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what the geologist requires, an era of this world's history ante-dating, many a long age, the existence of man. He asks not that the origin of man should be regarded as different from what Moses represents it to be;-all he demands is, that it should not be assumed without proof, nay, in the midst of proof to the contrary, that there were no other states or revolutions of the globe before man became its inhabitant.
Dr. Hitchcock's Lectures, contained in the volume which we now introduce to our readers, will be found very instructive on a vast variety of topics connected with the discoveries of modern geology. The difficulties which arise in ordinary minds, in reference to this branch of science, are handled with great skill and delicacy; and we should hope that the result would be the removal of many scruples; or at least a determination to become acquainted with the actual state of facts which geology has disclosed to the view of mankind.
The Lectures are XIV., on the following topics: I. Revelation Illustrated by Science. II. The Epoch of the Earth's Creation unrevealed. III. Death a universal law of Organic Beings on this globe from the beginning. IV. The Noachian Deluge compared with the Geological Deluges. V. The World's supposed Eternity. VI. Geological Proofs of the Divine Benevolence. VII. Divine Benevolence as exhibited in a Fallen World. VIII. Unity of the Divine Plan and Operation in all ages of the World's History. IX. The Hypothesis of Creation by law. X. Special and Miraculous Providence. XI. The future Condition and Destiny of the Earth. XII. The Telegraphic System of the Universe. XIII. The vast Plans of Jehovah. XIV. Scientific Truth, rightly understood, is Religious Truth.
All these interesting topics are handled with great acuteness, and vast comprehension of mind. The only fault we find with the volume is, that the Author has taken too much for granted the knowledge of his readers. Had he taken a little more pains to explain principles, he would thereby have adapted his book to a wider circle. But we have a full conviction that his labours will tempt research; and, if so, there is an advantage even in his reserves.
THE INQUISITION REVEALED; in its Origin Policy, Cruelties, and History, with Memoirs of its Victims in France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, England, India, and other countries. Dedicated to Cardinal Wiseman. By Rev. THOMAS TIMPSON, Author of the "Companion to the Bible," &c. &c. Small 8vo.
London: Aylott and Jones.
Ir Cardinal Wiseman would "read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest," the terrible facts
of this volume (for facts they are, and facts in Popish history), it might abate somewhat of his vaunting description of his intolerant and persecuting community. Mr. Timpson has done good service, in collecting into one portable volume, the best records extant of that iniquitous thing called the Inquisition, which, thank God! could never have realized an existence, except under Roman Catholic auspices. It is assuredly the fitting appendage of an infallible church; though, in its working, it has resembled more the work of fiends than of men. Let no one suppose that the antichristian apostasy has ever parted with this instrument of terror, except when compelled; or that it will not resort to it whenever it dare. It is a persecutor at heart, and on principle, and will always persecute when it can. So will all kindred systems, when they have the power.
This is just the book wanted, in these times-to show up Rome in her own frightful colours. The English mind needs to be reinstructed in the history of the past, and to be warned against all sympathy with a system which has fattened upon the wreck of humanity.
Mr. Timpson's work contains the substance of the valuable works of Limborch, Llorente, Dellon, Gavin, Buchanan, Bower, Newton, Gibbon, Watson, Ranke, Sismondi, Jones, Puigblanch, Edgar, Elliott, Mendham, Gresler, Dowling, D'Aubigné, De Costro, Achilli, and many others, regarding the Inquisition."
The historical accuracy of the work may be relied on. Let Englishmen read it; and then side with Rome, if they think that its Holy Inquisiton belongs to the mild and merciful Redeemer. We believe it to be of its father the devil.
