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* Mr. Theobald says, This is one of those plays which he always thought, with the betterjudges, ought not to be acknowledged in the list of Shakspeare's genuine pieces. Dr. Johnson observes, That all the editors and critics agree with Mr. Theobald in supposing this play spurious, and that he sees “no reason for differing from them: for the colour of the style is wholly different from that of the other plays, and there is an attempt at regular versification, and artificial closes, not always inelegant, yet seldom pleasing. The barbarity of the spectacles, and the general massacre, which are here exhibited, can scarcely be conceived tolerable to any audience; yet we are told by Jonson, that they were not only borne, but praised.” Mr. Farmer and Mr. Steevens are also of the same

opinion with Dr. Johnson.

A noble

A nobler man, a braver warrior,
Lives not this day within the city walls:
He by the senate is accited home,
From weary wars against the barbarous Goths;
That, with his sons, a terror to our foes,
Hath yok'd a nation strong, train'd up in arms.
Ten years are spent, since first he undertook
This cause of Rome, and chastised with arms
Qur enemies' pride: Five times he hath return'd
Bleeding to Rome, bearing his valiant sons
In coffins from the field;—
And now at last, laden with honour's spoils,
Returns the good Andronicus to Rome,
Renowned Titus, flourishing in arms.
Let us intreat, By honour of his name,
Whom, worthily, you would have now succeed,
And in the Capitol and senate's right,
Whom you pretend to honour and adore,
That you withdraw you, and abate your strength;
Dismiss your followers, and, as suitors should,
Plead your deserts in peace and humbleness.
&al. How fair the tribune speaks to calm my
thoughts --
Bas. Marcus Andronicus, so I do affy
In thy uprightness and integrity,
And so I love and honour thee, and thine,
Thy noble brother Titus, and his sons,
And her, to whom onr thoughts are humbled all,
Gracious Lavinia, Rome's rich ornament,
That I will here dismiss my loving friends;
And to my fortunes, and the people's favour,
Commit my cause in balance to |. weigh’d.
[Freunt Soldiers.
Sat. Friends, that have been thus forward in
my right, -
I thank you all, and here dismiss you all;
And to the love and favour of my country
Commit myself, my person, and the cause:
Rome, be as just and gracious unto me,
As I am confident and kind to thee.—
Open the gates, and let me in.
Bas. Tribunes! and me, a poor competitor.
[They go up into the senate-house.

S C E N E II. Enter a Captain. Capt. Romans, make way; The good AndroPatrón of virtue, Rome's best champion, [nicus, Successful in the battles that he fights, With honour and with fortune is return'd, From where he circumscribed with his sword, And brought to yoke, the enemies of Rome.

Sound drums and trumpets, and then enter Mutius and Marcus; after them, two men bearing a coffin covered with black; then 2uintus and Íucius. After them, Titus Andronicus; and then Tamora, the queen of the Goths, Alarbus, Chiron, and Demetrius, with Aaron the Moor, prisoners; Soldiers, and other Attendants. hey set down the coffin, and Titus speaks.

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Tit. Hail! Rome, victoriousinthymourningweeds.

* Jupiter, to whom the Capitol was sacred. '

of unburied people appeared to their friends and relations, to solicit the rites of funeral.

verb is used by other dramatic writers,

Lo, as the bark, that hath discharg'd her fraught,
Returns with precious lading to the bay,
From whence at first she weigh’d her anchorage,
Cometh Andronicus, bound with laurel boughs,
To re-salute his country with his tears;
Tears of true joy for his return to Rome.—
Thou great defender of this Capitol',
Stand gracious to the rites that we intend —
Romans, of five-and-twenty valiant sons,
Half of the number that king Priam had,
Behold the poor remains, alive, and dead!
These, that survive, let Rome reward with love;
These, that I bring unto their latest home,
With burial among their ancestors: [sword.
Here Goths have given me leave to sheath my
Titus, unkind, .#careless of thine own,
Why suffer'st thou thy sons, unbury'd yet,
To hover on the dreadful shore of Styx?—
Make way to lay them by their brethren.
[They open the tomb.
There greet in silence, as the dead were wont,
And sleep in peace, slain in your country's wars!
Q sacred receptacle of my joys,
Sweet cell of virtue and nobility,
How many sons of mine hast thou in store,
That thou wilt never render to me more ?
Luc. Give us the proudest prisoner of the Goths,
That we may hew his limbs, and, on a pile,
Ad manes fratrum sacrifice his flesh,
Before this earthly prison of their bones;
That so their ... be not unappeas'd,
Nor we disturb’d with prodigies on earth”.
Tit. I give him you; the noblest that survives,
The eldest son of this distressed queen. [queror,

