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cal, but have given it along with what is palpably its directive. Further knowledge is needed in order to resolve these words. Only in cases that appeared to me doubtful have I entered verbs with the causative prefix ka.
I have given some words as spelt in my Ponape books, though I may have since thought best to change the orthography; in which case, reference is made to the later spelling.
The system of orthography used is that of Lepsius (as set forth in his Standard Alphabet, Berlin, 1863), but with the omission of all diacritical signs which are not absolutely necessary. Thus, the short vowels are left unmarked, only the long being distinguished by the horizontal line above; and the closer e and o are unmarked, only the opener being distinguished by the horizontal stroke below. Thus
a is the sound in art, father.
a nearly as in and.
è as in they (but without the vanish of i). e nearly as in met.
as in French mère, nearly as in English care.
i as in machine, pique.
i as in pin, nearly.
For further particulars, especially the non-distinction of surd and sonant articulations, see the Grammatical Notes.
The alphabet used in the missionary publications in Ponape is the same with the above, only (for lack of means) with rejection of all diacritical signs; so that there is no distinction of e and e, of o, o, and o, of n and ń.
The Vocabulary was worked out before the author's departure from Micronesia, and has been for many years lost, owing to the death of the gentleman in whose bands it was deposited.
a, n. girth, compass measured by the girth; size, bulk: alap, large; atikatik, meatikatik, small.
a, pron. (nom. sing.) he, she, it.
a, poss. his, hers, its.
ai, poss. my.
aia, n. rainbow (often iaia).
aij, n. a certain tree; varnish made from its nut.
aijaij, v. varnish with aij; (hence, in general) paint.
ainapoń, n. (cf. pon) after midnight.
aip, n. native drum, drum (in general).
aip, v. play on an aip, beat the drum.
air, n. the south; airan, south wind; aïrilon, southern part of the heavens.
áji, v. sneeze.
ájijápwai, n. (a high chief's) nose.
ájimor, v. [aji and mor] breathe, respire, breathe without unnatural effort: ajiajimor, ajimomor (reduplicated forms).
āk, n. mangrove tree (rhizophora); a stick for digging with (usually of the ak tree; hence), spade, hoe, digging instrument of any kind.
áka, pron. these, those (often a mere sign of plurality).
ákai, interj. indeed! oh! (generally at something to be dreaded or avoided).
akai, pron. some, several, a part of many (often a mere sign of plurality; usually abbreviated to kai, when preceded by a vowel). akamaiki, v. dispute, altercate, wrangle, discuss, argue (reduplicated form, akakamaiki).
akan, pron. all these or those.
akári, interj. [akai and ari] fie! (used reprovingly).
áki, prep. because of, on account of, for (generally closely connected with verbs, as suffix: usually abbreviated to ki after a vowel): ta me ko koto ki, what have you come for? aki ai jõmau, because of my sickness.
ákij, n. see kij.
al, n. path, road, track, course.
alap, adj. [ā and lap] large around, big-girthed.
aláu, conj. when, after the time that (abbreviated to lau after a vowel).
álau, n. (used in familiar converse with equals and inferiors, in the sense of my good fellow,' you are the one for me').
ále, v. take, receive, accept; (hence) learn.
álek, n. a small reed, used principally in siding and flooring houses. álij, n. the beard.
álim, adj. five (the root used in composition is lim).
aliména, n. a dream (only of chiefs).
aliména, v. dream (applied only to high chiefs).
alina, n. sound, audible noise; a voice; any sound made by the breath, by an animal, or upon an instrument.
álū, v. [āl, u?] move in an al or path; walk: alialu (reduplicated form); kālu, cause to walk, lead.
alu'alu'a, n. [alu] (a very high chief's) legs or feet.
álumū'r, v. [alu, mur] follow, pursue; (occasionally) succeed; (technically) take food to a chief who is travelling.
ām, poss. (sing.) thy, thine; your, yours.
am, n. a slip-noose, or snare, for catching animals. am, v. catch with a snare or am; ensnare, entrap. ámaj, adj. raw, uncooked.
ámen, adj. [at, men] one (applied only to animated objects; when used alone) another, another one.
ámkítik, n. [am, kitik] an am for ensnaring kitiks or rats; rat- or mouse-trap.
ăn, interr. (a responsive particle, equivalent to) well! what of it? what then?
ā'naki, v. have, hold, occupy; possess, get possession of. anela, v. be used or accustomed to, be familiar with.
áni, n. a disembodied spirit, from the spirit of the meanest individual just deceased to spirits self-created; (general term for) the dead; an ancestor; a god: ani oj, see oj; ani pan takai, a spirit once in human body, and buried "under a stone," as is the Ponape custom.
ano'k, v. (in the Kiti tribe) finished, completed, accomplished; (in the Metá'lanim tribe it is equivalent to 'will;' significant of action about to be performed; almost synonymous with pan). āń, v. consent to, acquiesce; be familiar with, be accustomed to: áñeta, áñeta tā (the most commonly used of the directives). āń, adv. yes (a mere responsive particle, used without intention of actually assenting, just as we use yes in politely responding to others' remarks).
ań, n. wind, breeze, air: kijeniań [kij, en, i euphonic, an], (the common term for) light breezes.
ānā'ñān, adj. tall, gigantic.
anet, n. length, extent.
ani', v. (an) hear, attend, listen (used only of the highest chiefs' hearing).
ániań, adj. [an] windy, breezy, stormy; displeased, angry (applied only to the highest chiefs).
