis- of in the highest terms, not only by Clarendon, but tempered passionate speech, or less, should take upon by Bishop Pearson, Dr Heylin, Andrew Marvel, and thee to send thy neighbour's soul, or thine own, or Bishop Stillingfleet. He is styled by Anthony Wood likely both, clogged and oppressed with all your sins unrepented of (for how can repentance possibly con

* a walking library ;'* and Pearson considered him to

be a man of as great a sharpness, quickness, and sist with such a resolution ?), before the tribunal-sent of God, to expect your final sentence ; utterly de- subtilty of wit, as ever this or perhaps any nation priving yourself of all the blessed means which God equal the largeness of his capacity, whereby he be

His industry did strive, if it were possible, to has contrived for thy salvation, and putting thyself in such an estate, that it shall not be in God's power versal learning, as ever yet conversed with books.'t

came as great a master of polite, various, and anialmost to do thee any good. Pardon, 1 beseech you, His extensive knowledge he cheerfully communicated my earnestness, almost intemperateness, seeing that it hath proceeded from so just, so warrantable a

to others; and his disposition being liberal, obliging, ground ; and since it is in your power to give rules of and charitable, made him, in religious matters, à de. honour and reputation to the whole kingdom, do not termined fue to intolerance, and, in society, a highly you teach others to be ashamed of this inseparable agreeable companion. Lord Clarendon says, that` nobadge of your religion-charity and forgiving of of- thing troubled him more than the brawls which were fences : give men leave to be Christians without dan- grown from religion; and he therefore exceedingly ger or dishonour; or, if religion will not work with detested the tyranny of the church of Rome, more you, yet let the laws of that state wherein you live, of other men, than for the errors in their own opi

for their imposing uncharitably upon the consciences the earnest desires and care of your righteous prince, nions; and would often say, that he would renounce prevail with you.

the religion of the church of England to-morrow, if it obliged him to believe that any other Christians

should be damned ; and that nobody would conclude John HALES (1584-1656) is by Mosheim classed another man to be damned, who did not wish him with Chillingworth, as a prominent defender of ra

No man more strict and severe to himself; to tional and tolerant principles in religion. He was other men so charitable as to their opinions, that lie highly distinguished for his knowledge of the Greek thought that other men were more in fault for their language, of which he was appointed professor at carriage towards them, than the men themselves Oxford in 1612. Six years afterwards, he went to

were who erred; and he thought that pride and Holland as chaplain to Sir Dudley Carleton, am

passion, more than conscience, were the cause of all bassador at the Hague; and on this occasion he separation from each other's communion. John attended the meetings of the famous synod of Aubrey, who saw him at Eton after his sequestraDort, the proceedings of which are recorded in his tion, describes him as a pretty little man, sanguine, published letters to Sir Dudley. Till this time, of a cheerful countenance, very gentle and courhe held the Calvinistic opinions in which he had

teous.' I been educated; but the arguments of the Arminian

The style of his sermons is clear, simple, and in champion Episcopius, urged before the synod, made general correct; and the subjects are frequently him, according to his own expression, bid John illustrated with quotations from the ancient philoCalvin good night.' His letters from Dort are cha- sophers and Christian fathers.Ş The subjoined exracterised by Lord Clarendon as the best memorial of the ignorance, and passion, and animosity, and + Preface to · The Golden Remains of the Ever-memorable injustice of that convention.'* Although the emi. Mr John Hales." nent learning and abilities of Hales would certainly Aubrey's Lives of Eminent Persons, ii. 363. have led to high preferment in the church, he chose $ In the year 1765, an edition of his works was published by rather to live in studious retirement, and accordingly Lord Hailes, who took the unwarrantable liberty of moderniswithdrew to Eton college, where he had a private ing the language according to his own taste. This, we learn

from Boswell, met the strong disapprobation of Dr Johnson. Clarendon's Life of Himself, 1. 27. * An author's language, sir (said he), is a characteristical



* Athena Oxon. xi. 124.

tracts are from a sermon, Of Inquiry and Private your eyes to direct you, and your legs to support you, Judgment in Religion.

in your course of integrity and sanctity; you may no

more refuse or neglect the use of it, and rest your [Private Judgment in Religion.]

