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information. All my hopes therefore (as the Persian translations
from the Shanscrit are so defective) of being acquainted with the
poetry, philosophy, and arts of the Hindús, are grounded on the
expectation of living to see the fruits of your learned labours. A
version of the Jóg Bashest was brought to me the other day, in
which I discovered much of the Platonick metaphysicks and
morality; nor can I help believing, that Plato drew many of his
notions (through Egypt, where he resided some time) from the
sages of Hindustán. My present pursuit is the Indian system of
musick, which is comprised, I am told, in a book called Sengheit
Derpen, or The Mirror of Melody; and that book, they say, is
not ill translated into Persian. A little tract, called the Prosody
of Musick, enabled me yesterday to discover, that the Hindú scale
saragamapadany consists of two tetrachords exactly equal, and
differing only in the sixth and seventh notes from our major mode,
or, as it is called, the sharp key. I find, also, that the Indians
have not only semitones, but even an enharmonick kind, or thirds
and quarters of notes. Any hints on this subject will be particu-
larly acceptable to me.- -Your account of the Seics was read to our
society, who expressed themselves highly obliged to you for your
attention, and much pleased with the paper. Our meetings are
well-attended, and the several accounts of Tibet and Cochinchina,
which we have received from Mr. Turner and Mr. Chapman, have
given us entertainment and instruction. Sir R. Chambers has
brought some valuable materials from Benáres, but has at present
neither health nor spirits to put them in order. The meaning of
the word Sengeit
has been the subject of debate between

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سن means كيت and خوب means

us: a Pundit here tells me that
: so that it may be translated melody, or a sweet succession of
notes. Sir Robert thinks, that it means any musick expressed by
written notes. How do you decide?-I am not wholly without
hope of being able to reach Benáres in the autumn: I shall have
but three months for my excursion, but will certainly go up the
river as high as I am able. I beg you to believe, that I shall be
very happy to meet you at the seat of Indian learning, and am,
with very sincere regard,

My dear Sir,

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Your faithful and

obedt serv1,


1 March, 1785.

Dear Sir,

I have just received from Benares a S'haiscrit book, which puzzled me at first, and will, I hope, continue to puzzle, till it enlightens, me. but, in the inside, ff, which, I suppose, is the Dherm

پوتمت يا ديونك On the back of the case it is called

Shástr Menu Smrety. A version of this curious work is promised, and, when it comes, I will set about learning the original, if I can procure assistance from a good Pendit. The 4 shlócs I mentioned are in the Ninth Section, which is the last but one of the Second Chapter of the Bhagwat. You would much oblige me, if you could have those 4 shlócs copied, as I wish to have them engraved; and I will desire Cáshynáť'h, at some leisure hour, to read them: they contain the purest Theology and, I think, sound Philosophy. The powerful Surye, whom I worship only that he may do me no harm, confines me to my house, as long as he appears in the heavens: you will therefore always find me at dinner, and the oftener you favour me with your company, the more pleasure you will give to,

My dear Sir,

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ory) and request you to supply me with some more of his names &c., that I may insert them in another stanza.

The subject is the sublimest that the human mind can conceive; but my feeble Muse cannot do justice to it. How I lament my inability to read the two Puráns of the Egg and the Lotos! The doctrine is that of Parmenides and Plato, whom our Berkley follows, and I am strongly inclined to consider their philosophy as the only means of removing the difficulties which attend the common opinions concerning the Material world. I have taken many ideas, you will see, from the comment on the cited by Halhed,

and have borrowed some from Ramsay's Cyrus.

I have been endeavouring to prepare a paper for this evening On the Elephantiasis, but my business will, I fear, prevent the completion of it. Harrington tells me you have finished your interpretation of the Inscription. Can you, without inconvenience, favour us with it to-night?

As this will probably reach you at your dinner, pray do not trouble yourself to answer it, if you intend us the pleasure of your company in the evening.

I am, dear Sir,

with great regard,

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your faithful

and obed serv1,


My dear Sir,


11 May, 1785.

Nárayena waits on you; and Indra requests, that (when you have leisure from your Inquiry at Chitpúr and your studies at home) you will supply his humble votary with his most poetical names, his parentage, attributes, and attendants. The first stanza of the Ode to Him is on the opposite page.

dear Sir,

I am

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But ah! what glories from the zenith break?
What lucid forms yon jasper vault emblaze?
Like living suns their airy course they take:
Fall back, ye nations, and enraptured gaze!
Mazy dances briskly knitting,

Now they meet, and now retire,
Round their Prince, in splendor sitting,
Weaving veils of heav'nly fire:

High on a milk-white Elephant he rides,
Whose agate hoof the buxom air divides.


