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Now, let it be observed, that Mr. Greg has told us (page 41), that "the Jehovistic documents," viz., those portions of the Pentateuch in which the name 'Jehovah' is employed," were written about the reign of Solomon." The passage quoted from the book of Exodus, it will be seen, is Jehovistic. Here, then, he quotes a document which he affirms to have been written about the reign of Solomon; and, in order to exhibit the advance of the conception of God, during the lapse of ages, from a lower to a loftier form, he compares this passage, written in the reign of Solomon, with another passage uttered by Solomon himself! According to Mr. Greg's theory on the progressiveness of Theism, the passage from Exodus must have been written some hundreds of years before the passage from 1 Kings, just as we believe and maintain. But, according to Mr. Greg's avowed belief, the two passages were written at the same time!! Here, then, is Mr. Greg quoting two passages, which he affirms were the production of the same age, in order to exhibit the advance which the lapse of some hundreds of years would produce on the Theism of the Jews! How strange and contradictory the conclusions to which our author's "scientific process" leads him. One is, that the book of Exodus was written some hundreds of years before the reign of Solomon! Another is, that the said book was not written till the reign of Solomon! Verily, Mr. Greg is most dexterous at the work of self-refutation! Like a genuine son of Saturn, he devours his own offspring as soon as they are born!

It may be thought by some of our readers, that the weapon with which we are here assailing Mr. Greg has two edges; and that if

our argument goes to prove that Exodus, and the succeeding books of the Pentateuch, were written during the Mosaic age, it proves also that Genesis must have been written prior to the said age. In reply to this, it is sufficient

to point to the representations given of the Divine Being at the opening of this book, in connection with the work of creation. But on this branch of the subject we cannot enter more fully at present. We only allude to it that we may remove a difficulty which might occur to some minds as to the conclusiveness of our argument.

We are sorry that we cannot afford space for a few observations on Mr. Greg's chapter on prophecy. We must satisfy ourselves with little more, however, than merely saying, that it is very evident he does not understand the subject. He seems to have a mind utterly incapable of rising into sympathy with the amplitude and grandeur of the theme. What does not suit the measure of his own narrow and stinted capacity, he is unable to relish. We find him enumerating a few petty difficulties found in the prophetical books, which have long since been brushed away by the researches of our modern criticism. But it does not suit Mr. Greg to take any notice of the solutions that have been given of these difficulties. He passes by without notice the labours of Christian scholars, who, to say the least, are quite as eminent for learning and for patient research as the infidel writers whom he so highly lauds. These infidel critics sometimes remind us of the common fly, when they thus, however often driven from them, pertinaciously persist in returning to suck at the wounds which the want of critical learning and appliances on the part of our forefathers unhappily opened on the body of our own holy faith. Mr. Greg especially seems to delight in this degrading occupation. Our readers have seen with what gust he could indulge this miserable appetite, at such passages as the Hebrews borrowing from the Egyptians, and the apostles believing that the world would end with the then existing generation. So it is throughout his entire book. He sometimes tries, indeed, to open a fresh wound. We give the following from the chapter before us. He says (in a note, page 62, to show the "disingenuousness" of Christian writers), "The Messianic Prophecies are interpreted literally or figuratively, as may best suit their adaptation to the received history of Jesus. Thus, that 'the wolf shall lie down with the lamb, and the lion eat straw like the ox,' is taken figuratively; that the Messiah should ride into Jerusalem on an ass, is taken literally." Now, we think that Mr. Greg might have at once discerned, that there is enough of difference between the simple act of riding on an ass, and the working of such

a change on the instincts of the lion and the wolf, as would, in fact, amount to a re-creation of them-as sufficiently to justify the literal interpretation of the one passage, and the figurative interpretation of the other.

We beg earnestly to recommend to any of our readers who may wish to read a work of enlarged and comprehensive views on this subject, "The Structure of Prophecy," a book of no formidable dimensions, lately sent forth from the pen of Mr. Douglas, of Cavers. Even Mr. Greg himself might derive some benefit from the perusal of it.

We must now close our strictures on this work, for the present, hoping again to return to it next month, and to deal with the great question of Inspiration.

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9. THE CHURCH OF THE POPE IS NEITHER CATHOLIC, APOSTOLIC, NOR ROMAN; and were she Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman, she yet would not be the Church of Jesus Christ. From the French of NAPOLEON ROUS


10. THE SOLDIERS OF THE POPE; a Short Catechism for the Use of Roman Catholics. From the French of NAPOLEON ROUS





Ward and Co.