selves upon the use of other men's reason, than neglect It were a thing worth looking into, to know the your own and call for the use of other men's eyes and reason why men are so generally willing, in point of legs. The man in the gospel, who had bought a farm, religion, to cast themselves into other men's arms,

excuses himself from going to the marriage-supper, and, leaving their own reason, rely so much upon because himself would go and see it: but we have another man's. Is it because it is modesty and taken an easier course ; we can buy our farm, and go humility to think another man's reason better than to supper too, and that only by saving our pains to our own! Indeed, I know not how it comes to pass, see it; we profess ourselves to have made a great we account it a vice, a part of envy, to think another purchase of heavenly doctrine, yet we refuse to see it man's goods, or another man's fortunes, to be better and survey it ourselves, but trust to other men's eyes. than our own ; and yet we account it a singular and our surveyors : and wot you to what end i virtue to esteem our reason and wit meaner than know not, except it be, that so wc may with the better other men's. Let us not mistake ourselves ; to con- leisure go to the marriage-supper ; that, with Haman, temn the advice and help of others, in love and admi

we may the more merrily go in to the banquet proration to our own conceits, to depress and disgrace vided for us ; that so we may the more freely betake other men's, this is the foul vice of pride : on the ourselves to our pleasuies, to our profits, to our trades, contrary, thankfully to entertain the advice of others, to our preferments and ambition. to give it its due, and ingenuously to prefer it before

Would you see how ridiculously we abuse ourselves our own if it deserve it, this is that gracious virtue when we thus neglect our own knowledge, and securely of modesty: but altogether to mistrust and relinquish hazard ourselves upon others' skill? Give me leare, our own faculties, and commend ourselves to others, then, to show you a perfect pattern of it, and to report this is nothing but poverty of spirit and indiscretion to you what I find in Seneca the philosopher, reI will not forbear to open unto you what I conceive corded of a gentleman in Rome, who, being purely to be the causes of this so general an error amongst ignorant, yet greatly desirous to seem learned, promen. First, peradventure the dregs of the church of cured himself many servants, of which some he caused Rome are not yet sufficiently washed from the hearts to study the poets, some the orators, some the histoof many men. We know it is the principal stay and rians, some the philosophers, and, in a strange kind supporter of that church, to suffer nothing to be in- of fancy, all their learning he verily thought to be quired into which is once concluded by them. Look his own, and persuaded himself that he knew all that through Spain and Italy; they are not men, but his servants understood ; yea, he grew to that height beasts, and, Issachar-like, patiently couchdown of madness in this kind, that, being weak in body and under every burden their superiors lay upon them. diseased in his feet, he provided himself of wrestlers Secondly, a fault or two may be in our own minis and runners, and proclaimed games and races, and try ; thus, to advise men (as I have done) to search performed them by his servants; still applauding into the reasons and grounds of religion, opens a

himself, as if himself had done them. Beloved, you way to dispute and quarrel, and this might breed are this man : when you neglect to try the spirits, to us some trouble and disquiet in our cures, more than study the means of salvation yourselves, but content we are willing to undergo ; therefore, to purchase yourselves to take them upon trust, and repose yourour own quiet, and to banish all contention, we are selves altogether on the wit and knowledge of us that content to nourish this still humour in our hearers ; are your teachers, what is this in a manner but to as the Sibarites, to procure their ease, banished the account with yourselves, that our knowledge is yours, siniths, because their trade was full of noise. In the that you know all that we know, who are but your meantime, we do not see that peace, which ariseth out servants in Jesus Christ ? of ignorance, is but a kind of sloth, or moral lethargy, seeming quiet because it hath no power to move.