Nonconformists we are interested in them. | look to tradition equally, in their different
We know that if the Establishment is not greatly changed, it will become an enormous instrument for evil to our country and mankind. We hail honest reformers, therefore, within its pale; and would not judge them harshly, because they have liberty of conscience to remain at their posts. If they believe not in baptismal regeneration, they must be reformers, or dishonest men. Would that their numbers were multiplied a thousand-fold! It would minister to the good of our country. But there is an awful and portentous hush among the evangelical clergy. They seem afraid to speak out. But, if deliverance is to be wrought for them, they must speak out much more boldly. They have been, as we think, wasting their opportunities; and one is sometimes tempted to think that they would be willing to let the Puseyites remain in the Establishment, if they themselves were not excluded. Much more determined measures, and a more intense love of cardinal truths, must obtain, if either the Liturgy or the discipline of the Episcopate is to be reformed. The assumptions of apostolical succession, the priestly status of the clergy, the whole theory of sacramental grace, must be abandoned, if any thing worthy of the name of reform is effected.
But we are delighted to find some good and holy men beginning to speak out. We wish them all success, though they are not with us. If they prevail, the advantage will be for the Christian world at large, and we shall have our share of the benefit. But the task is a mighty one, and can only be effected by combination, a spirited press, and deep and strong conviction on the part of those who move in the great and salutary reform.
The pamphlets named at the head of this article are the productions of persons whom we know to be right-hearted, and who sigh and mourn over the existing state of things. The proposed reform of the baptismal service, if not so searching as we could wish, would vitally alter the revolting and objectionable office as it now stands in the Book of Common Prayer.
The second tract contains much that we approve, in treating of the grounds of Infant Baptism; though we know not how, upon the principles advocated, baptism could be administered to the children of the ungodly parents of a whole parish.
The third and largest work is a bold and honest attack upon all high-church notions; and is well calculated to lay open the vulnerable parts of the Anglo-catholic system, which has no defence to set up against Rome; the only way to pull down Rome and it too, being to take at once to the weapons of the Bible. Against these, neither Dr. Wiseman nor Dr. Pusey can stand; and hence they
ways, as their only sure stronghold.
THIS discourse is founded on Paul's prophetic passage respecting the "Man of Sin," and is one of the most masterly expositions of that passage we remember to have seen. It enters into a thorough analysis of the phraseology of the apostle; traces the rise, progress, and consummation of the Papal system; and shows in a manner singularly conclusive that, beyond any other form of superstition, it unites in itself all the attributes and characteristics of the "Man of Sin." After an able and pertinent introduction, the following are the topics which Dr. Morison discusses:-Paul's Warning as to the Coming of the Lord; The Apostasy to precede the Coming of the Lord; The Advent of an Agent opprobriously designated as the Result of the Apostasy; The Prophetic Attributes of the "Man of Sin;" The Predicted Destiny of the Adverse Power Described; Prophetic Notes of the Great Apostasy. The discussion of these important and deeply interesting points is wound up with a solemn and trumpettoned appeal to Protestants, on the duty and necessity of striving to withstand the progress of Popery, whether found creeping and hissing serpent-like among the Puseyites, or flaunting like a bedizened harlot among the avowed Romanists.
But instead of entering into anything like a lengthened eulogy as a commendation of this discourse, we shall present an extract or two, which will attest its excellence beyond any remarks we might offer. On the head, "The Advent of an Agent opprobriously designated as the Result of the Apostasy," the Doctor observes:
"Let us look at the titles of this terrific agent, and then try and ascertain who he is. First, he is called the man of sin.' The phrase is Jewish, and denotes a man preeminently flagitious-an example of concentrated and insufferable depravity. The use of the article, as in the case of the apostasy, intensifies the appellation, and seems to point to him as a person who should be well known in the history of the Christian Church for his deeds of unexampled infamy and crime.
"His next title is, the son of perdition. It is not a little remarkable that this is the very title given to Judas, the arch-betrayer, by the Holy One of God' (John xvii. 12). The phrase, like the former one, is Jewish, and denotes one who is given over to destruction. But as the fearful doom of Judas arose out of his crime, we are mainly reminded, in the appellation given to him, of the heinous
ness of his offence in betraying the Son of man with a kiss,' and selling him to the Jews for thirty pieces of silver.' And so in looking at the phrase, the son of perdition,' as applied to the representative of the predicted apostasy, we fix our indignant gaze upon him as the betrayer of Christ, under the guise of pretended friendship.
