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The value of moveable metal type in reduced size, first executed by the ingenious and devoted Samuel Dyer, in contradistinction from the old method of engraved blocks, is strikingly exemplified in the edition just issued in Hong-Kong. The New Testament, which, in the edition of the honoured and lamented Morrison, was separated into different parts, or formed into a thick volume, is now comprised within less than 90 pages 8vo., while the price is reduced to less than 4d. sterling.

At each of our Chinese Stations a Native Church has been formed; two of these have ordained Native Pastors: the venerable Leang Afa, at Canton, and the intelligent and devoted Chin Seen, at Hong-Kong. Within the last twelve months, additions have been made to each of the four Christian communities, and the deep penitence, simple faith, and sound scriptural knowledge of the converts afford strong grounds to anticipate their future stedfastness and consistency in the profession of the gospel.

In the month of November, Dr. Smith, the Bishop of Victoria, whose Christian kindness and catholicity the Directors are happy to acknowledge, made a visit to Shanghae; and, at his instance, and with means supplied by his friends, Dr. Medhurst and his colleagues sent forth two Chinese Christians to visit the remnant of the Jews, long reported to reside in the city of Khae-fung-foo, distant from Pekin about 350 miles. They executed their mission with great judgment, and returned to Shanghae in safety, after an absence of 55 days. Their report accords with that of the Jesuit Missionaries, made 150 years since, as to the long-continued settlement of a Jewish colony in K'hae-fung-foo; but, oh! how changed the scene! The Temple or Synagogue, then in comparative strength and splendour, is now almost a ruin, and "Ichabod" is written on its trembling walls. Many of the sons of Abraham have mingled with the heathen or the Mussulmans by whom they are surrounded, and the number of professing Jews is reduced to less than 200. They have been left without a Rabbi for nearly fifty years, and the distinctive rite of their faith and nation has been neglected. They have entirely lost the knowledge of Hebrew; and the words of Moses and the Prophets, though carefully preserved in the holy place, are to them a sealed book. Some of these venerable records they presented, for a pecuniary consideration, to the Christian visitors; others, now useless to the possessors, may probably be obtained hereafter on fair and honourable terms, and prove a valuable contribution to Biblical evidence in Europe; while the same blessed truths, fulfilled in the mission and sacrifice of the Lord Jesus, will, we trust, be presented, in the language of China, to these neglected sons of Abraham, to revive their expiring faith, and guide them to the feet of their long-expected Saviour.

Alarming indications have been given, that the generous toleration, granted by the late Emperor of China to his Christian subjects, may be soon restricted, and possibly reversed, by those who now sway the counsels of his youthful successor; but, on the other hand, there are satisfactory proofs that the great distinctive truths of Christianity are understood by individuals of the highest class of Chinamen, and in districts of the Empire where the voice of the Missionary was never yet heard. In the very edict in which these doctrines are condemned there is evidence that they are (at least in part) well understood: and the Governor of the province of Fuh-keen has published remarks on the Christian system, written in another and a kindly spirit. But the essays of Ki-ying, the late Governor of Canton, and one of the most liberal and enlightened statesmen in China, bear direct testimony both to the doctrines and the miracles of the gospel, and to the purity and benevolence of its principles.

The following passages from the pen of such an author cannot be read without equal astonishment and delight :

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“Form of Prayer to the God of Heaven, with a Preface, composed by Ki-ying, Governor"General of Kwangtung and Kwangsi. In the Dictionary of Kánghí, it is said, 'Jesus, western "nations designate the Saviour of the world' The books translated by western men, narrate "the actions he wrought with great perspicuity. His religion regards the worship of God,

“and repenting of sins, as its essentials; and its teaching is, that in the world there is only "this one creating celestial God, who has power to rule all things and creatures, who is every"where present, and knows all things. Because, when looking down upon the earth, he "commiserated mankind, he commanded his ruling Son, Jesus, to descend, and to be born "into this dusty, toilsome world. He gave up his body to save the world; he died and rose "again to life; and many were the miracles he wrought. Those who believe in him, do not "worship images; but in public places, or in their private rooms, they purify their hearts and “repent of their errors, and turning their faces towards the God of creation (or the creating “God) in the empty space (the firmament, the sky), they kneel and worship, beg forgiveness "for their sins, and implore blessings.