35| Tam. Stay, Roman brethren, Gracious con

Victorious Titus, rue the tears I shed, A mother's tears in passion for her son: And, if thy sons were ever dear to thee, Q, think my son to be as dear to me. Sufficeth not, that we are brought to Rome, To beautify thy triumphs, and return, Çaptive to thee, and to thy Roman yoke 2 But must my sons be slaughter'd in the streets, For valiant doings in their country's cause: 5|Q 1 if to fight for king and common weal Were piety in thine, it is in these; Andronicus, stain not thy tomb with blood; Wilt thou draw near the nature of the gods? Draw near them then in being merciful: Sweet mercy is nobility's true badge; Thrice-noble Titus, spare my first-born son. Tit. Patient 'yourself, madam, and pardon me. |These are their brethren, whom you Goths behold Alive, and dead; and for their brethren slain, 5|Religiously they ask a sacrifice: To this, your son is mark'd: and die he must, To appease their groaningshadows that are gone. Luc. Away .# him! and make a fire straight; And with our swords, upon a pile of wood, Let's hew his limbs, 'till they be clean consum’d. [Ereunt Mutius, Marcus,2uintus, and Lucius, with Alarbus.

It was supposed by the ancients, that the ghosts * This

Tam. Tam. O cruel, irreligious piety! . . Chi. Was ever Scythia half so barbarous? & Dem. Oppose not Scythia to ambitious Rome. Alarbus goes to rest; and we survive To tremble under Titus' threatening look. Then, madam, stand resolv’d; but hope withal, The self-same gods, thatarm'd the queen of Troy With o of sharp revenge Upon the Thracian tyrant in his tent, }. favour Tamora, the queen of Goths, When Goths were Goths,and Tamora was queen) To quit the bloody wrongs upon her foes. Bnter Mutius, Marcus, 2uintus, and Lucius. Luc. See, lord and father, how we have per- form'd - Our Roman rites: Alarbus' limbs are lopp'd, And entrails feed the sacrificing fire, Whose smoke, like incense, doth perfume thesky. Remaineth nought; but to inter our brethren,

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Tit. A better head her glorious body fits, Than his, that shakes for age and feebleness: What! should I don' this robe, and trouble you? Be chose with proclamations to- ay; To-morrow yield up rule, resign my life, And set abroad new business for you all? Rome, I have been thy soldier forty years, And led my country's strength successfully; And burie o valiant sons, Knighted in field, slain manfully in arms, In right and service of their noble country: Give me a staff of honour for mine age, But not a sceptre to controll the world: Upright he held it, lords, that held it last. Marc. Titus, thou shalt obtain and ask the empery. [tell?— Sat. Proud and ambitious tribune, caust thou Tit. Patience, prince Saturninus.Sat. Romans, do me right;

And with loud’larums welcome them to Rome. 20Patricians, draw your swords, and sheath them not