[Children Ready to Believe.] Again, maybe the portion of knowledge in the mini

Education and breeding is nothing else but the ster himself is not over-great ; it may be, therefore, authority of our teachers taken over our childhood. good policy for him to suppress all busy inquiry in Now, there is nothing which ought to be of less force his auditory, that so increase of knowledge in them with us, or which we ought more to suspect : for might not at length discover some ignorance in him. childhood hath one thing natural to it, which is a Last of all, the fault may be in the people themselves, great enemy to truth, and a great furtherer of deceit: who, because they are loath to take pains (and search what is that? Credulity. Nothing is more credulous into the grounds of knowledge is evermore painful), than a child : and our daily experience shows how are well content to take their ease, to gild their rice strangely they will believe either their ancients or with goodly names, and to call their sloth modesty, and their neglect of inquiry filial obedience. These able to judge what persons, what reports are credible,

one another, in most incredible reports. For, to be reasons, beloved, or some of kin to these, may be the is a point of strength of which that age is not capable: motives unto this easiness of the people, of entertain

• The chiefest sinew and strength of wisdom,' saith ing their religion upon trust, and of the neglect of Epicharmus, “is not easily to believe.' Have we not, the inquiry into the grounds of it. To return, therefore, and proceed in the refutation mine by better reason, whatsoever we learned in so

then, great cause to call to better account, and exaof this gross neglect in men of their own reason, and credulous and easy an age, so apt, like the softest casting themselves upon other wits. Hath God given wax, to receive every impression? Yet, notwith: you eyes to see, and legs to support you, that so your standing this singular weakness, and this large and selves might lie still, or sleep, and require the use of real exception which we have against education, I other men's eyes and legs? That faculty of reason verily persuade myself, that if the best and strongest which is in every one of you, even in the meanest that hears me this day, next to the help of God, is ground of most men’s religion were openeà, it would

appear to be nothing else. part of his composition, and is also characteristical of the age in which he writes. Besides, sir, when the language is changed,

[Reverence for Ancient Opinions.] we are not sure that the sense is the same. No, sir ; I am sorry Lord Hailes has done this.'- Boswell's Life of Johnson, iv. 282;

Antiquity, what is it else (God only excepted) but man's authority born some ages before us ? Now, for

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the truth of things, time makes no alteration ; things the king. Milton, who, as secretary to the council are still the same they are, let the time be past, pre- of state, wrote an answer to it, which he entitled sent, or to come. Those things which we reverence Iconoclastes,' or The Image-breaker, alludes to the for antiquity, what were they at their first birth ? doubts which prevailed on the subject; but at this Were they false ?-time cannot make them true. time the real history of the book was unknown. Were they true ?-time cannot make them more true. The first disclosure took place in 1691, when there The circumstance, therefore, of time, in respect of appeared in an Amsterdam edition of Milton's Iconotruth and error is merely impertinent.

clastes,' a memorandum said to have been made by

the Earl of Anglesey, in which that nobleman affirms [Prevalence of an Opinion no Argument for its Truth.] he had been told by Charles II. and his brother that Universality is such a proof of truth, as truth itself This report was confirmed in the following year by

the Ikon Basiliki' was the production of Gauden. is ashamed of; for universality is nothing but a quainter and a trimmer name to signify the multi- former curate, Walker. Several writers then en

a circumstantial narrative published by Gauden's tude. Now, human authority at the strongest is buttered the field on both sides of the question ; the weak, but the multitude is the weakest part of human principal defender of the king's claim being Wagauthority: it is the great patron of error, most easily staffe,' a nonjuring clergyman, who published an abused, and most hardly disabused. The beginning elaborate • Vindication of King Charles the Martyr,' of error may be, and mostly is, from private persons, in 1693. For ten years subsequently, the literary but the maintainer and continuer of error is the multitude.

war continued; but after this there ensued a long interval of repose. When Hụme wrote his history, the evidence on the two sides appeared so equally