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"Last year I was commissioned to go to Liáng Kwáng, and also received the Emperor's command to tranquillize the affairs of the foreigners; and therefore made strict inquiry "concerning the religion practised by western men, in order to ascertain whether it was 'corrupt or pure: and having carefully examined all the time I was there, I came to know "that what they teach had really nothing in it which was not good. I felt that I ought, "therefore, to memorialize the Emperor, and request that, showing kindness to men from "afar, he would not persecute or prohibit it.

"Now it happened that my private secretary, Mr. Lí, told me of his sickness during the "previous winter, and how that, when all recourse to the gods, to the doctors, and the “diviners, had utterly failed, he chanced to hear of what western men teach concerning "praying for blessings; and at once turning his face towards the sky, he prostrated himself “(i. e. made the kotau) and prayed, calling on the names of the God of heaven and of Jesus. "The next day he was quite well; and from that time whatever he asked in prayer he at once obtained.

"He therefore called upon me to write a form of prayer, commemorating this extraordinary answer of grace, and I have prepared and put it into a record-book for future examination:

"Prayer.

"God only is impartial; he opened the heavens and spread abroad the universe; all that "has form he protects, all intelligences owe their activity to him. He mercifully regards "mankind. Looking down upon the earth, there is nothing that he does not hear, nothing "that he does not behold. How great are the works of God, shedding lustre through all "time! But, alas! that ye, living men, are ignorant of the Divine Lord; and though fully "fed and warmly clothed, are ungrateful for these gifts of God! Depraved, deceitful, gain“seeking, and passionate, you willingly incur God's anger! The appointed day of death "will come, and the punishment of Hades is painfully distressing. O that you, men of the "world, would change your hearts, and reform your lives! 'Do good, and call down "felicity,' are the excellent words of many ages. From this time forward worship God, "and whatever you ask he will give. He will deliver you from eternal punishment, he will แ save you from your sins and miseries. The scrutinizing eye of God is on your thoughts; "(and if good) all blessings will rest upon you! Accept our offerings."

In commenting upon the preceding extract, Dr. Boone observes:

"The case of Mr. Lí Ting here mentioned is very remarkable. His recovery immediately "after his prayer gave occasion, we are told, to this paper. The supposition that the state"ment is false cannot be admitted, for Kí-ying could have had no object in perpetrating and "publishing such a faslehood. And if we accept the fact as here stated, and suppose that "his friend Mr. Lí was really cured immediately after he called upon the names of the God "of heaven and of Jesus, then we have either a very remarkable coincidence, or a signal "interposition of Divine Providence in answer to prayer.

"It is very encouraging to us, as labourers for the advancement of Christ's cause in China,

“to find a man so high in station, publishing at Peking a paper in which he thus declares, that, "having examined the religion practised by 'western men,' he has found it all verily good; "and this too after he has set forth the incarnation, the atonement, and the necessity of re"pentance. This fact may encourage the belief that a great deal more than we have ever "ventured to hope for may have been going on in this vast empire. What would have been “considered more improbable than that a high imperial commissioner should have spent (as “we learn from this paper he did) any portion of his time in writing a form of prayer addressed "to the God worshipped by the western men, whom he had been sent to pacificate ?”

INDIA.

THE legal enactment of our Government, giving to the Hindoo people liberty of conscience in matters of religion, which was anticipated at our last Annual Meeting, actually became the law of India, wherever British authority extends, on the 11th of April, 1850, a day memorable hereafter in the civil and religious history of our Indian empire.

By the Hindoo law, heretofore in universal force, the loss of caste, involved in the adoption of Christianity, subjected the Native Convert to the loss of all which he inherited, or might inherit, from his fathers; and, thenceforth, he became a dependant-an impoverished outcast. The statute by which our Government has honoured itself and blessed India annuls this unrighteous penalty, and provides that—

"So much of any law or usage now in force within the territories subject to the government "of the East India Company, as inflicts on any person forfeiture of rights or property by reason "of his or her renouncing, or having been excluded from the communion of any religion, shall "cease to be enforced as law in the courts of the E. I. Company, and in the courts established "by royal charter within the said territories."