TRACTS well adapted for circulation among Roman Catholics are by no means so plentifully supplied as they ought to be. The age demands that this benighted class of our fellow-men should have a large measure of the sympathy of the Christian church. Mr. Roussel, who is acquainted with Popery in all its bearings, and has a great talent for dealing with Romanists, has conferred a great boon on the Christian church by the publication of

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THIS Discourse is truly valuable for the enlightened and touching exposition it contains of one of the most striking sections of Psa. ciii. 15-18. We do not remember, of late, to have seen a more just or vivid picture of the frailty of human life, when viewed even in its most attractive lights; nor a more happy appeal from the frailty of man to the mercy of God. Both sides of this picture are equally forcibly sketched, and the grand scriptural lessons are fully and wisely enforced.

But the special value of the Discourse consists in the truthful and beautiful narrative which it contains of the Christian character and graces of one for whom we had lorg entertained a more than ordinary respect. Mrs. Thomas Spalding, who was very suddenly removed from her loving circle, was a lady of distinguished excellence, who adorned religion in all the circles in which she moved. Mr. Forster has drawn a portrait of her which all her friends will be able to recognize; and which cannot fail to be impressive to all who look upon it. It is a fine pastoral testimony to the grace of God, which was greatly magnified in the life and death of Mrs. Spalding. We hope the little affecting memorial will be widely circulated; for it is eminently fitted for general usefulness.


London: John Snow. THE Great Exhibition has been a source of benefit in a variety of ways; but in none more so than in the numerous publications to which it has given birth. Lessons social, political, intellectual, moral, and spiritual, have been drawn from it, and presented to the world through the press. And it cannot be doubted that these lessons are among the

means which will contribute to the extension of peace, happiness, and religion throughout the world. Mr. Birch has honourably and efficiently taken his place in the fellowship of writers, who have endeavoured to make the Exhibition a medium of spiritual instruction. His lessons are pertinent and impressive, and often conveyed with great depth of feeling and felicity of expression. His little book cannot fail to be useful, and, therefore, we very cordially commend it to our readers.



THE melancholy tidings have just reached us of the death of the Rev. Joseph John Freeman, one of the Secretaries of the London Missionary Society. The affecting event took place on Monday, the 8th September, at Homburg, Germany, whither he had repaired for the benefit of the celebrated mineral waters of that place.

Since Mr. Freeman's return from Africa, he had experienced considerable interruption of health; but none of his medical advisers anticipated any fatal termination of the symptoms under which he suffered. During the process, however, of drinking the waters at Homburg, our lamented friend was seized with a severe cold, followed by rheumatic fever, which utterly prostrated his strength, and brought on dropsy, which closed the scene. The dying hours of our beloved brother were soothed by the presence of his excellent wife and daughters, which, in a foreign land and among strangers, must have been an unspeakable consolation. On the 10th of September, his mortal remains were deposited in the public cemetery at Homburg; a place which, in future, will be visited by many a Christian traveller, anxious to see the spot where the Missionary Philanthropist found a peaceful grave.

We regard the removal of Mr. Freeman as a great public loss. He had all the enterprise and all the benevolence of a Christian philanthropist. Madagascar was the interesting school in which, with a heart glowing with hallowed zeal, he acquired that noble sympathy for the oppressed and persecuted which never forsook him. At this early period of his public life, he was thrown into close intimacy with Dr. Philip, and, doubtless, from that dauntless advocate of the coloured race, received an impulse which invigorated all the original tendencies of his generous nature. When compelled, by the Madagascar


persecution, to leave a sphere in which God had greatly blessed his enlightened and faithful toil, he returned to his native shores with a spirit unquenched, and a missionary zeal unimpaired. The churches received him with a cordial greeting; and the Board of Directors recognized in him the qualifications of their future Home Secretary, Driven from his post in the Missionary field, it was the will of God that he should serve the same great cause in his native land, and in other departments of devoted service. How well he acquitted himself in the new duties to which he was called, is best known to those who witnessed his assiduity, his practical wisdom, and his courteous deportment. He acquired for himself, without a particle of assumption, a standing in the confidence of the Board, and, we may add, in the estimation of the country, which rendered it only a fitting homage to his character to depute him on the highest services of the Mission. With a disinterestedness which few men with a family would have been prepared to indicate, at the bidding of the town and country Directors, he promptly and cheerfully undertook the arduous task, first, of a visit to the Mission churches in the West Indies, and, second, to those of South Africa. How well he performed the delicate and difficult duties confided to him, the minutes of the board, the testimony of our Missionaries, and the verdict of the public, will abundantly confirm. How mysterious, that, just at the moment when he had acquired the largest amount of influence, and when his services for the Society were more than ever needed, he should be withdrawn from his important sphere! We would be still, and know that Jehovah is God. May the visitation be greatly sanctified to the Society and to his bereaved family! We hope, next month, to furnish a memoir of our deceased friend.

