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niam invitatus, patriam tamen deserere noluit: itaque Carolus ix, petitum undique calumniis domi, invidorùmque morfibus, non folùm præfenti ope sublevavit, fed honore auxit et amplificavit, eíque vacationem à laboribus concessit. Tandem, anno 1572, in illa Parisienfi Christianorum ac ci. vium internecione, indignissime periit. Necis causam sunt qui in æmulos ejus conferant : plerique eandem quæ ceteris ea nocte trucidatis fuiffe existimant. Legatum annuum mathematico professori in Parisiensi academia luculentum testamento reliquit.














A CRATEFUL recollection of the divine goodness, is

the first of human obligations; and extraordinary Favours demand more folemn and devout acknowledgments; with such acknowledgments I feel it my duty to begin this work. First, because I was born at a time, when the virtue of my fellow-citizens, far exceeding that of their progenitors in greatness of foul and vigour of enterprize, having invoked heaven to witness the justice of their cause, and been clearly governed by its directions, has succeeded in delivering the commonwealth from the most grievous tyranny, and religion from the most igno. minious degradation. And next, because when there fuddenly arose many who, as is usual with the vulgar, bafely calumniated the most illustrious atchievements, and when one eminent above the rest, inflated with literary pride, and the zealous applauses of his partizans, had in a scandalous publication, which was particularly levelled


against me, nefariously undertaken to plead the cause of despotism, I who was neither deemed unequal to so renowned an adversary, nor to fo great a subject, was particularly felected by the deliverers of our country, and by the general suffrage of the public, openly to vindicate the rights of the English nation, and consequently of liberty itself. Lastly, because in a matter of so much moment, and which excited such ardent, expectations, I did not disappoint the hopes - nor the opinions of my fellowcitizens; while men of learning and eminence abroad, honoured me with unmingled approbation ; while I obtained such a victory over my opponent, that notwith. standing his unparalleled affurance, he was obliged to quit the field with his courage broken and his reputation loft ; and for the three years which he lived afterwards, much as he menaced and furiously as he raved, he gave me no farther trouble, except that he procured the paltry aid of fome despicable hirelings, and suborned some of his filly and extravagant admirers to support him under the weight of the unexpected and recent disgrace, which he had experienced. This will immediately appear, Such are the signal favours which I afcribe to the divine beneficence, and which I thought it right devoutly to commemorate, not only that I might discharge a debt of gratitude, but particularly because they fcem auspicious to the success of my present undertakinh. For who is there, who does not identify the honour of his country with his own ? And what can conduce more to the beauty or glory of ones couitry, than the recovery, not only of its civil but its religious liberty? And what nation or ftate ever obtained both, by more successful br mere valorous exertion? for fortitude is seen resplendent, not only in the field of battle and amid the clash of arms, but displays its energy under every difficulty and against every affailant. Those Greeks and Romans, who are the objects of our admiration, employed hardly any other virtue in the extirpation of tyrants, than that love of liberty which made them prompt in seizing the sword and gave them strength to use it. With facility they'accomplished the undertaking, amid the general shout of praise and joy; nor did they engage in the attempt so much,


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as an enterprize of perilous and doubtful issue, aş in a contest the most glorious, in which virtue could be lignalized; which infallibly led to present recompence; which bound their brows with wreaths of laurel, and configned their memories to immortal fame. For as yet, tyrants were not beheld with a superstitious reverence; as yet they were not regarded with tenderness and complacency, as the vicegerents or deputies of Christ, as they have suddenly profefled to be; as yet the vulgar, stupified by the subtle casuistry of the priest, had not degenerated into a state of barbarism, more gross than that which disgraces the most senseless natives of Hindoftan. For these make mischievous demons, whose malice they cannot resist, the objects of their religious adoration while those elevate impotent tyrants, in order to ihield them from destruction, into the rank of Gods; and to their own coít, consecrate the pests of the human race. But against this dark array of long received opinions, superfitions, obloquy, and fears, which fome dread even more than the enemy himself the English, had to contend; and all this, under the light of better information, and favour. ed by an impulse from above, they overcame with such singular enthusiasm and bravery, that, great as were the numbers engaged in the contest, the grandeur of conçeption, and loftiness of spirit which were universally difplayed, merited for each individual more than a mediocrity of faine; and Britain, which was formerly styled the hoi-bed of tyranny, will hereafter deserve to be celeþrated for endless ages, as a fuil most genial to the growth of liberty. During the mighty struggle, no anarchy, no licentiousness was seen ; no illusions of glory, no extravagant emulation of the antients inflamed them with a thirst for ideal liberty ; but the recitude of their lives, and the fobriety of their habits, taught them the only true and safe road to real liberty; and they took up arms only to defend the sanctity of the laws, and the rights of conscience. Relying on the divine assistance, they used every honourable exertion to break the yoke of flavery; of the praise of which though I claim no share to myself, yet I can eafily repel any charge which may be adduced against me, either of want of courage, or want


of zeal. For though I did not participate in the toils or dangers of the war, yet I was at the same time en. gaged in a service not less hazardous to myself, and more beneficial to my fellow-citizens; nor, in the adverse turns of our affairs, did I ever betray any symptoms of pusillanimity and dejection; or she:v ryself more afraid than became me, of malice or of death: For since from my yout!!, I was devoted to the pursuits of literature, and my mind had always been stronger than my body, I did not court the labours of a camp, in vhich any common perfoo would have been of more service than myself, but resorted to that employment in which my exertions were likely to be of most avail

. Thus, with the better part of my frame, I ccntributed as much as poffible to the good of my country, and to the success of the glorious cause in which we were engaged ; and I thought, that if God willer! the success of such glorious atchievments, it was equally agreeable to his will, that there ihould be others by whom those atchievements should be recorded with dignity and elegance; and that the truth, which had been defended by arms, should also be defended by reason; which is the best and only legitimate means of defending it. Hence, while I applaud those, who were victorious in the field, I will not complain of the province which was assigned me; but rather congratulate myself upon it, and thank the author of all good for having placed me in a station, which may be an object of envy to others, rather than of regret to myself. I am far from wishing to make any vain or arrogant comparisons, or to speak oftentatiously of myself, but, in a cause fo great and glorious, and particularly on an occasion when I am called by the general fuffrage to defend the very defenders of that cause; I can hardly refrain from assuming a more lofty and swelling tone, than the simplicity of an exordium may seem to justify; and much as I may be surpassed in the powers of eloquence, and copiousness of diction, by the illustrious orators of antiquity; yet the subject of which I treat, was never surpassed in any age, in dignity or in interest. It has excited such general, and such ardent expectation, that I imagine myself not in the forum or on the rostra, surrounded only by the people of Athens


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