Tit. Let it be so; and let Andronicus Make this his latest farewell to their souls. [Thensoundtrumpets,andlaythe coffins inthetomb. In peace and honour rest you here, my sons; Rome's readiest champions, repose you here, Secure from worldly chances and mishaps! Here lurks no treason, here no envy swells, Here grow no damned grudges; here no storm, No noise, but silence and eternal sleep: Enter Lavinia. In peace and honour rest you here, my sons! Lav. In peace and honour live lord Titus long; My noble lord and father, live in fame ! Lo! at this tomb my tributary tears I render, for my brethren's obsequies; And at thy feet I kneel, with tears of joy Shed on i. earth, for thy return to Rome: . O, bless me here with thy victorious hand, Whose fortune Rome's best citizens applaud. Tit. Kind Rome, thathast thus lovingly reserv'd 40 The cordial of mine age, to glad my heart!— Lavinia, live; out-live thy father's days, And fame's eternal date, for virtue's praise ! Marc. Longlive lord Titus, my beloved brother, Gracious triumpher in the eyes of Rome! Tit. Thanks, gentle tribune, noble brother Marcus. [wars, Marc. And welcome, nephews, from successful You that survive, and you that sleep in fame. Fair lords, your fortunes are alike in all, That in your country's service drew your swords: But safer triumph is this funeral pomp, That hath aspir'd to Solon's happiness, And triumphs over chance, in honour's bed.— Titus Andronicus, the people of Rome, Whose friend in justice thou hast ever been, Send thee by me, their tribune, and their trust, This palliament of white and spotless hue ; And name thee in election for the empire, With these our late deceased emperor's sons: Be candidatus then, and put it on, And help to set a head on headless Rome.

25

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"Till Saturninus be Rome's emperor:-
Andronicus, 'would thou were shipp'd to hell,
Rather than rob me of the people's hearts.
Luc. Proud Saturninus' interrupter of the good
That noble-minded Titus means to thee!—
Tit. Content thee, prince; I will restore to thee
The people's hearts, and wean them from them-
Bas. Andronicus, I do not flatter thee, [selves.
But honour thee, and will do ’till I die;
My faction if thou strengthen with thy friends,
I will most thankful be: and thanks, to men
Of noble minds, is honourable meed. -
Tit. People of Rome, and people'stribunes here,
I ask your voices, and your suilrages;
Will you bestow them friendly on Andronicus?
Marc. To gratify the good Andronicus,
And gratulate his safe return to Rome,
The people will accept whom he admits. [nake,
Tit. Tribunes, I thank you : and this suit I
That you create your emperor's eldest son,
Lord Saturnine; whose virtues will, I hope,
Reflect on Rome, as Titan's rays on earth,
And ripen justice in this common-wcal:
Then if you will elect by my advice,

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Marc. With voices and applause of every sort, Patricians, and plebeians, we create Lord Saturninus, Rome's great emperor; And say,+Long live our §. Saturnine." [A long flourish till they come down. Sat. Titus Andronicus, for thy favours done To us in our election this day, I give thee thanks in part of §§ deserts, And will with deeds requite thy gentleness;" And, for an onset, Titus, to advance Thy name and honourable family,

|Lavinia will I make my emperess,

Rome's royal mistress, mistress of my heart,
And in the sacred Pantheon her espouse:
Tellme, Andronicus, doth this motion please thee?
Tit. It doth, my worthy lord; and, in this match,
I hold me highly honour'd of your grace:

robe, put it on. - And

And here, in sight of Rome, to Saturnine,—
King and commander of the common-weal,
The wide world's emperor, do I consecrate
My sword, my chariot, and my prisoners;
Presents well worthy Rome's imperial lord: 5
Receive them then, the tribute that I owe,
Mine honour's ensigns humbled at thy feet.
Sat. Thanks, noble Titus, father of my life!
How proud I am of thee, and of thy, gifts,
Rome shall record; and when I do forget 10
The least of these unspeakable deserts,
Romans, forget your fealty to me.
Tit. Now, madam, are you prisoner to an em-
. . peror; [To Tamora.
To him, that for your honour and your state, 15
Will use you nobly, and your followers.
Sat. A goodly lady, trust me; of the hue
That I would choosé, were I to choose anew.—
Clear up, fair queen, that cloudy countenance:

