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And by the second hour in the morning
Desire the earl to see me in my tent:
Yet one thing more, good captain, do for me;
Where is .# Stanley quarter'd, do you know?
Blunt. Unless I have mista'en his colours much,
§. well I am assur’d, I have not done)
His regiment lies half a mile at least
South from the mighty power of the king.
Richm. If without peril it be possible, [him,
Sweet Blunt, makesome good means to speak with
And give him from me this most needful note.
Blunt. Upon my life, my lord, I'll undertake it;
And so, God give you quiet rest to-night!

Richm. Good night, good captain Blunt. Come, l

gentlemen, Let us consult upon to-morrow's business; In to my tent, the air is raw and cold. [They withdraw into the tent. Enter, to histent, Kin and Catesby. K. Rich. What is't o'clock? Cates. It's supper-time, my lord; It's nine o'clock. K. Rich. I will not sup to-night.-Give me some ink and paper.— What, is my beaver easier than it was?— And all my armour laid into my tent? [diness. Cates. It is, my liege; and all things are in reaK. Rich. Good Norfolk, hie theetothy charge; Use careful watch, chuse trusty centinels. Nor. I go, my lord. [Norfolk. K. Rich. Stir with the lark to-morrow, gentle Nor. I warrant you, my lord, K. Rich. Ratcliff, Rat. My lord! K. Rich. Send out a pursuivant at arms To Stanley's regiment; bid him bring his power Before sun-rising, lest his son George fall Into the blind cave of eternal night.— Fill me a bowl of wine:—Give me a watch " :— o [To Catesby. Saddle white Surrey for the field to-morrow.— Look that my staves * be sound, and not too Ratcliff, - [heavy. Rat. My lord thumo K. Rich. Saw'st thou the melancholy lord NorRat. Thomas the earl of Surrey and himself, Much about cock-shut time ’, from troop to troop, Went through the army, cheering up the soldiers. R. Rich. § am satisfy'd. Give nie a bowl of I have not that alacrity of spirit, [wine: Nor cheer of mind, that I was wont to have.— So, set it down.—lsink and paper ready? Rat. It is, my lord. - K. Rich. Bid my guard watch, and leave me.

About the mid of night, come to my tent,

Richard, Ratcliff, Norfolk, 2

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And help to arm me, Ratcliff.-Leave me, I say. [Erit Ratcliff. Richmond's Tent opens, and discovers him, and his Qsficers, &c. Enter Stanley. Stanl. Fortune and victory sit on thy helm Richm. All confort that § Be to thy person, noble father-in-law [ford, o Tell me, how fares our loying mother? ... [ther, Stanl. I, by attorney ‘, bless thee from thymoWho prays continually for Richmond's good:— So much for that.—The silent hours steal on, And flaky darkness breaks within the east. In brief, for so the season bids us be, Prepare thy battle early in the morning! And put thy fortune to the arbitrement Of bloody strokes, and mortal staring war". I, as I may, (that which I would, I cannot) With best advantage will deceive the time, And aid thee in this doubtful shock of arms: But on thy side I may not be too forward, Lest, being seen, thy tender brother George Be executed in his father's sight. Farewell: the leisure", and the fearful time Cuts off the ceremonious vows of love, And ample enterchange of sweet discourse, Which so-long-sundred friends should dwell upon; God give us leisure for these rites of love! Once more, adieu:—Be valiant, and speed well Richm. Good lords, conduct him to his regiment: I’ll strive, with troubled thoughts, to take a nap; Lest leaden slumber peize” me down to-morrow, When I should mount with . of victory: Once more, goodnight, kindlords and gentlemen. - [Ereunt lords, &c. O Thou! whose captain I account myself, Look on my forces with a gracious eye; Put in their hands thy bruising irons of wrath, 0|That they may crush down with a heavy fall The usurping helmets of our adversaries' Make us thy ministers of chastisement, That we may praise thee in thy victory ! To thee I do commend my watchful soul, 5|Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes: Sleeping, and waking, O, defend me still! [Sleeps. Enter the Ghost of Prince Edward, Son to Henry the Sixth. Ghost. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow ! To K. Rich. Think how thoustabb'dstmein the prime of youth At Tewksbury; despair therefore, and die!— Be cheerful, Richmond; for the wronged souls {o Richm. 5|Of butcher'd princes fight in thy behalf: | King Henry's issue, Richmond, comforts thee.


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* That particular kind of candle is here meant, anciently called a watch, because, being marked out into sections, each of which was a certain proportion of time in burning, it supplied the place of

the more modern instrument by which we measure the hours.

* Staves are the wood of the lances.