It was not to be expected that this heavy blow and great discouragement would be allowed to fall on the interests of idolatry, without awakening the loud complaints and urgent remonstrances of the bigoted and self-interested Brahmins. An Association was forthwith formed at Calcutta, for the repeal of the obnoxious measure. A Memorial to this effect, numerously signed, was presented to the Governor-General; and, as the mind of his Excellency remained unmoved, it was determined to appeal to the authorities at home. A subscription was raised to send a representative to Britain; and an English advocate may soon be found in our midst, pleading for the intolerant and oppressive claims of idolatry, against the equity and benevolence of his own Government. The result of such an advocacy need excite but little apprehension with the friends of Christianity in India, while the documents published by the Pro-Hindoo Society may afford them both instruction and encouragement.

The Committee, in their appeal for subscriptions, draw a mournful contrast between the present apathy of the people and the liberality of former times:

"At the time of the suppression of the Suttee by Lord William Bentinck," say they," even "the Hindoo widows came forward with their contributions of two or four annas each, as they "were able, in aid of the appeal then made to England for its revival; by this it was known "that the great body of the people of the country adhered to their own religion. We do not "see the same eagerness in regard to the present subscription; thence we suspect that the number of Hindoos has greatly diminished."

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The direct influence of this righteous measure of the Government on the interests of idolatry, is greatly, and perhaps intentionally, exaggerated by the native writers; but their very extravagance evinces the value and importance of the new enactment to the cause of Christian Missions. Thus, they write:

"Of all the cases of injustice shown by the Government towards their Hindoo subjects, "this is by far the worst; for the law through which our evil destiny has been lately published

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"will prove the weapon that will utterly root up the whole tree of Hindooism. Of this there " can be no doubt. By this act the Government has opened the doors, so long closed, which "stood in the way of the destruction of the Hindoo religion, and has made the way easy for "Hindoos to become Christians.

"We well know that, so long as the Government forbore to render them any assistance, all "the outrages of the Missionaries, though counted by thousands, might be disregarded. But "now, when the Government itself, in whose hands are our lives, our property, and all that 66 we have, begin to favour our adversaries, and to seek the destruction of our religion, we see too clearly that our safety is at an end. You may be fully confident that the tide of our " evil fortune has reached its height, and that our trouble is absolutely without bounds."

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But, righteous and good as the act of legislation assuredly is, the expectations of the Directors as to the rapid spread of Christianity are far from equal to the forebodings of these friends of idolatry. The law of our degenerate nature, ruling in the heart of every Hindoo idolater, will remain unchanged; and the Christian convert must still endure the frantic curse of father and mother, the scornful rejection of the wife of his bosom, and still consent to be hated of all men, and to take up his cross, or he cannot become the disciple of Christ. This moral power, arrayed against the downfall of a licentious paganism, will remain with undiminished force; and, while it proves a safeguard to the Indian Church against the intrusion of the insincere and the unworthy, may the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus, written on the hearts of thousands, evince that the things which are impossible with men, are possible with God!

It has often been alleged, not only by Hindoos, but by a certain class of Englishmen, as an unfriendly purpose required, that Missionaries in India were spending their lives in ease and idleness, or exhausting their strength in Utopian projects, since the venerable institutes of Hindooism were so firmly entwined around the hearts of the people, that they would lay down life a willing sacrifice, rather than abandon the faith of their fathers. These charges are sufficiently refuted in the following lamentations of the Hindoo writers:

"The Missionaries lose no opportunity to do us all the injury in their power. They are "continually employing all kinds of means, by force and fraud, to root up our religion, and to "establish the Christian faith.

"We know very well that a very great number of Hindoos have become Christians. Even "of those who have not been baptized, and thus publicly professed Christianity, a great many

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adopt in secret Christian practices. Many boys, fascinated by the wiles of the Missionaries, "have forsaken their mothers' arms, and fled; parents have been bereft of their children, "brothers of their brothers,-wives of their husbands; all the corners of the earth have been "filled with the sounds of lamentation through the power of the Missionaries. How many of "the Hindoos, wounded by their pitiless arrows, pass their days in endless sorrow!"

Our Missionary brethren in Northern and Southern India amount to 54, and they occupy 21 principal Stations, besides numerous outposts.