"Doubtless he is the son of perdition,' as doomed to the due reward of his crimes; but he stands out, in the language of the apostle, branded with all the infamy of the arch-betrayer of the Son of man.'
"The third title applied by Paul to the atrocious character of whom he speaks is, 'that wicked, or the wicked one;' for again the article is used, which is a sort of special mark, indicative of the horrible depravity which he either embodies or sanctions in the system over which he presides.
"Where, then, are we to look in history for this agent, whose formidable status, yea, whose very existence, according to Paul, arose out of the early corruptions of the Christian faith? As we contemplate the man of sin,' the son of perdition,'-' that wicked one,' we trace his originating cause in that mystery of iniquity,' of which the apostle tells us that it did already work' in his day. It is not a mere sequence of events of which Paul here speaks; but a connected series of relative manifestations of the same great system of moral and spiritual evil, tracing back to that apostasy, or falling away from the simplicity that is in Christ Jesus,' which began to operate with such baneful effect in the apostolic age.
'If, then, we cannot find this extraordinary agent of evil in palpable relationship to that mystery of iniquity' which had begun to operate in the days of Paul, we shall despair of finding him at all, or of his ever being found at any future period in the history of the world. Something prevented his revelation in Paul's day; and but for that something, there were elements at work which would have produced his revelation. I gather two conclusions from this fact: the first is, that the apostasy, and the revelation of 'the man of sin,' are events which stand in the relation to each other of cause and effect; the apostasy' was the parent of the man of sin.' My second conclusion is, that the man of sin' cannot be some individual isolated man, who was to perform the part assigned to him in the great drama of prophecy, and then to pass off the stage of time like any other man, having done his dreadful work. The apostle's language, unless it were constructed to deceive, forbids this; for he tells the Thessalonians that his 'man of sin' would even then be revealed, but for an intercepting power. Such a man of sin,' then, as he describes, could not be any single isolated hu
man being, however tremendous in personal attributes, but rather a representative agent and head of some huge system of religious apostasy; produced whenever the apostasy had power to do so, and perpetuated and reproduced as long as the apostasy was suffered, in God's moral government, to survive. The man of sin' of whom Paul speaks, was ready in his day to be revealed; he would then have found his place and his status, if something had not stood in the way; but that something-and we shall see what it wasprevented his advent. He could not, then, be an individual isolated man; nor could he be a character whose advent was to be deferred to the end of the world, for the elements of his manifestation were all at work; and whenever an existing impediment was removed out of the way, he was to be fully revealed.
"I can find these conditions nowhere but in the Papal system; the great Roman apostasy, with its accredited head. In Paul's use of epithets which imply personality, there is nothing inconsistent with the theory which we adopt. Rome, ever since it became apostate, has always been represented by a living, personal, human head, who embodies its authority, and administers its laws. Let me also remark that, to speak of a successional head as if he were an individual person, though he may be multiplied and reproduced indefinitely, is by no means inconsistent either with common or scriptural usage. The king or head of a political dynasty or kingdom never dies, though all kings are mortal; just because the law has provided for a successor, with all his legal attributes, that the throne may never be strictly vacated. Thus, in the Book of Daniel, the 7th and 8th chapters, and in the 13th chapter of the Apocalypse, a single beast represents a kingdom or empire, though that empire passes through a series of successive changes and revolutions. The woman, too, arrayed in purple and scarlet, of whom we read in the Book of Revelation (chap. xvii. 4), refers to no single woman, but is the meretricious counterfeit of another symbolic woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet. Indeed, the word king' is employed by Daniel (chap. vii. 2; ix. 36) in two passages, to which I cannot but think Paul refers in the text, to portray a succession of kings, all representing and upholding the same huge system of moral and spiritual turpitude.