6 June, 1785.

My dear Sir,

You will much oblige me, and greatly benefit the publick, if you will inform me, either from your own knowledge, or by the help of your Pandit, "whether the crime of perjury be expiable by any "religious acts or atonements, and what kind of oath, if any, is "held so solemn, that no expiation or absolution will atone for a "wilful violation of it." The beginning of the 8th chapter of Měnŏŏ has some rules on the form of Oaths. Favour us, when you are able, with your company at dinner, and believe me your faithful friend,



A thousand thanks, my dear Sir, for the epithets, which I will weave into a stanza: this is quite in the manner of the very ancient Orphick Hymns to the same Deities.

The Pandu Brothers and the fair Crishny wait your pleasure. I wish to correct the spelling of the proper names, and to know how Amrut or Amurt is written in Déva nágry.

Will you meet Mr. Evelyn to-day, or Amein the Persian Hero to-morrow, or both? At all times your company will give infinite

pleasure to,

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26 July.




17 Sept. 1785.


I am wholly unable, my dear Sir, to express my sense of your kind attentions to me. Your slócs on Interest by the Hindu Law are a treasure to me. I will give you wheel-interest for them (though I cannot distinctly collect from the slóc that it is legal) by assuring you, that, as long as time revolves, I shall own my gation to you. How I wish that the government of this country was in my hands for a few months: if I could not make you Rájá of Benares, I would at least make you prefer Asia to Europe some years longer, in spight of Pitt and the devil.-My situation here completely answers my chief object, which was that of retirement; for, at Calcutta, my mornings are never my own, and I cannot study at night without endangering my health. The Brahmens are dispersed; for they, too, have a long vacation; some are gone to the Rány Bhawány, others to other votaries of Durgá, from whom they receive presents at this season: but I have found a pleasant old man of the medical cast, who teaches me all he knows of the Grammar; and I hope to read the Hit Upadès, or some other story-book, with him. My great object is the Dherme 'Sastra, to which I shall arrive by degrees. Your time is too precious, and you spend it too nobly in your own studies, for me to think of engaging much of it, except on extraordinary occasions. I am anxious to settle the form of taking the Evidence of Hindus, so as to make their perjury inexpiable. I would then have a plate (similar to the Muslim form) engraved in Sanscrit, in Bengaly, and in Hindy, all in the best nagry letters. In the meantime, pray tell Mohhammed Ghaúth, that, if he will call on Mr. Chambers, he will receive some money, and that I will pay him his wages regularly when I come myself. I wish him to set about the Inscription from Gaia, which you so wonderfully decyphered: it will make a fine plate for our Transactions, and should be large enough for such a Quarto as Bryant's Mythology.


Have the kindness to request Gladwin to print another copy of the Form of Oaths, and I thank you heartily for your offer to chuse paper. I relied too much on the eyes of my Musliman friends: in the first line, (the sixth word) Ghauth has made it instead of ~, the Intensive Augment: in the other words it is right. In

;with two Alifs هذا الوقف instead of هذا الوقت the 2d line he writes

but the worst error of all is in the Confirmatory Arabick Oath


in the قلته and أظهرته in the 2d person, instead of قلت and أظهرته

first person. All these a touch with his tool can alter. Should your accurate eye discover any errors in the Persian or Hindy, pray let him correct them. I dare say Gladwin will be so good as to let you see different specimens of paper. I (wish if you must go) to inherit your writer of Sanscrit, and, if C'ás'ináť'h would either go with me, to Chittigam, or go first to Cásy and return to me, I would make it worth his while, and would do all the good in my power to him and his family. My Pendit must be

God give you health and a نیاد خو زباندان بیدخوان فارسی کو

happy passage through this vale of pleasures and pains.

I am your ever

faithful and affecte,




6 Oct. 1787.

Give me leave, my dear Sir, to congratulate you on your marriage, and to inquire concerning your health and your literary labours. Your Gità has given me delight, and the Episode of the Amrita I got by heart: but they only make me long for the rest of the Mahábhárat, and for your Dictionary. You are the first European who ever understood Sanscrit, and will, possibly, be the last. I go on pleasantly, have read an excellent grammar, and translate all I meet with. I am never idle in this cottage; and I send you some proofs of this assertion. I shall be very angry with Elmsly, if he neglect to send me all your publications. Lady Jones desires to be kindly remembered,

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I devoured, my dear Sir, your Bhagavad-Gitá, and have made as hearty a meal of your Hitópadesa, for which I thank you most sincerely. The ships of this season will carry home seven hundred copies of our first volume of Transactions; and the second will be ready, I hope, next year: but unless the impression should be sold in London, Harington & Morris, (who print the book at their' hazard) will be losers, and we must dissolve the Society. You

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