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They that have used the office of a deacon well, purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in

Christ Jesus."-1 TIM. iii. 13. "So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom."

THE following brief and imperfect sketch, is intended as an affectionate tribute to the memory of a good man, whom, in life, the writer had known and loved; and with whom, moreover, it was his happiness, for a season, to be personally associated in the work of the gospel. The events I have to record are few, and unattended by any of that striking incident which religious obituaries оссаsionally present. To me this is the great recommendation of the present narrative. A really useful life commonly is thus. The river which, almost throughout its entire course, offers its broad and placid surface to the trader or the traveller-to convey the mer. chandise of the one, or the person of the other, wherever its waters can transport them, -may be but a tame and dull affair, compared with the Falls of Niagara, or the cataracts of the Nile; but then these very circumstances, which to the lover of romance and incident are so attractive-if the use of rivers be the question are really neither more nor less than irremediable defects;-detrimental, or, more properly, destructive, precisely in the degree in which, to the eye in search of such objects, they claim to be great and imposing. If the analogy be true, the prayer of a man of God, emulous of a useful life, may well be, to be delivered from all these.

Mr. William Gannell was born in London, in April, 1793. His parents were respectable, and, what is better still, they were persons fearing God; and anxious therefore, as we should conceive all really Christian parents must of necessity be, to conduct their offspring early to the feet of Jesus. Evidence of this anxiety we have, especially in regard to the mother, in her habit, as it would seem, of taking her son with her to the prayer-nieeting, which she herself attended at Buckingham Chapel; of this, in after years, the son oftentimes has been known most gratefully and feelingly to speak. Commonly, so far as the writer's experience extends-and he has long carefully observed the matter-the most active, and consistent, and useful members of the church of Christ, who have been converted early in life to God, have come forth from the knees of a pious mother. "The promise is to you and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call." But the parents reap as they sow. With professedly Chris

tian parents, I believe this rule has all the fixedness of a positive law, in the doings of the providence of God. Here is a Christian mother, who let her "light" shine before her children; who could find time, amid the cares of a rising family, to attend the prayer-meeting; and who could exhibit sufficient consistency, and sufficient faith, to conduct her children thither with her. We need not be surprised, therefore, to learn, that at the comparatively early age of nineteen years, the subject of this sketch is found, in all the earnestness of a first love, offering himself as a candidate for the fellowship of the church at Buckingham Chapel, where, in the company of his godly and faithful mother, he had so often worshipped. Christian mothers, who would have Christian children, go ye and do likewise! The grace to convert is God's; but the means through which this grace flows are yours. Do you your work, in the strength of a living, obedient faith, and rest assured God will do his.

Of his further connexion with this chapel, giving the detail of the walks of usefulness in which he there engaged, no facts have been communicated to the writer. The matured Christian growth, however, of subsequent years, and the character of active benevolence which then so prominently marked his Christianity, are sufficient proof, to an observant mind, that he was neither an idle nor an unprofitable hearer, during the remainder of his attendance on the ministry of the late Rev. E. A. Dunn. Indeed, he has spoken to the writer, of the benefit he derived from this ministry; and commended especially, in its influence on himself, the experimental tone by which at times it was marked; in which he conceived Mr. Dunn peculiarly to have excelled.

About the year 1827, change of residence brought Mr. Gannell into the neighbourhood of Robert-street Chapel. He joined the church there; and from that time till his removal, in the course of the present year, to "the church of the firstborn whose names are written in heaven," he continued zealously and affectionately in its fellowship-a period verging closely upon a quarter of a century. His Christian character speedily manifested itself to his fellow-members, and, as a mark of their confidence, their suffrages singled him out to supply one of two vacancies in the deaconship of the church, which occurred very shortly after his transfer to this new fellowship.

