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since our longest sun sets at right descensions, and glory of the world is surely over, and the earth in makes but winter arches, and therefore it cannot be ashes unto them. long before we lie down in darkness, and have our To subsist in lasting monuments, to live in their light in ashes; since the brother of death daily haunts productions, to exist in their names, and predicament us with dying mementos, and time, that grows old in of chimeras, was large satisfaction unto old expectaitself, bids us hope no long duration; diuturnity is a tions, and made one part of their elysiums. But all dream, and folly of expectation.

this is nothing in the metaphysics of true belief. To Darkness and light divide the course of time, and live indeed is to be again ourselves, which being not oblivion shares with memory a great part even of our only a hope but an evidence in noble believers, 'tis living beings ; we slightly remember our felicities, and all one to lie in St Innocent's churchyard, as in the the smartest strokes of affliction leave but short smart sands of Egypt; ready to be anything in the ecstacy upon us. Sense endureth no extremities, and sorrows of being ever, and as content with six foot as the moles destroy us or themselves. To weep into stones are of Adrianus. fables. Adictions induce callosities; miseries are slippery, or fall like snow upon us, which, notwith

[Light the Shadow of God.] standing, is no unhappy stupidity. To be ignorant of evils to come, and forgetful of evils past, is a merciful

Light that makes things seen makes some things provision in nature, whereby we digest the mixture of invisible. Were it not for darkness, and the shadow our few and evil days; and our delivered senses not of the earth, the noblest part of creation had remained

and the stars in heaven as invisible as on the

unseen, relapsing into cutting remembrances, our sorrows are not kept raw by the edge of repetitions. A great part fourth day, when they were created above the horizon of antiquity contented their hopes of subsistency with with the sun, and there was not an eye to behold them. a transmigration of their souls-a good way to continue The greatest mystery of religion is expressed by adtheir memories, while, having the advantage of plural umbration, and in the noblest part of Jewish types successions, they could not but act something remark

we find the cherubim shadowing the mercy-seat. Life able in such variety of beings; and, enjoying the fame itself is but the shadow of death, and souls departed of their passed selves, make accumulation of glory but the shadows of the living. All things fall under unto their last durations. Others, rather than be lost in this name. The sun itself is but the dark Simulathe uncomfortable night of nothing, were content to chrum, and light but the shadow of God. recede into the common being, and make one particle of the public soul of all things, which was no more

[Toleration.] than to return into their unknown and divine original I could never divide myself from any man upon the again. Egyptian ingenuity was more unsatisfied, difference of an opinion, or be angry with his judgcontriving their bodies in sweet consistencies to attendment for not agreeing with me in that from which the return of their souls. But all was vanity, feeding within a few days I should dissent myself. the wind, and folly. The Egyptian mummies, which Cambyses or time hath spared, avarice now consum

[Death.] eth. Mummy is become merchandise ; Mizraim cures wounds, and Pharaoh is sold for balsams.

I thank God I have not those strait ligaments There is nothing strictly immortal but immortality. or narrow obligations to the world, as to dote on life, Whatever hath no beginning may be confident of no or be convulsed and tremble at the name of death. end, which is the peculiar of that necessary essence Not that I am insensible of the dread and horror that cannot destroy itself, and the highest strain of thereof, or, by raking into the bowels of the deceased, omnipotency to be so powerfully constituted as not to continual sight of anatomies, skeletons, or cadaverous suffer even from the power of itself; all others have a relics, like vespilloes, or grave-makers, I am become dependent being, and within the reach of destruction. stupid, or have forgot the apprehension of mortality; But the sufficiency of Christian immortality frustrates but that, marshalling all the horrors, and contemplatall earthly glory, and the quality of either state after ing the extremities thereof, I find not anything therein death makes a folly of posthumous memory. God, able to daunt the courage of a man, much less a wellwho can only destroy our souls, and hath assured our resolved Christian. And therefore am not angry at resurrection, either of our bodies or names hath the error of our first parents, or unwilling to bear a Jirectly promised no duration; wherein there is so part of this common fate, and like the best of them much of chance, that the boldest expectants have to die, that is, to cease to breathe, to take a farewell found unhappy frustration, and to hold long subsist of the elements, to be a kind of nothing for a moment, ence seems but a scape in oblivion. But man is a to be within one instant of a spirit. When I take a noble animal, splendid in ashes, and pompous in the full view and circle of myself, without this reasonable grave, solemnising nativities and deaths with equal moderator and equal piece of justice, death, I do conlustre, nor omitting ceremonies of bravery in the in- ceive myself the miserablest person extant. Were famy of his nature.