My sons would never so dishcnour me:
Traitor, restore Lavinia to the emperor. -
Luc. Dead, if you will; but not to be his
wife,
That is another's lawful promis'd love.
Sat. No, Titus, no; the emperor needs her not,
Nor her, northee, nor any of thy stock:
I'll trust, by leisure, him that mocks me once;
ee never, northy traitorous haughty sons,
onfederates all thus to dishonour me.
Was there none else in Rome to make a stale of,
But Saturnine? Full well, Andronicus, -
Agree these deeds with that proud brag of thine,
That said'st, I begg'd the empire at thy hands.
Tit. O monstrous! what reproachful words are
these ? - -
Sat. But go thy ways; go, give that changing
iece
To him that flourish'd for her with his sword:

Though chance of war hath wrought this change 20A valiant son-in-law then shalt enjoy;

of cheer,

Thou com'st not to be made a scorn in Rome:
Princely shall be thy usage every way.
Rest on my word, and let not discontent
Daunt all your hopes: Madam, he comforts you, 25
Can make you greater than the queen of Goths.-
Layinia, you are not displeas'd with this

Lac. Not I, my lord; sith true nobility.
Warrants these words in princely courtesy.

One fit to bandy with thy lawless sons,
To ruffle" in the commonwealth of Rome.
Tii. These words are razors to my wounded
heart. [Goths, L
Sat. And therefore, lovely Tamora, queen of
That like the stately Phoebe 'mong her nymphs,
Dost over-shine the gallant'st dames of Rome,
If thou be pleas'd with this my sudden choice,
Behold, I choose thee, Tamora, for my bride,

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us go : * Ransomless here we set our prisoners free: Proclaim our honours,lords, withtrump and drum. Bas. Lord Titus, by your leave, this maid is ... ... mine. . . . [Seizing Lavinia. 3% Tit. How, sir? Are you in earnest then, my lord? Bas. Ay, noble Titus; and resolv’d withal, To do myself this reason and this right.

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Marc. Suum cuique is our Roman justice: This prince in justice seizeth but his own. Lac. And that he will, and shall, if Lucius live. Tit. Traitors, avaunt! Where is the emperor's guard 2 - Treason, my lord; Lavinia is surpriz'd. Sat. Surpriz'd by whom 3 Bas. By him that justly may . Bear his betroth'd from all the world away. [Erit Bassianus with Lavinia. 30 Mut. Brothers, help to convey her hence away, And with my sword Pll keep this door safe. Tit. Follow, my lord, and I'll soon bring her back. Mut. My lord, you pass not here. - J Tit. What villain boy, - Barr'st me my way in Rome? [Titus kills Mutius. Mut. Help, Lucius, help! Luc. My lord, you are unjust, and more than so; In wrongful quarrel you have slain your son. 60 Tit. Northou, nor he, are any sons of mine;

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Speak, queen of Goths, dost thou applaud my choice 2 And here I swear by all the Romans gods,Sith priest and holy water are so near, . And tapers burn,so bright, and every thing in readiness for Hymeneus stands,I will not re-salute the streets of Rome, Or climb my palace, ’till from forth this place I lead espous'd my bride along with me. Tam. And here, in sight of heaven to Rome ! swear, of Saturnine advance the queen of Goths, She will a handmaid be to his desires, A loving nurse, a mother to his youth. Sat. Ascend, fair queen, Pantheon: Lords, accompany Your noble emperor, and his lovely bride, Sent by the heavens for prince Saturhine, Whose wisdom hath her fortune conquered: There shall we consummate our spousal rites. - [Ereunit. Manet Titus Andronicus. Tit. I am not bid to wait upon this bride;— Titus, when wert thou wont to walk alone, Dishonour'd thus, and challenged of wrongs? Enter Marcus Andronicus, ius, 2uintus, and Marcus. Marc. O, Titus, see, O see, what thou hast done ! - *In a bad quarrel, slain a virtuous son. Tit. No, foolish tribune, no; no son of mine,—

! Spoken of Lavinia.--Piece was then, as it is now, used personally as a word of contempt.

* A Ruffler was a kind of cheating bully; and is so

called in a statute made for the punishment of

vagabonds in the 27th year of K, Henry VIII. Hence, probably, this sense of the verb, to ruffe.

Nor

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