It was subsequent to his connexion with the church in Robert-street, that he entered upon that more enlarged and public sphere of usefulness, by which the latter years of his life were distinguished. Having time at his disposal, and his heart prompting him to the work, he accepted, in 1834, the appoint

ment of Scripture Reader, under the Berkeley and Grosvenor-square District Visiting Society, which post he filled for about ten years; and although the writer has no actual data on which to ground an assertion, yet, knowing Mr. Gannell's peculiar fitness for domestic visitation, he ventures to express his conviction, that few Societies have ever been better served, in the direct object which his appointment contemplated,-than was this Society, during the time the deceased continued in the discharge of this trying and anxious office. There was a definiteness and distinctness in his mode of addressing the conscience, and a fulness and adaptedness in his manner of applying the mercies of the gospel, with a manner so kind and evidently sincere, as left, him, I apprehend, with few superiors in this peculiar field of Christian enterprise. His appetite for the work of Christ seems only to have been quickened by these week-day toils in His service; and hence we find him, in 1837, connecting himself with the Sailors' Society, as one of its preaching agents, and devoting himself, on the Lord's-day, assiduously and affectionately to the work of preaching and tract-distributing, amongst this destitute and then greatly neglected class. He continued in this employment until his failing strength compelled him to relinquish it.

Either contemporaneously with this service to our seamen, or subsequently, he was also frequently engaged in open-air preaching, in the neighbourhood of Paddington; and many pleasing instances of good resulting from these efforts have been brought to light. At this the writer is not surprised, as the deceased had no mean gift for preaching, which made him a most acceptable supply, not only to auditories thus hastily collected in our streets, but to many rural congregations which, from time to time, he was invited to visit in the vicinity of the metropolis. In the brief statement of facts from which I am writing, it is most significantly remarked, as perhaps the best evidence of his preaching talent"Wherever he once went, he was always again requested to supply." Other things being equal, the Christian teacher who can command the attention of a street congregation, will hardly fail in his attempt to interest the more orderly assemblies of our houses of prayer. There can be few more severe tests of a preacher's popular powers, than that which a street-pulpit supplies.

Adverting now to a wholly different sphere of labour, we find the name of the deceased on the committees of one and another of the religious and benevolent institutions established in his own locality; and that not as a matter of form merely-the thing beginning and ending with the enrolling of his naine in the list of the committee-but as a duty to be conscientiously and punctually discharged,

to the extent of his opportunities and means I think that all the societies with which he consented to connect himself, will bear the deceased this testimony. In one feature here he greatly excelled; namely, the drawing up of Reports and Appeals, and other documents of this kind, and hence this description of work, in which negligence, or want of clearness and consistency, or absence of heart, tell so ill upon the prosperity of a Society, very commonly devolved upon him; and most cheerfully, I may add, and readily, did he undertake this work. To him it was emphatically, amid all his other avocations, a "labour of love." His last act of authorship was most appropriate, as the closing performance of a life occupied, so largely and so long, in a succession of attempts to extend the kingdom of Christ amongst men. It consisted of an essay, written in a spirit of deep and earnest piety, upon the best means of promoting a revival of religion in our churches; delivered originally before the members of the West London Mental Improvement Society, and subsequently published, at the request of the Society and other friends. Ministers or members of our churches, anxious to see a revival of religion in their midst, would do well to procure and study the contents of this essay.

Upon the personal and domestic history of Mr. Gannell, the writer is neither permitted nor called upon to enlarge. Those who have marked the lives of the more thoroughly sincere, and useful, and aspiring amongst the disciples of Christ-whether in or out of the ministry-will be prepared to expect that the life we are now briefly reviewing, was formed more or less upon the model of that of the "Man of sorrows." It seems, at once, the preparation and the price, especially of great usefulness in the service of Christ, that the Master's cross should rest constantly on the shoulders of the disciple. Thus was it here. Mr. Gannell was long familiar with God's afflictive providences. Again and again was he "bereaved of his children." Not less than seven times was he exercised with this severe and distressing visitation; and thus often, might the mourning father have been seen, like Rachel of old, "weeping for his children." At length, as though to complete the sad scene of desolation which these repeated inroads upon the domestic hearth had been, from time to time, effecting, the grave,-which had so frequently been opened for the children, is now prepared for the wife-and to the remembrance of the many voices, now silenced for ever, which once called him "father," is now added the still more bitter remembrance of the sealing of those lips of love which, through all his other changes, for a period of thirty years, had day by day continued uninterruptedly to remind him of God's sparing mercy, in permitting the wife of his

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