there not another life that I hope for, all the vanities Pyramids, arches, obelisks, were but the irregula- of this world should not intreat a moment's breath rities of vain-glory, and wild enormities of ancient for me; could the devil work my belief to imagine I magnanimity. But the most magnanimous resolution could never die, I would not outlive that very thought; rests in the Christian religion, which trampleth upon I have so abject a conceit of this common way of expride, and sits on the neck of ambition, humbly pur- | istence, this retaining to the sun and elements, I cansuing that infallible perpetuity, unto which all others not think this is to be a man, or to live according must diminish their diameters, and be poorly seen in to the dignity of humanity. In expectation of a betangles of contingency.

ter, I can with patience embrace this life, yet in my Pious spirits, who passed their days in raptures of best meditations do often desire death. I honour any futurity, made little more of this world than the world man that contemns it, nor can I highly love any that that was before it, while they lay obscure in the chaos is afraid of it: this makes me naturally love a soldier, of pre-ordination and night of their fore-beings. And and honour those tattered and contemptible regiments, if any have been so happy as truly to understand Chris- that will die at the command of a sergeant. For å tian annihilation, ecstacies, exolution, liquefaction, Pagan there may be some motives to be in love with transformation, the kiss of the spouse, gustation of God, life; but for a Christian to be amazed at death, I see and ingression into the divine shadow, they have not how he can escape this dileinma, that he is too already had a handsome anticipation of heaven : the sensible of this life, or hopeless of the life to come.



It is a brave act of valour to contemn death ; but with pride the spoils and trophies of his victory over where life is more terrible than death, it is then the Adam. truest valour to dare to live ; and herein religion hath taught us a noble example. For all the valiant acts

[Of Myself.] of Curtius, Scævola, or Codrus, do not parallel or For my life it is a miracle of thirty years, which to match that one Job; and sure there is no torture relate were not a history, but a piece of poetry, and to the rack of a disease, nor any poniards in death would sound to common ears like a fable. For the itself, like those in the way or prologue to it. • Emori world, I count it not an inn but a hospital, and a nolo, sed me esse mortuum nihil curo'-['I would not place not to live but to die in. The world that I redie, but care not to be dead'). Were I of Cæsar's religion, gard is myself; it is the microcosm of my own frame I should be of his desires, and wish rather to go off at that I can cast mine eye on-for the other I use it but one blow, than to be sawed in pieces by the grating like my globe, and turn it round sometimes for my torture of a disease. Men that look no further than recreation. * The earth is a point not only in their outsides, think health an appurtenance unto life, respect of the heavens above us, but of that heavenly and quarrel with their constitutions for being sick; and celestial part within us. That mass of flesh that but I that have examined the parts of man, and know circumscribes me, limits not my mind. That surface upon what tender filaments that fabric hangs, do that tells the heavens it hath an end, cannot persuade wonder that we are not always so; and considering the me I have any.

Whilst I study to find how thousand doors that lead to death, do thank my God I am a microcosm or little world, I find myself somethat we can die but once. It is not only the mischief thing more than the great. There is surely a piece of diseases, and villany of poisons, that make an end of divinity in us—something that was before the of us : we vainly accuse the fury of guns, and the new heavens, and owes no homage unto the sun. Nature inventions of death ; it is in the power of every hand tells me I am the image of God as well as Scripture. to destroy us, and we are beholden unto every one He that understands not thus much, hath not his inwe meet he doth not kill us. There is, therefore, but troduction or first lesson, and hath yet to begin the one comfort left, that though it be in the power of the alphabet of man. weakest arm to take away life, it is not in the strongest to deprive us of death : God would not exempt him