balanced, that, with regard to the genuineness of JOHN GAUDEN was a theologian of a far more world that production, it is not easy,' says he, "for a ly and ambitious character than either of the three historian to fix any opinion which will be entirely preceding divines. He was born in 1605, and when to his own satisfaction. The proofs brought to about thirty years of age became chaplain to the Earl evince that this work is or is not the king's, are so of Warwick, one of the Presbyterian leaders, besides convincing, that if any impartial reader peruse any obtaining two preferments in the church. Being of one side apart, he will think it impossible that a temporising disposition, he professed the opinions arguments could be produced sufficient to counterin vogue with the earl's party, and in 1640 preached balance so strong an evidence; and when he combefore the house of commons a sermon which gave pares both sides, he will be some time at a loss to so much satisfaction, that the members rot only voted fix any determination.' Yet Hume confesses that thanks to him, but are said to have presented him to him the arguments of the royal party appeared with a silver tankard. Next year, the rich deanery the strongest. In 1786, however, the scale of eviof Bocking, in Essex, was added to his preferments'; dence was turned by the publication, in the third all of which, when the Presbyterian form of church volume of the Clarendon State Papers, of some of government and worship was substituted for the Gauden's letters, the most important of which are Episcopal, he kept by conforming to the new order of six addressed by him to Lord Chancellor Clarendon things, though not without apparent reluctance. after the Restoration. He there complains of the When the army resolved to impeach and try the poverty of the see of Exeter, to which he had already king in 1648, he published A Religious and Loyal been appointed, and urgently solicits a further reProtestation against their purposes and proceedings: ward for the important secret service which he had this tract was followed in subsequent years by performed to the royal cause. Some of these letters, various other pieces, which he sent forth in defence containing allusions to the circumstance, had forof the cause of the royalists. But his grand service merly been printed, though in a less authentic form ; to that party consisted in his writing the famous but now for the first time appeared one, dated the Ikon Basiliké; or the Portraiture of his Most Sacred 13th of March 1661, in which he explicitly grounds Majesty, in his Solitude and Sufferings, a work pro- his claim to additional remuneration, 'not on what fessing to emanate from the pen of Charles I. himself, was known to the world under my name, but what and to contain the devout meditations of his latter goes under the late blessed king's name, the Ikon or days. There appears to have been an intention to Portraiture of his majesty in his solitudes and sufferpublish this · Portraiture' before the execution of the ings. This book and figure,' he adds, 'was wholly king, as an attempt to save his life by working on and only my invention, making, and design ; in the feelings of the people ; but either from the diffi- order to vindicate the king's wisdom, honour, and culty of getting it printed, or some other cause, it piety.' Clarendon had before this learnt the secret did not make its appearance till several days after from his own intimate friend, Morley, bishop of his majesty's death. The sensation which it pro- Worcester, and had otherwise ample means of induced in his favour was extraordinary. “It is not vestigating its truth : and not only does he, in a easy,' says Hume, to conceive the general compas- letter to Gauden, fully acquiesce in the unpalatable sion excited towards the king by the publishing, at statement, but, in his . History of the Rebellion,' so critical a juncture, a work so full of piety, meek written at the desire of Charles I., and avowedly ness, and humanity. Many have not scrupled to intended as a vindication of the royal character and ascribe to that book the subsequent restoration of cause, he maintains the most rigid silence with rethe royal family. Milton compares its effects to spect to the 'Ikon Basiliké-a fact altogether unthose which were wrought on the tumultuous Romans accountable, on the supposition that he knew Charles by Antony's reading to them the will of Cæsar.' So to be the author of what had brought so much ad. eagerly and universally was the book perused by vantage to the royal party, and that he was aware the nation, that it passed through fifty editions in a of the falsity of the report current among the opposingle year; and probably through its influence the site faction. Nor is it easy, on that supposition, title of Royal Martyr was applied to the king. It to conceive for what reason the troublesome solicitabeing of course desirable, for the interest of the ruling tions of Gauden were so effectual as to lead to his party, that the authenticity of the work should be promotion, in 1662, to the bishopric of Worcester; discredited, they circulated a vague rumour that its a dignity, however, of which he did not long enjog true author was one of the household chaplains of the fruits, for he died in the same year, through dis




appointment, it is said, at not having obtained the against the present laws and governors, which can richer see of Winchester, which Clarendon had be- never be such as some side or other will not find fault stowed upon Morley. Notwithstanding the cogency with, so as to urge what they call a reformation of of the evidence above-mentioned, and of many cor- them to a rebellion against them. roborative circumstances which it is impossible to detail here, the controversy as to the authorship of the ‘Ikon Basiliké' is by some still decided in favour of the king. Such is the conclusion arrived at in a The English church at this time was honoured work entitled . Who wrote Ikon Basiliké?' published by the services of many able and profound theoloin 1824 by Dr Wordsworth, master of Trinity col- gians; men who had both studied and thought lege, Cambridge; and a writer in the Quarterly deeply, and possessed a vigorous and original chaReview * has ranged himself on the same side. But racter of intellect. The most eloquent and imagiin a masterly article by Sir James Mackintosh, in the Edinburgh Review, the question, notwithstanding some difficulties which still adhere to it, has, we think, been finally and satisfactorily set at rest in favour of Gauden.