As it was usual to carry more lances than one into the field, the lightness of them was an object of

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’ i. e. twilight.—Cockshut is said to be a net to catch woodcocks; and as the time

of to: them in this manner is in the twilight, either after sun-set or before its rising, cockshut light

may very properly express the evening or the morning twilight.
ry properly By staring war is o: war that looks big.
... i. e. weigh me down; from peser, French.

of letter of attorney. passage stands for want of leisure.

i.e. by deputation, or by virtue * Leisure in this

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Enter the Ghost of Henry the Sixth. Ghost. When I was mortal, my anointed body }}}.} By thee was punched full of deadly holes: Think on the Tower and me; despair and die; Henry the sixth bids thee despair and die — Virtuousand holy,be thou conqueror! [To Richm. Harry, that prophesy'd thou shouldst be king, Doth comfort thee in thy sleep; live, and flourish. Enter the Ghost of Clarence. Ghost. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow! - [To K. Rich. I, that was wash'd to death with fulsome wine, oor Clarence, by thy guile betray'd to death! o-morrow in the battle think on me, And fall thy edgeless sword; despair, and die!— Thou offspring of the house of Lancaster, [To Richm. The wronged heirs of York do pray for thee; Good angels guard thy battle ! Live, and flourish! Enter the Ghosts of Rivers, Grey, and Paughan. Riv. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow [To K. Rich. Rivers, that dy'd at Pomfret; despair, and die! Grey. Think upon Grey, and let thy soul despair! To K. Rich. Paugh. Think upon Vaughan; and, with guilty

fear, Łet fall thy lance! despair, and die! [To K. Rich.

All. Awake! and think, our wrongs in Richard'

OSOIn Will conquer him;-awake, and win the day ! [To Richm. Enter the Ghost of Lord Hastings. Ghost. Bloody and guilty, guiltily awake; [To K. Rich. And in a bloody battle end thy days? Think on lord Hastings; and despair, and die!— Quietuntroubled . awake, awake! [ToBichm. Arm, fight, and conquer, for fair England's sake! Enter the Ghosts of the two Young Princes. Ghosts. Dream on thy cousins smother'd in the Tower Let us be lead within thy bosom, Richard, [To K. Rich. And weigh thee down to ruin, shame, and death! Thy nephews' souls bid thee despair, and die.— Sleep, Richmond, sleep in peace, and wake in joy; [To Richm. Good angels guard thee from the boar's annoy! Live, and beget a happy race of kings! . . Edward's unhappy sons do bid thee flourish. Enter the Ghost of Lady Anne.

Ghost. Richard, thy wife, that wretched Annel;

thy wife, [To K, Rich. That never †: a quiet hour with thee, Now fills thy sleep with perturbations: To-morrow in the battle think on me, And fall thy edgeless sword; despair, and die!— Thou, quiet soul, sleep thou a quiet #; - - . . . . . [To Richm.

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Thy adversary's wife doth pray for thee.
Enter the Ghost of Buckingham. -
Ghost. The first was I, that help'd thee to the
crown; [To K. Rich.
The last was I, that felt thy tyranny:
O, in the battle think on ño,
And die in terror of thy guiltiness!
Dream on, dream on, of bloody deeds and death;
Fainting, despair; despairing, yield thy breath!—
I dy’d for hope", ere I o lend thee aid:
- To Richm.
But cheer thy heart, and be thou not dismay’d:
God and good angels fight on Richmond's side;
And Richard falls in height of all his pride.
[The Ghosts canish.
K. Richard starts out of his dream.
K. Rich. Give me another horse, bind up
my wounds,
Have mercy, Jesus—Soft; I did but dream.—
O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me!—
The lights burn blue.—Is it not dead midnight?
Cold fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh.
What do I fear; myself? there's none else by:
Richard loves Richard: that is, I am I.
Is there a murd’rer here? No;-Yes; I am:
Then fly,–What,from myself? Great reason: Why?
Lest I revenge. What? Myself on myself?
I love myself. Wherefore? for any good,
That I myself have done unto myself?
O, no; alas! I rather hate myself,
For hateful deeds committed by myself.
I am a villain: Yet I lye, I am not.
Fool, of thyself speak well:—Fool, do not flatter.
My conscience hath a thousand several tongues,
And every tongue brings in a several tale,
And every tale condemns me for a villain.
Perjury, perjury, in the highest degree,
Murder, stern murder, in the dir'st degree;
All several sins, all us'd in each degree, .
Throng to the bar, crying all,—Guilty! guilty!
I shall despair, There is no creature loves me;
And, if I die, no soul shall pity me:-
Nay, wherefore should they? since that I myself
Find in myself no pity to myself.
Methought, the souls of all that I had murder'd
Came to my tent; and every one did threat
To-morrow’s vengeance on the head of Richard.
Enter Ratcliff.
Rat. My lord,
K. Rich. Who's there? -
Rat. My lord, 'tis I: The early village cock
Hath twice done salutation to the morn;
Your friends are up, and buckle on their armour,
K. Rich. O, Ratcliff, I have dream’d a fearful
dream —
What thinkest thou? will our friends prove all
Rat. No doubt, my lord. true 2
K. Rich, Ratcliff, s fear, I fear, dows.
Rat. Nay, good my lord, be not afraid of sha-
K. Rich. By the apostle Paul, shadows to-night
Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard,
Than can the substance of ten thousand soldiers,

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Dream of success and happy victory;

* i.e. I died for wishing well to you,

Armed in proof, and led by shallow Richmond.