[Charity.) self from that, the misery of immortality in the flesh ;

But to return from philosophy to charity: I hold he undertook not that was immortal. Certainly there not so narrow a couccit of this virtue, as to conceive is no happiness within this circle of flesh, nor is it in that to give alms is only to be charitable, or think a the optics of those eyes to behold felicity; the first piece of liberality can comprehend the total of charity. day of our jubilee is death. The devil hath therefore Divinity hath wisely divided the acts thereof into failed of his desires ; we are happier with death, than many branches, and hath taught us in this narrow we should have been without it. There is no misery way many paths unto goodness : as many ways as we but in himself, where there is no end of misery ; and may do good, so many ways we may be charitable; so, indeed, in his own sense, the stoic is in the right. there are infirmities, not only of body, but of soul and He forgets that he can die who complains of misery; fortunes, which do require the merciful hand of our we are in the power of no calamity while death is in abilities. I cannot contemn a man for ignorance, but

behold him with as much pity as I do Lazarus. It is

no greater charity to clothe his body, than apparel the [Study of God's Works.]

nakedness of his soul. It is an honourable object to The world was made to be inhabited by beasts, but see the reasons of other men wear our liveries, and studied and contemplated by man ; it is the debt of their borrowed understandings do homage to the

reason we owe unto God, and the homage we pay bounty of ours. It is the cheapest way of beneficence, for not being beasts ; without this, the world is stiil and, like the natural charity of the sun, illuminates as though it had not been, or as it was before the sixth another without obscuring itself. To be reserved and day, when as yet there was not a creature that could caitiff in this part of goodness, is the sordidest piece conceive, or say there was a world. The wisdom of of covetousness, and more contemptible than pecuGod receives small honour from those vulgar heads niary avarice. To this (as calling myself a scholar) that rudely stare about, and with a gross rusticity I am obliged by the duty of my condition : 1 make admire his works ; those highly magnify him whose not, therefore, iny head a grave, but a treasure of judicious inquiry into his acts, and deliberate research knowledge ; 1 intend no monopoly, but a community into his creatures, return the duty of a devout and in learning; I study not for my own sake only, but learned admiration.

for theirs that study not for themselves. I envy no

man that knows more than myself, but pity them [Ghosts.)

that know less. I instruct no man as an exercise of

my knowledge, or with an intent rather to nourish I believe that the whole frame of a beast doth and keep it alive in mine own head, than beget and perish, and is left in the same state after death as propagate it in his ; and in the midst of all my enbefore it was materialed unto life; that the souls of deavours, there is but one thought that dejects me, men know neitlier contrary nor corruption ; that they that my acquired parts must perish with myself, nor subsist beyond the body, and outlive death by the can be legacied among my honoured friends. I can. privilege of their proper natures, and without a mi- not fall out, or contemn a man for an error, or conracle ; that the souls of the faithful, as they leave ceive why a difference in opinion should divide an earth, take possession of heaven ; that those appa- affection : for controversies, disputes, and argumentaritions and ghosts of departed persons are not the tions, both in philosophy and in divinity, if they meet wandering souls of men, but the unquiet walks of with discreet and peaceable natures, do not infringe devils, prompting and suggesting us unto mischief, the laws of charity. In all disputes, so much as there blood, and villany, instilling and stealing into our is of passion, so much there is of nothing to the purhearts; that the blessed spirits are not at rest in pose ; for then reason, like a bad hound, spends upon their graves, but wander solicitous the affairs the a false scent, and forsakes the question first started. world ; but that those phantasms appear often, and And this is one reason why controversies are never do frequent cemeteries, charnel-houses, and churches, determined ; for though they be amply proposed, they it is because those are the dormitories of the dead, are scarce at all handled, they do so swell with unwhere the devil, ke an iusvient champion, beholds necessary digressions; and the parenthesis on the

our own.


party is often as large as the main discourse upon nued his exertions in behalf of Protestantism, which, the subject.

by the aid of an English army, finaily triumphed in the following year. He died in 1572, and when

laid in the grave, was characterised by the Earl of The Scottish prose writers of this period are few: The theological works of Knox are numerous, but