I conclude, then, from all these and other considerations, that a successional, and not an individual' man of sin' is predicted by Panl. The work assigned to the agent described is not that of a single human life, but of various and successive persons, occupying the same position, and representing the same system. Where can we find one so notorious as Paul's
'man of sin,' connected as he must be with an early apostasy from the truth, but in the head of the Papal system? He was the result, and the actual creation of a tremendous falling away from pure and primitive Christianity. Nor is there anything opposed to sober history and fact in describing the successional head of the Papacy by the opprobrious epithets here employed by Paul."
Again, on the topic, "The Prophetic Attributes of the 'Man of Sin,'" Dr. Morison uses the following striking and conclusive arguments:
"Two characteristics are here named: he must have opposed and exalted himself 'above all that is called god, or that is worshipped, and he must have sat 'as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.'
"1. Take the first prophetic note of recognition;-is it not palpably fulfilled? Has not the head of the Papal system 'opposed and exalted himself above all that is called god, or that is worshipped'? But in order to feel the conviction which Paul presses upon us, we must understand him as here speaking, not of the true God, nor of any heathen deity, but of the same kind of gods of whom Christ speaks when he said to the Jews, 'Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods? If he called them gods unto whom the word of God came, and the Scripture cannot be broken; say ye of him whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?' (John x. 34-36.) If Paul had meant the living and true God, he would not have used the phrase, all that is called god. He has no such meaning; but taking the term 'god, as it was well known to be used, to express distinguished office or rank of any kind, whether secular or spiritual, he makes it a distinct mark of the man of sin,' that he 'opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is, thus, by way of accommodation, 'called god, or is worshipped;' that is, with such worship, homage, and respect, as are given to such earthly dignities. Now we are prepared to maintain, that above all these, the Papal system, with its formidable head, the Pope, has literally exalted itself. Every tyro in history knows that the Pope, as Universal Bishop, has claimed supremacy over all other bishops, and over all spiritual functionaries, and churches, and individuals, and even heretics themselves. To this hour, and in a recent bull, the Pope claims the world as his fold, and even old England itself, though three hundred years ago it shook off his tyrannous yoke.
"Nor has he less usurped the temporal than the spiritual. English and Irish Catholics may tell us that he affects nothing but the spiritual: but history tells us a very
different tale. As the successor of Peter, the Pope is verily 'the king of kings, and the lord of lords.' 'Papists find it convenient,' observes Dr. Anderson, at present, to deny that he makes any claim of secular jurisdiction; but they do so in contradiction of a thousand historical facts, and an open avowal of principles wherever it has been safe to make it. Hear what was said and transacted at the coronation of Pio Nono. Three days after his inauguration as supreme Pontiff, "he presented himself aloft on the balcony of the same edifice, when the oldest cardinal approached him, and removed from his head the mitre and replaced it with the crown, uttering these words, Receive the Tiara or triple crown, and know that thou art the Father of Princes, and the King and Ruler of,-the small patrimony of St. Peter in Italy?faugh!-King and Ruler of the world!" Think, brethren, of the insolence of that; think of its impotence: but, especially, think of the manner in which that tiara attracts for his brow the lightnings of this prophecy, to brand him as the man of sin' of whom we are in quest, as one who 'exalts himself above all that is called god.'"
"Take these unblushing pretensions, and interpret them by the facts of history, and you will then see how literally Paul's prediction has been fulfilled by the Pope's assumptions, both spiritual and temporal. Time was, when the religious and political functionaries of Europe sat crouching at his feet, and when kings and emperors, no less than the ministers and professors of religion, were his absolute and helpless vassals. To kiss his toe, to hold his stirrup, or to stand suppliant at his gate, was the high game of kings in the middle ages; and we predict that it will be their game once more, if they do not with determined energy ignore for ever his preposterous claims.