In their varied labours, they are abundant and unwearied, watching with fidelity over the flocks of which the Holy Ghost hath made them overseers; making wide and lengthened journeys into the wilderness, to seek and save the lost, and gathering the lambs in their arms, and nourishing and strengthening their feeble minds with tender care and early instruction.

The number of our Mission Churches is 31, including more than 1500 Church-members. The number of Schools is 300, containing nearly 14,000 scholars, of which 1230 are girls. In most of the female schools, the children are lodged, boarded, and clothed, as well as taught, under the vigilant and maternal care of the wives of our Missionaries. There they are separated from the polluting associations of heathenism, habituated to industry and order, and trained daily in useful knowledge and mental activity, while the entire system is pervaded by the spirit of piety and love. These nurseries for the Church have yielded abundance of the choicest

fruit; many are now Christian teachers, wives, and mothers, who were nourished in these seminaries; and those kind female friends in Britain, by whom they are chiefly supported, may feel assured that their bounty could not be applied to any object connected with Missions more beneficial and important.

The generous contributors to the Calcutta College will rejoice to learn that, after some unavoidable delay, the foundation-stone of the Institution was to be laid, according to the letter last received from Dr. Boaz, on the 8th of April. The number of youths now enjoying its advantages is 600.

Many evidences of Divine power and mercy have occurred during the year, in which the Hindoo convert, turned from dumb idols to serve the living God, has been constrained, in the face of the most formidable opposition, to make a public profession of his faith in Christ. The following interesting case, communicated by the Rev. E. Lewis, of Travancore, may be selected as an exemplification of the Missionary's reward:

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"We have had a pleasing instance of the power of Divine grace in the case of a young man "of the Soodra caste who has lately joined us. His connexions are numerous, influential, and "wealthy, and his own share in the landed property of his family amounts to more than 1000 "rupees; all of which, together with the friendship and affections of his nearest relatives, he "has cheerfully relinquished for the sake of Christ. For the last three or four years, a con"viction has been gaining strength in his mind, that idolatry could not be the reasonable ser"vice which God requires of intelligent beings.' This conviction was first produced by the "perusal of religious tracts, which he received from our Catechists, and was strengthened by "further conversation with them on the subject of religion. For a long time he was unable to "break through the trammels of caste, and sacrifice all his worldly advantages for the sake of Christ, which he knew he must do if he made a profession of Christianity. A severe illness “which he had about nine months ago led him to a deeper sense of his spiritual danger, and the "necessity of at once yielding himself to the Lord. He was baptized in November last, when he "gave to the congregation present a satisfactory account of the change which his views and 'feelings had undergone, and the reasons which had led him to forsake all, and yield himself "publicly to the Lord. I trust, if spared, to receive him to the communion of the Church on "the first Sabbath in April next. His progress in knowledge and grace affords me much satis"faction, as well as his pious and earnest efforts to instruct the surrounding heathen in the "truths of the gospel."

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It may be readily concluded, that in a country where the minds of the people are enfeebled and degraded by abominable idolatries, and where every convert must pass through much tribulation before he can enter the kingdom of God, the exercises of the mind will often be conflicting, and the determination to renounce worldly enjoyments and endeared connexions for the sake of the Redeemer be slowly attained. But the dead spirit of the idolater is often quickened by the Word of God and the power of His grace, without the intervention of any human agency; and light, and faith, and courage make silent advances in the mind, until at length confession is made unto salvation. A gratifying narrative, supplied by the Rev. E. Porter, of Cuddapah, is adduced in illustration:

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"About three years ago the Mission at Cuddapah was much distressed at the sickness and "death of one of the best and most useful of the Catechists. Poor Chittary !—his household was broken up, and, as is the custom, his few effects were sold for the benefit of his family. Among other things sold was an old Teloogoo Testament. A heathen man was at the sale, "who appeared very anxious to obtain the book; he bid on to the full extent of its value; nay, even beyond it, and it became his own. A young Christian reader standing by, said to him "Sir, take that book, and do not look at its value by the money you give, but at its contents; “you have a treasure, take it home and read it—never part with it.' He carried it to his home "and often read it, and though he continued to worship his idols he found no rest. The man 2 D

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VOL. XXIX.

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