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tery. They alone pretend to understand the secret of preparing the poison. They are men who live in the interior of the mountains, and are called Orangdaias. They are easily known, because they all tattoo their arms with a blue substance like indigo. They make an incision in the bark of the tree, from which a gummy substance exudes ; this is generally collected in the evening, and is preserved in a joint of bamboo. About eight ounces of this is carefully strained into a bowl. drachm of arum, amomum, common onion, garlic, and black pepper is then added, and the mixture is stirred. A single seed of capsicum fruticosum is then placed in the fluid in the middle of the bowl; the seed begins to reel round rapidly, now forming a circle, then darting towards the side of the cup; a perceptible commotion of the liquor is very evident, which lasts for about a minute. When at rest, the same quantity of pepper is again added, and another seed of the capsicum laid on as before ; a similar commotion takes place, but in a less degree, and the seeds are whirled round with less rapidity. The addition of the same quantity of pepper is made a third time, and a seed of the capsicum placed as before in the centre of the fluid; it now remains quiet, forming a regular circle, resembling the halo of the moon.

This is the sign that the preparation of the poison is complete.

There is no doubt that those vegetables which have been selected by the inhabitants of the places where they grow for the purpose of poisoning their arrows are eminently virulent; but these poisons, which often minister to the cowardice or cruelty of those who employ them, are not obvious, but are concealed in different forms in their respective plants, and various processes must be used to extract them. Man, who eyer avails himself of all the means that can add to his power, seems to have detected this fatal secret of nature almost everywhere, and to have increased its effects in many different ways, both by the substances which he has added to augment the activity of those poisons, and by the manner in which he has employed them.

The use of poisoned arrows may be traced back to very remote antiquity, and almost all barbarous nations in every quarter of the globe employ them, and always endeavour to conceal the deadly secret. The savages of Surinam imbue their darts with the poisonous juice of a large tree, but the very genus of the tree is at present unknown.

The Ahouaignuecu, the Piana or Curara, and the Wourali ;* which grow on the banks of the Amazon river, respectively serve the natives of America for the same purpose.

* “In the wilds of the Macoushi country,” says Waterton, “a vine grows which is called wourali : it is from this that the poison takes its name, and it is the principal ingredient. When the Indian has procured enough of this he digs up a root of a very bitter taste, ties them together, and then looks about for two kinds of bulbous plants, which contain a green and glutinous juice. He fills a little quake, which he carries on his back, with the stalks of these ; and lastly ranges up and down till he finds two species of ants. One of them is very large and black, and so venomous that its sting produces a fever ; it is most commonly to be met with on the ground. The other is a little red ant, which stings like a nettle, and generally has its nest under the leaf of a shrub. A quantity of strong Indian pepper, the pounded fangs of the Labarri and Counachouci snakes are added. He then scrapes the vine and bitter root into shavings, and puts them into a colander made of leaves, this he holds over an earthen pot, and pours water on the shavings ; the liquor which comes through has the appearance of coffee. When a sufficient quantity has been procured the shavings are thrown aside. He then bruises the bulbous stalks, and squeezes a proportionate quantity of their juice through his hands into the pot. Lastly, the snakes' fangs, ants, and pepper are bruised and thrown into it. It is then placed on a slow fire and remains until reduced to a thick sirup of a deep brown colour. A few arrows are then poisoned with it to try the strength. It is then poured into a calabash, or a little pot of Indian manufacture, which is carefully covered with a couple of leaves, and over them a piece of deer's skin tied round with a cord. They keep it in the most dry part of the hut, and fromtime to timesuspend it over the fire to counteract the effects of dampness. In preparing this poison many precautions are considered necessary. The women and young children are not allowed to be present, lest the Yabahou or evil spirit should do them harm. The shed under which it is boiled is pronounced polluted, and abandoned ever after. He who makes the poison must eat nothing that morning, and fast as long as the operation continues. The pot in which it is boiled must be a new one, and must never have held anything in it before. Add to this, the operator must take particular care not to expose himself to the vapour which arises from it while on the fire, for fear of his health.”

There are several other plants in the eastern hemisphere which bear a strong resemblance to the Upas, and which are also employed by the natives of the parts where they grow to poison their arrows.

Those used by the Javanese in hunting have their tips shaped like the head of a lance, and imbued with the Ipo; those intended for war are furnished with a little shark's tooth, or a small copper blade, which is lightly inserted into the dart, and fastened there by the gummy resin of the Ipo. The warmth of the blood dissolving this substance, the point remains sticking in the wound after the arrow has been extracted, and the poison mingling with the blood causes speedy death. The smaller the opening of the wound is, the more dangerous it is; because, when the laceration is considerable, the bleeding that follows frequently carries away the poison which it gradually dissolves, and either weakens or totally destroys the effect.

The liquid poison introduced into the wound is much less virulent than when it has dried upon the instrument which inflicts the wound. Probably the fluid state causes it to mix readily, and to be carried away by the blood which flows out ; whereas, in the other case, it is gradually absorbed while it dissolves. In some experiments made with this poison, it was found that a chicken expired in from one to three minutes, according to the quantity of poison infused into the wound.

The flesh of the creatures thus killed is not at all affected, it is only necessary to remove thoseportions with which the poison has come into immediate contact. A dog lived for eight minutes, an arrow having been driven for half an inch into the thigh, and suffered to remain there. The


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