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It is not yet near day. Come, go with me
Under our tents; I'll play the eaves-dropper,
To hear, if any mean to shrink from me.
[Ereunt K. Richard, and Ratcliff.
Richmond wakes. Enter Oxford, and others.
Lords. Good morrow, Richmond. [men,
Richm. "Cry mercy, lords, and watchful gentle-
That you have ta'en a tardy sluggard here.
Lords. How have you slept, my lord?
Richm. The sweetest sleep, and fairest-boding
- dreams,
That ever enter'd in a drowsy head,
Have Isince your departure had, my lords, [der'd,
Methought,their souls,whose bodiesRichard mur-
Came to my tent, and cry’d—On! victory !
I promise you, my heart is very jocund
In the remembrance of so fair a dream,
How far into the morning is it, lords?
Lords. Upon the stroke of four.

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direction.— [He advances to the troops. More than I have said, loving countrymen, The leisure and enforcement of the time Forbids to dwell upon; Yet remember this, God and our good cause fight upon our side; The prayers of holy saints, and wronged souls, Like high-rear'd bulwarks, stand before our faces; Richard except, those, whom we fight against, Had rather have us win, than him they follow. For what is he they follow? truly, gentlemen, A bloody tyrant, and a homicide; One rais'd in blood, and one in blood establish'd; One that made means' to come by what he hath, And slaughter'd those that were the means to help A base foulstone, made precious by the foil [him: Of England's chair, where he is falsely set; One that hath ever been God's enemy: Then, if you fight against God's enemy, God will, injustice, ward you as his soldiers: If you do sweat to put a tyrant down, You sleep in peace, the tyrant being slain: W. do fight against your country's foes, Your country's fat shals pay your pains the hire; If you do fight in safeguard of your wives, Your wives shall welcome home the conquerors; If you do free your children from the sword, Your children's children quit it in your age. Then, in the name of §. and all these rights, Advance yourstandards, draw your willingswords: For me, the ransom of my hold attempt Shall be this cold corpse on the earth's cold face; But if I thrive, the gain of my attempt— The least of you shall share his part thereof, Sound, drums and trumpets,boldly and cheerfully;

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[Ereunt. Re-enter King Richard, Ratcliff, &c. K. Rich. What said Northumberland, as touch- ing Richmond? Rat. That he was never trained up in arms.

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K. Itich. He said the truth: And what said Surrey then? [pose. Rat. He smil'd and said, the better for our purK. Rich. He was i' the right; and so, indeed, it is. Tell the clock there.—Give me a kalendar.

- [Clock strikes. Who saw the sun to-day? Rat. Not I, my lord. book, K. Rich. Then he disdains to shine; for, by the He should have brav'd the east an hour ago: A black day it will be to somebody. Ratcliff, Rat. My lord! K. Rich. The sun will not be seen to-day; The sky doth frown and lour upon our army. I would, these dewy tears were from the ground. Not shine to-day ! Why, what is that to me, More than to Richmond; for the self-same heaven, That frowns on me, looks sadly upon him. Enter Norfolk. Nor. Arm, arm, my lord; the foe vaunts in the field. [horse:— K. Rich. Come, bustle, bustle;—Caparison my Call up lord Stanley, bid him bring his power:I will lead forth my soldiers to the plain, And thus my battle shall be ordered. My foreward shall be drawn out all in length, Consisting equally of horse and foot; Our archers shall be placed in the midst: John duke of Norfolk, Thomas earl of Surrey, Shall have the leading of this foot and horse. They thus directed, we will follow In the main battle; whose puissance on either side Shall be well winged with our chiefest horse. This, and Saint George to boot *-what think'st thou, Norfolk? Nor. A good direction, warlike sovereign.— This of I on my tent this morning. [Giving a scrowl. K. Rich. Jocky ofNorfolk, benottoo bold, [Reads. For Dickon'thymasteris bought and sold. A thing devised by the enemy.— Go, gentlemen, every man unto his charge: Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls; For conscience is but a word that cowards use, Devis'd at first to keep the strong in awe; Ourstrong arms be ourconscience,swords our law. March on, join bravely, let us to 't pell-mell; If not to heaven, then hand in hand to hell.— What shall I say more than I have inferr'd? Remember whom you are to cope withal; A sort of vagabonds, rascals, and run-aways, A scum of Brittains, and base lackey peasants, . Whom their o'er-cloyed country vomits forth To desperate ventures and assur’d destruction. You sleeping safe, they bring you to unrest; You having lands, and blest with beauteous wives, They would distrain the one, distain the other. And who doth lead them, but a paltry fellow,

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Long kept in Brittaine" at our brother's cost?"