"2. But the second prophetic sign is as distinctly fulfilled as the first. Has not the Pope sat in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God'? Here it is rendered certain that the man of sin' is an ecclesiastical functionary; and this answers expressly to the head of the Papal apostasy. He has ever sat, at least by profession, in the termple of God.' The phrase has no connexion with the Jewish temple, except such as arises from symbolical reference. In Paul's writings, the word is much used; and never in reference to the temple at Jerusalem. submit that it must mean the Christian Church. 'Know ye not,' said Paul to the Corinthians, that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are' (1 Cor. iii. 16, 17). And again, speaking of the purity of Chris
tian fellowship, which ought to distinguish | the New Testament Church, the apostle indignantly asks, 'And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God.' (2 Cor. vi. 16.)
The Pope, then, had his place, from the earliest revelation of his power and pretension as the man of sin,' in the professedly Christian Church. Now, does it accord with history and fact, that he'as God' has sat in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God? We say, boldly and fearlessly, that this has ever been his blasphemous claim. He has mimicked God's power, God's authority, God's wisdom, and God's infallibility. Look at the portentous office which he claims, when he declares himself to be 'Christ's Vicar on earth.' He is not his representative-his ambassador, merely, but his very substitute: he assumes to occupy his place, and though a puny worm of dust, wields his awful prerogative, pretending to exercise dominion over the visible and invisible worlds, and with infallible skill to regulate and control all that pertains to the universal church. I am not aware that he has ever taken to himself the name of God; but it has been given him a thousand times, without rebuke on his part; and he who affects Divine attributes, and claims to act in God's place, need not scruple the additional blasphemy of saying that he is God. But if he has abstained from this, his theologians and the councils which have been subject to him, have employed the current title of our Lord God, his Holiness the Pope; and unblushingly it has been claimed for him by the canonists of the Papal apostasy, that 'the sentence of the Pope is the same as that of God, so that from him to God there is no appeal. His tribunal and that of God is the same." "
To these extracts we are persuaded nothing need be added. When they have been perused, we cannot doubt that every intelligent Protestant will endeavour to give the widest possible circulation to this very masterly Tract, as eminently adapted to the present times.
the adaptation of the Christian Religion to the capacity of the Child; and the Sunday-school as a means of applying it to the mind of the Child.
WHAT IS POPERY? A Catechism of the Principles, Doctrines, and Practices of the Roman Catholic Church. By JOHN HAYDEN. Small 8vo. pp. 48.
Jackson and Walford.
THE catechetical form of instruction has
great advantages for the young, and others possessed of limited knowledge. We are glad to hail every kind of honourable and scriptural warfare with the Papal system, with which, in these times, there ought to be no truce for a single hour. Mr. Hayden's catechism is full of good information, in reference both to Protestant and Popish doctrines; and will prove an admirable work for distribution among the cottages of the poor, which are so often infested, about our large towns and cities, by the emissaries of Rome. We thank Mr. Hayden for a seasonable and well-digested catechism upon the single question "What is Popery?" We hope it will be circulated by thousands and tens of thousands.
BRIEF NOTICES OF THE LIFE AND MINISTERIAL LABOURS OF THE REV. JOHN DENNANT, forty-four years Pastor of the Independent Church at Halesworth, Suffolk; with the Funeral Sermon preached to the Church, on the Lord's-day after his death. By JOHN FLOWER, Jun. 8vo. pp. 46.
London: John Snow.
MR. DENNANT was a truly primitive character, who made full proof of his ministry, and left behind him a bright and unstained reputation for vital goodness and ministerial fidelity. Mr. Flower has done well in giving publicity both to the Biographical Notices of his friend, and to his Funeral Sermon preached on occasion of his death. Both do him credit. They are fresh tributes, well and tastefully paid, to departed worth. If the publication circulates as it deserves, a new edition will speedily be called for.