áñiani, v. [an] punish, beat, kill (used only of a chief's beating and killing in anger).
aon, num. six (the root in composition is on, sometimes pronounced won, which see).
ap, adv. just now, at this time, then; a sign of present tense (often used where an English mind would not expect to find it, but still, I think, with the above significance more or less prominent). apáli, n. [cf. pali] a side, a part taken from along the length; a half taken in the same way.
ápe, pron. (indefinite, of very wide significance, used in the nominative or objective) some person, some thing; that person or thing; this person or thing: ape me wiáta ápe, that person or thing made this person or thing.
aps, v. (applied to the movements of chiefs of all the lower grades; a term of respect used to any one not a high chief): ape'we, go away; apeto, come; apeap, stay in a place, dwell.
ápetan, adv. [āp, tu, en] just now completed, now performed. api, v. draw or pull: apita, draw up; apito, draw hither; apitito, draw down hither; etc.
ápijo, adj. fluttering, agitated, fearful.
apoń, adj. four (the radical is a, which is found in the compounds pająk etc.).
apon, n. the fourth month of the Ponape year; also, the ceremonies connected with the canoe-launches of that month. apo'nilon, n. [pg'nipo'n, lon] the north.
ápot, adj. [at, pot] one (applied only to stick-like objects; when used alone it means) another one.
apu'ki, adj. one hundred (used in numbering animals, sticks, sticklike objects, and sundry more valued articles, such as yams, mats, etc.: apuki means 'one thousand' when used in numbering the mass of less valued objects, such as cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, etc.).
ápwal, adj. steep, rough (as applied to land and roads); difficult, not easy, hard to be performed.
ápal, n. care, attention.
apwā'li, v. [cf. pali] takes sides with, defend; serve, obey; take care of, be attentive to; honor, reverence.
ār, pron. (poss. dual or plur.) their, theirs.
ara', pron. (dual poss.) [ar and a, the sign of duality] their (two). araí, adj. [ef. rairai] long, extended, drawn out.
arail, pron. (plur. poss.) [or and ail, sign of plurality] their, theirs. aramáj, n. a man; persons in general, any person indefinitely; a body of people, inhabitants; common people (not chiefs). ári, adv. well (the most frequently used word in the language; used as well is in English, elliptically for it is well, and as an expression of satisfaction with what has been said or done; or merely expletive, as in "well, the work is done;""well, let us go").
a'ri, adj. two (the root used in combination is ri).
a'rir, v. squat in token and attitude of respect about a chief; pay court (ariri, the common form; árari'ri, reduplicated form). ari'ripa, n. [ariri, pa] the circle of respect about a chief; a court. áruwan, v. know, learn: áruwanakila, know, have learned, thoroughly understand.
āt, n. an oceanic current; a current of air in the nostrils, the breath. at, adj. one (the radical is evidently a, as seen in amen, apot, apuki etc.).
at, pron. (poss. plur. and dual) our, our two.
atá, pron. (dual poss.) [at and a, the sign of duality] our two (inclusive of the person addressed).
ātā, n. a name, that by which any thing is called; a proper name (in distinction from a title or surname).
atail, pron. (plur. poss.) [at and ail, the sign of plurality] our (inclusive of the persons addressed).
atánaki, v. possess or receive or take a name; be named.
āti, v. take with violence, snatch, levy upon.
a'tu, adj. nine (the root is tu).
au, v. ride astride on some one's back.
uui', v. wait, tarry, delay, expect, await: auioto, auiakito, wait for, await the coming of; qui ia, wait for me (often used as a threat to children, 'look out for me! take care!').
aúpwil, v. (cf. pwil) turn towards: aupwilakioń, be turned towards by.
aúramen, n. dream.—». dream.
aúramei, v. prepare a pontal (cocoa-nut shell) for jokau (ava) by the first expression of juice into it (a sort of dedication, though unattended by religious ceremonies).
aut, v. fill, pour into; impart evil-minded or suspicious thoughts. aútapon, v. [aut and pōn, 'round'] roll up a loj with the sheet inside.
auto'kamai, n. the eleventh month.
aúwa, n. [Hawaiian, waha] mouth, opening, entrance: auwa en im (or wa'n im), mouth of a house, window or door. aval, adj. eight (the root is wal).
awao, n. the most costly and highly valued hair-oil made by Ponapeans, a compound of cocoa-nut oil and many fragrant materials.
e, interj. (used after the names of persons when calling them: e. g. Jomatau ē! O Jomatau !')
, n. the mullet (at a certain stage of its growth).
ei, adv. yes.
ej, adj. seven (the root in combination is ij).
eijok, adj. ten (used in enumerating the great mass of objects not animated or stick-like).
ejil, adj. three (the root in combination is jil).
ék, see erk.
el, v. rub, chafe, apply a liniment by rubbing: éliel (reduplicated form).
el, n. a string of beads or flowers (often used as a mere numerative particle in numbering any thing strung).
éle, adv. probably, likely, possibly.
élep, n. [e perhaps from a of at, and lep or lepen] a part, a half, if taken from the length of an article; another half or part.
élu, adj. [lu?] cooked, thoroughly done.
en, prep. of, belonging to, about, concerning [the proper spelling is on, which shows its relation to gn, the directive].
en (the sign of the imperative mood, probably a modified significance of en the preposition).
en, pron. this (it often has the power of a definite article only). er (a sign of completed action, and consequently of past time: e. g. erala, completed; ereti, finish up, complete).