As a sample of the 'Ikon,' we present the following meditations upon

[The Various Events of the Civil War.] The various successes of this unhappy war have at least afforded me variety of good meditations. Sometimes God was pleased to try me with victory, by worsting my enemies, that I might know how with moderation and thanks to own and use his power, who is only the true Lord of Hosts, able, when he pleases, to repress the confidence of those that fought against me with so great advantages for power and number.

From small beginnings on my part, he let me see that I was not wholly forsaken by my people's love or his protection.

Other times God was pleased to exercise my patience, and teach me not to trust in the arın of flesh, but in the living God.

My sins sometimes prevailed against the justice of my cause; and those that were with me wanted not

Jeremy Taylor. matter and occasion for his just chastisement both of them and me. Nor were my enemies less punished native of all her divines was, however, JERENT by that prosperity, which hardened them to continue TAYLOR, who has been styled by some the Shakspeare, that injustice by open hostility, which was begun by and by others the Spenser, of our theological litemost riotous and unparliamentary tumults.

rature. He seems to be closely allied, in the comThere is no doubt but personal and private sins plexion of his taste and genius, to the poet of the may ofttimes overbalance the justice of public engage-Faery Queen.' He has not the unity and energy. ments ; nor doth God account every gallant man (in or the profound mental philosophy, of the great the world's esteem) a fit instrument to assert in the dramatist; while he strongly resembles Spenser in way of war a righteous cause. The more men are his prolific fancy and diction, in a certain musical ar prone to arrogate to their own skill, valour, and rangement and sweetness of expression, in prolongec strength, the less doth God ordinarily work by them description, and in delicious musings and reveries for his own glory.

suggested by some favourite image or metaphor I am sure the event or success can never state the on which he dwells with the fondness and enthu justice of any cause, nor the peace of men’s con- siasm of a young poet. In these passages he is sciences, nor the eternal fate of their souls.

also apt to run into excess ; epithet is heaped upon Those with me had, I think, clearly and undoubt- epithet, and figure upon figure; all the quaint con edly for their justification the word of God and the ceits of his fancy, and the curious stores of his learn. laws of the land, together with their own oaths; all ing, are dragged in, till both precision and propriety requiring obedience to my just commands; but to are sometimes lost. He writes like an orator, anc none other under heaven without me, or against me, produces his effect by reiterated strokes and multi in the point of raising arms.

plied impressions. His picture of the Resurrection Those on the other side are forced to fly to the in one of his sermons, is in the highest style of shifts of some pretended fears, and wild fundamentals poetry, but generally he deals with the gentle and of state, as they call them, which actually overthrow familiar; and his allusions to natural objects—as the present fabric both of church and state ; being trees. birds, and flowers, the rising or setting sun such imaginary reasons for self-defence as are most the charms of youthful innocence and beauty, and impertinent for those men to allege, who, being my the helplessness of infancy and childhood-possess subjects, were manifestly the first assaulters of me

an almost angelic purity of feeling and delicacy o and the laws, first by unsuppressed tumults, after by fancy. When presenting rules for morning medi. listed forces. The same allegations they use, will fit tation and prayer, he stops to indulge his love of any faction that hath but power and confidence nature. Sometimes,' he says, 'be curious to see enough to second with the sword all their demands the preparation which the sun makes when he is * Vol. xxxii. p. 467.

coming forth from his chambers of the east.' He Edinburgh Review, vol. xliv. p. 1. The same opinion compares a young man to a dancing bubble, . empty had previously been supported with grent ability by Mr Laing, and gay, and shining like a dove's neck, or the image in his . History of Scotland,' vol. i. pp. 390 and 516.

of a rainbow, which hath no substance, and whose

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