Morton as one who never feared the face of man.' and, in general, not only in language and style, but his chief production is a History of the Reformation in the extent of their learning and whole strain of of Religion within the Realm of Scotland, printed after their genius, they fall strikingly below the first class his death. Although, from having been written at of their English contemporaries.

intervals, and amid the distractions of a busy life, much of it is in a confused and ill-digested state, it still maintains its value as a chief source of information on the ecclesiastical history of the eventful period during which the author lived; and, though sometimes inaccurate, and the production of a partizan, it has, in the main, been confirmed by the researches of later historians. As a specimen of this celebrated work, we select the account of the

(Assassination of Cardinal Beaton.] After the death of Master Wishart, the cardinal was cried up by his flatterers, and all the rabble of the corrupt clergy, as the only defender of the Catholic Church, and punisher of heretics, neglecting the authority of the sluggish governor. And it was said by them, that if the great prelates of latter days, both at home and abroad, had been so stout and zealous of the credit of the Catholic Church, they had not only suppressed all heretics, but also kept under the laymen, who were so froward and stubborn. On the other side, when that the people beheld the great tormenting of that innocent, they could not withhold from piteous mourning and complaining of the innocent lanıb's slaughter. After the death of this blessed martyr of God, began the people in plain speaking

to damn and detest the cruelty that was used ; yea, At the commencement of the period, we find the men of great birth, and estimation, and honour, at name of a writer whose true eminence lies in a dit- open tables avowed, that the blood of the said Master ferent field, that of vigorous political movement for life. And that, in a short time, they should be like

George should be revenged, or else it should cost life Haddington, in 1505. Bred a friar, 'he early em- hogs kept for slaughter, by this vicious priest, which

Amongst braced the doctrines of the Reformation, and while neither minded God nor cared for man.

those that spake against the cardinal's cruelty, John Lesley, brother to the Earl of Rothes, was chief, with his cousin Norman Lesley, who had been a great follower of the cardinal, and very active for him, but a little before fell so foul with him, that they came to high reproaches one with another. The occasion of their falling out was a private business, wherein Norman Lesley said he was wronged by the cardinal. On the other side, the cardinal said he was not with respect used by Norman Lesley, his inferior. The said John Lesley in all companies spared not to say, that that same dagger (showing forth his dagger), and that same hand, should be put in the cardinal's breast. These bruits came to the cardinal's ears ; but he thought himself stout enough for all Scotland ; for

in Babylon, that is, in his new block-house," he was Birthplace of Knox. .

sure, as he thought, and upon the fields he was able

to match all his enemies. Many purposes were disseminating them at St Andrews, was carried pri- devised how that wicked man might have been taken soner to France in 1547. Being set at liberty two away; but all faileth, till Friday the 28th of May, years afterwards, he preached in England till the anno 1546, when the aforesaid Norman came at night accession of Mary in 1554 induced him to retire to the continent, where he resided chiefly at Geneva younger, was in the town before, waiting upon the

to Saint Andrews. William Kirkcaldy of Grange, and Frankfort. Visiting Scotland in 1555, he greatly purpose. Last came John Lesley, as aforesaid, who strengthened the Protestant cause by his exertions was most suspected. What conclusion they took that in Edinburgh ; but at the earnest solicitation of the night, it was not known, but by the issue that folEnglish congregation in Geneva, he once more took lowed. But early upon the Saturday, in the morning, up his abode there in 1556. At Geneva he pub- the 29th of May, were they in sundry companies in lished The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the the abbey churchyard, not far distant from the castle. Monstrous Regiment) of Women, directed principally against Mary of England and the queen regent of * The archiepiscopal palace of St Andrews, in which the Scotland. Returning to Scotland in 1559, he conti- cardinal resided, was a fortified building, to which, it appears,

he had recently made some important additions for farther Regimen or government. security.