To make means, in our author's time, always signified—to come at anything by indirect practices.

* Saint George was the common cry of the English soldiers when they charged the enemy.

* Tu

boot here would seem to mean to help. : The ancient abbreviation of Richard, i. e. a com- } . . . "

pany, Bretagne.

A milk-sop, one that never in his life
Felt so much cold as over shoes in snow?
Let’s whip these stragglers o'er the seas again;
Lash hence these over-weening rags of France,

These famish’d beggars, weary of their lives; 5

Who, but for dreaming on this fond exploit,
Forwantofimeans, poor rats,had hang'dthemselves:
If we be conquer'd, let men conquer us,
And not these bastard Brittains; whom our fathers
Haveintheirownlandbeaten, bobb'd,and thump'd,
And, on record, left them the heirs of shame.
Shall these enjoy our lands? lie with our wives?
Ravish our daughters?—Hark, I heartheir drum.
[Drum afar off.
Fight, gentlemen of England! fight,bold yeomen!
Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the head!
Spur your proud horses hard, and ride in blood;
Amaze the welkin with your broken staves'!—
- Enter a Messenger.
What says lord Stanley? will he bring his power?
Mes. My lord, he doth deny to come.
K. Rich. Off with his son George's head.
Nor. My lord, the enemy hath past the marsh;
After the battle let George Stanley die.
A. Rich. A thousand É
my bosom :
Advance our standards, set upon our foes;
Our ancient word of courage, fair Saint George,
Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons!

Upon them! Victory sits on our helms. [Ereunt. 30

S C E N E IV. Another part of the Field. Alarum. Ercursions. Enter Catesby. 3 Cates. Rescue, my lord of Norfolk! rescue ! rescue ! The king enacts more wonders than a man, Daring an opposite “to every danger; His horse is slain, and all on foot he fights, Seeking for Richmond in the throat of death: Rescue, fair lord, or else the day is lost Alarum. Enter King Richard. K. Rich. A horse a horse! my kingdom for a horse! - [horse. Cates. Withdraw, my lord, I’ll help you to a K. Rich, Slave, I have set my life upon a cast, And I will stand the hazard of the dye : I think, there be six Richmonds in the field; Five have I slain to-day, instead of him:—

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A horse a horse! my kingdom for a horse!
Alarums. Enter King Richard and Richmond;
they fight, Richard is slain.
Retreat, and flourish. Enter Richmond, Stanley,
bearing the crown, with divers other Lords.
Richm. God, and your arms, be prais'd, vic-
torious friends;
The day is ours, the bloody dog is dead
Stanl. Courageous Richmond, well hast thoti
acquit thee!
Lo, here, these long-usurped royaltics
From the dead temples of this bloody wretch
Have I pluckt off, to grace thy brows withal;
Wear it, enjoy it, and make use of it'. -
Richm. Great God of heaven, say, Amen, to all!—
But tell me, is young George Stanley living?
Stanl. He is, my lord, and safe in Leicester town;
Whither, if it please you, we may now withdraw us.
Richm.What men of name are slain on either side?
Stanl. John duke of Norfolk, Walter lord Ferrers,
Sir Robert Brakenbury, and Sir William Brandon.
Richm. Inter their bodies as becomes their births.
Proclaim a pardon to the soldiers fled,
That in submission will return to us;
And then, as we have ta'en the sacrament,
We will unite the white rose and the red:
Smile heaven upon this fair conjunction,
That long hath frown'd upon their enmity —
What traitor hears me, and says not, Amen?
England hath long been mad, and scarr'd herself;
The brother blindly shed the brother's blood,
The father rashly skaughter'd his own son,
The son, compell'd, been butcher to the sire z
All this divided York and Lancaster,
Divided, in their dire division.
O, now let Richmond and Elizabeth,
The true succeeders of each royal house,
By God's fair ordinance conjoin together!
And let their heirs (God, if thy will be so)
Enrich the time to coine with smooth-fac’d peace,
With smiling plenty, and fair prosperous days
Abate the ". of traitors, gracious Lord,
That would reduce these bloody days again,
And make poor Englandweepinstreams of blood!
Let them not live to taste this land's increase,
Thatwould withtreasonwound this fairland’speace!
Now civil wounds are stopp'd, peace lives again;
That she may long live here, God say—Amen!

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*i.e. an adversary, i.e. don't


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