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First, the gates being open, and the drawbridge letten him twice or thrice through with a stag-sword : and down, for receiving of lime and stones, and other so he fell, never word heard out of his mouth, but, I things necessary for building (for Babylon was almost am a priest, fie, fie, all is gone. finished), first, we say, essayed William Kirkcaldy While they were thus busied with the cardinal, the uf Grange, younger, and with him six persons, and fray rose in the town ; the prorost assembles the comgetting entry, held purpose with the porter, If my monalty, and comes to the house-side, crying, What lord was waking? who answered, No. While the have ye done with my lord cardinal ? where is my said William and the porter talketh, and his ser- lord cardinal? have ye slain my lord cardinal? vants made them to look at the work and workmen, They that were within answered gently, Best it were approached Norman Lesley with his company; and for you to return to your own houses, for the man ye because they were in great number, they easily gat call the cardinal hath received his reward, and in his entry. They address to the midst of the court; and own person will trouble the world no more. But then immediately came John Lesley, somewhat rudely, more enragedly they cry, We shall never depart till and four persons with him. The porter fearing, would that we see him. And so was he brought to the east have drawn the bridge; but the said John, being en block-house head, and showed dead over the wall to tered thereon, stayed it, and leaped in; and while the faithless multitude, which would not believe bethe porter made him for defence, his head was broken, fore they saw, and so they departed without Requiem the keys taken from him, and he cast into the ditch, æternam, et requiescat in pace, sung for his soul. * and so the place was seized. The shout ariseth; the These things we write merrily, but we would that the workmen, to the number of more than a hundred, ran reader should observe God's just judgments, and how off the walls, and were without hurt put forth at the that he can deprehend the worldly-wise in their own wicket gate. The first thing that ever was done, Wil- wisdom, make their table to be a snare to trap their own liam Kirkcaldy took the guard of the privy postern, feet, and their own purposed strength to be their own fearing lest the fox should have escaped. Then go the destruction. These are the works of our God, whereby rest to the gentlemen's chambers, and without violence he would admonish the tyrants of this earth, that in done to any man, they put more than fifty persons to the end he will be revenged of their cruelty, what the gate : the number that enterprised and did this, strength soever they make in the contrary. was but sixteen persons. The cardinal, wakened with the shouts, asked from his window, What meant that DAVID CALDERWOOD-SIR JAMES MELVII. noise! It was answered, that Norman Lesley had taken his castle : which understood, he ran to the

In the reign of James VI., a work similar to that postern, but perceiving the passage to be kept without, of Knox, but on much more extensive scale, more he returned quickly to his chamber, took his two- minute, and involving many public documents, was handed sword, and caused his chamberlain to cast written by DAVID CALDERWOOD, another zealous chests and other impediments to the door. In this Presbyterian divine. An abridgment of this work meantime came John Lesley unto it, and bids open. has been printed under the title of The True History The cardinal asking, Who calls ? he answered, My of the Church of Scotland : the original, in six folio name is Lesley. He demanded, Is that Norman? volumes of manuscript, reposes in the library of The other saith, Nay, my name is John. I will have the university of Glasgow. For his resolute oppoNorman, saith the cardinal, for he is my friend. Con- sition to Episcopacy, Calderwood was imprisoned tent yourself with such as are here, for other you shall in 1617, and afterwards banished from Scotland. have none. There were with the said John, James On his return, he became minister of Pencaitland, Melvin, a man familiarly acquainted with Master in Haddingtonshire. The style of his work deserves George Wishart, and Peter Carmichael, a stout gen- little commendation; but though tinged with partytleman. In this meantime, while they force at the feeling, it has always been valued as a repertory of door, the cardinal hides a box of gold under coals historical facts. that were laid in a secret corner. At length he Sir James MELVIL, privy councillor and gentleasketh, Will ye save my life! The said John an man of the bed-chamber to Mary Queen of Scots, swered, It may be that we will. Nay, saith the car was born at Hall-hill, in Fifeshire, in the year 1530, dinal, swear unto me by God's wounds, and I will and died in 1606. He left in manuscript a historical open to you. Then answered the said John, It that work, which for a considerable time lay unknown was said is unsaid ; 'and so cried, Fire, fire (for the in the castle of Edinburgh, but having at length door was very strong), and so was brought a chimley: been discovered, was published in 1683, under the full of burning coals; which perceived, the cardinal title of Memoirs of Sir James Melvil of Hall-hill, or his chamberlain (it is uncertain) opened the door, containing an Impartial Account of the Most Remarkand the cardinal sat down in a chair, and cried, I able Affairs of State during the Last Age, not menam a priest, I am a priest ; ye will not slay me. The tioned by other Historians; more particularly Relating said John Lesley (according to his former vows) struck to the Kingdoms of England and Scotland," under the him first once or twice, and so did the said Peter: Reigns of Queen Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, and But James Melvin (a man of nature most gentle and King James. In all which Transactions the Author was most modest), perceiving them both in choler, with: Personally and Publicly Concerned. This work is esdrew them, and said, This work and judgment of God teemed for the simplicity of its style, and as the sole (although it be secret) ought to be done with greater authority for the history of many important events. gravity. And presenting unto him the point of the sword, said, Repent thee of thy former wicked life, but especially of the shedding of the blood of that notable instrument of God, Master George Wishart, JOHN LESLEY, bishop of Ross, was a zealous which albeit the flame of fire consumed before men, partisan of Queen Mary, whom he accompanied yet cries it for vengeance upon thee, and we from on her return from France to Scotland in 1561, God are sent to revenge it. For here, before my God, and in whose behalf he actively exerted himself I protest, that neither the hatred of thy person, the during her imprisonment in England. Forced by love of thy riches, nor the fear of any trouble thou Elizabeth to withdraw to the continent on account couldst have done to me in particular, moved or of the conspiracies against her in which he enmoveth me to strike thee; but only because thou luasi gaged, he was appointed bishop of Constance in been, and remainest, an obstinate enemy against

. 1593, and in that situation employed his wealth Christ Jesus and his holy gospel. And so he struck and influence in founding three colleges for the in


struction of his countrymen, at Rome, Paris, and to be registered in the book of fame, gave up and Douay. Being now, however, advanced in years, rendered his spirit into the hands of Almighty God, he shortly afterwards resigned the mitre, and re- where I doubt not but he has sure fruition of the joy tired to a monastery in the Netherlands, where that is prepared for these as shall sit on the right he died in 1596. His chief publications are, a hand of our Saviour. treatise in defence of Queen Mary and her title to the English crown; a Description of Scotland and the

[Burning of Edinburgh and Leith by the English Scottish Isles; and a work on the Origin, Manners,

in 1544.] and Exploits of the Scotch. All these are in Latin ; the last two forming a volume which he published at

Now will I return to the earnest ambition of King Rome in 1578. He wrote in the Scottish language Henry of England, who ceased not to search by all a History of Scotland from 1436 to 1561, of which

means possible to attain to his desire, and therefore only a Latin translation (contained in the volume sent a great army by sea into Scotland, with the Earl just mentioned) was published by himself; the ori- of Hertford, his lieutenant, and the Viscount Lisle, his ginal, however, was printed by the Bannatyne Club admiral, with two hundred great ships, besides boats in 1830. In 1842 appeared a work entitled Vestia- and crears that carried their victuals, whereof there rium Scoticum,* the body of which consisted of a firth fornent2 Leith the third day of May, and landed

was great number ; and the whole fleet arrived in the catalogue of the tartans peculiar to Scottish families, at the New Haven about xx thousand men, with great composed by Bishop Lesley in the Scottish language, and which had long been preserved in manuscript artillery and all kind of munition, the fourth of May. in the college of Douay.

In the meantime, the Governor being in the town of
Edinburgh, hearing of their sudden arrival, departed

forth of the town toward Leith, accompanied with the [Character of James V.]

Cardinal, Earls of Huntly, Argyll, Bothwell, and (From Lesley's • History of Scotland.')

others, with their own household men only, purposing (Original Spelling. — Thier wes gryt dule and meane maid for to stop the landing of the enemy; but fraes they were him throw all the partis of his realme, because he was a nobill surely advertised of the great number of their eneinies, prince, and travaillet mekill all his dayis for maintening of wherethrough they were not able to withstand their his subjectis in peace, justice, and quietnes. He was a man, &c.] forces, they returned to Edinburgh, and sent Sir Adam

Otterburne, provost of the town, and two of the bailies, There was great dole and moan made for him through to the said Earl Hertford, lieutenant, desiring to know all the parts of his realm, because he was a noble for what cause he was come with such an army to prince, and travailed mickle all his days for main-invade, considering there was no war proclaimed betaining of his subjects in peace, justice, and quietness. twixt the two realms; and if there was any injuries He was a man of personage and stature convenient, or wrongs done whereupon the King of England was albeit mighty and strong therewith, of countenance offended, they would appoint commissioners to treat amiable and lovely, specially in his communication ; with them thereupon, and to that effect thankfully his eyes gray and sharp of sight, that whomsoever he would receive them within the town of Edinburgh. did once sce and mark, he would perfectly know in the said Earl of Hertford answered, that he had no all times thereafter; of wit in all things quick and commission to treat upon any matters, but only to prompt; of a princely stomach and high courage in receive the Queen of Scotland, to be convoyed in Enggreat perils, doubtful affairs, and matters of weighty land to be married with Prince Edward ; and if they importance: he had, in a manner, a divine foresight, would deliver her, he would abstain from all pursuit, for in such things as he went about to do, he did them otherwise he would burn and destroy the towns of advisedly and with great deliberation, to the intent Edinburgh, Leith, and all others where he might that amongst all men his wit and prudence might be master within the realm of Scotland, and desired noted and regarded, and as 'far excel and pass all therefore the haill4 men, wives, bairns, and others, others in estate and dignity. Besides this, he was being within the town of Edinburgh, to come forth of sober, moderate, honest, affable, courteous, and so far the same, and present them before him as lieutenant, abhorred pride and arrogance, that he was ever sharp and offer them into the king's will, or else he would and quick to them which were spotted or noted with proceed as he had spoken. To the which the provost, that crime. He was also a good and sure justiciar,' by the command of the Governor and council, answered, by the which one thing he allured to him the hearts that they would abide all extremity rather or they fulof all the people, because they lived quietly and in filled his desires; and so the Governor caused furnish rest, out of all oppression and molestation of the nobi- the castle of Edinburgh with all kind of necessary fur. lity and rich persons; and to this severity of his was niture, and departed to Striveling. In the meantime, joined and annexed a certain merciful pity, which he the English army lodged that night in Leith. Upon did ofttimes show to such as had offended, taking the morn, being the fifth of May, they marched forrather compositions of money noro men's lives ; which ward toward Edinburgh by the Canongate, and or their was a plain argument that he did use his rigour only entering therein, there came to them six thousand (as he said himself) to bow and abate the high and horsemen of English men from Berwick by land, who wrongous hearts of the people, specially Irishmend joined with them, and passed up the Canongate, of and borderers, and others, nursed and brought up in purpose to enter at the Nether Bow; where some reseditious factions and civil rebellions; and not for sistance was made unto them by certain Scottish greedy desire of riches or hunger of money, although men, and divers of the English men were si.cin, and such as were afflicted would cry out; and surely this some also of the Scottish side, and so held them that good and modest prince did not devour and consume day occupied skirmishing, till the night came, which the riches of his country; for he by his high policy mar. compelled them to return unto their camp. And on vellously riched his realm and himself, both with gold the next day, being the sixth of May, the great army and silver, all kind of rich substance, whereof he came forward with the haill ordinances,7 and assailed left, great store and quantity in all his palaces at his the town, which they found void of all resistance, departing And so this king, living all his time in saving the ports of the town were closed, which they the favour of fortune, in high honour, riches, and glory, and, for his noble acts and prudent policies, worthy 1 To enforce a marriage between his son and the infant

Queen Mary of Scotland. * Edited by John Sobieski Stuart. 4to. Tait: Edinburgh.

. Opposite

3 When, from the time when. i Criminal judge. 3 Ersemen, or Highlanders.

6 Stirling.

? Than

5 Ere.

4 Whole. 7 Whole ordnance.


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