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viction of the errors of others, ever commanding eloquence had been rising betrayed him into any uncandid con with the important subjects on which struction of motives, or any asperity it had been employed-how every towards the conduct of his opponents. session he had spoken with still inHis loss was great, and would long be creasing weight and authority and regretted.”

effect, and had called forth new reSir S. Romilly said," that the long sources of his enlightened and comand most intimate friendship which prehensive mind and not be led to he had enjoyed with the Honourable conjecture, that, notwithstanding the Member, whose loss the House had to great excellence which, in the last deplore, might, he hoped, entitle him session, he had attained, yet if he had to the melancholy satisfaction of saying been longer spared, he would have a few words on this distressing occa discovered powers not yet discovered sion. Though no person better knew, to the House, and of which perhaps or more highly estimated, the private he was unconscious himself. He should virtues of Mr Horner than himself, very ill express what he felt upon this yet, as he was not sure that he should occasion, if he were to consider the be able to utter what he felt on that extraordinary qualities which Mr Horsubject, he would speak of him only ner possessed apart from the ends and as a public man.

objects to which they were directed. “Of all the estimable qualities which The greatest eloquence was in itself distinguished his character, he con- only an object of vain and transient sidered as the most valuable, that in- admiration ; it was only when ennodependence of mind which in him was bled by the uses to which it was apso remarkable. It was from a con- plied, when directed to great and virsciousness of that independence, and tuous ends, to the protection of the from a just sense of its importance, oppressed, to the enfranchisement of that, at the same time that he was the enslaved, to the extension of knowstoring his mind with the most various ledge, to dispelling the clouds of ignoknowledge on all subjects connected rance and superstition, to the advancewith our internal economy and foreign ment of the best interests of the counpolitics, and that he was taking a con try, and to enlarging the sphere of spicuous and most successful part in human happiness, that it became a all the great questions which have national benefit and a public blessing; lately been discussed in Parliament, that it was because the powerful tahe laboriously devoted himself to all lents, of which they were now dethe painful duties of his profession. prived, had been uniformly exerted in Though his success at the bar was not the pursuit and promoting of such at all adequate to his merits, he yet objects, that he considered the loss stedfastly persevered in his labours, which they liad to lament as one of and seemed to consider it as essential the greatest which, in the present state to his independence, that he should of this country, it could possibly have look forward to his profession alone sustained.” for the honours and emoluments to Mr W. ELLIOT.--" Amongst his on which his extraordinary talents gave ther friends, sir, I cannot refuse to myhim so just a claim.

self the melancholy consolation of pay“ In the course of the last twelve ing my humble tribute of esteem and years the House had lost some of the affection to the memory of a person, most considerable men that ever had of whose rich, cultivated, and enlightenlightened and adorned it: there was ened mind I have so often profited, this, however, peculiar in their present and whose exquisite talents—whose loss. When those great and eminent ardent zeal for truth-whose just, semen, to whom he alluded, were taken date, and discriminating judgment from them, the House knew the whole whose forcible, but chastened eloquence extent of the loss it had sustained, for-and, above all, whose inflexible virthey had arrived at the full maturity tue and integrity rendered him one of of their great powers and endowments. the most distinguished members of But no person could recollect-how, in this House, one of the brightest ornaevery year since his lamented friend ments of the profession to which he had first taken part in their debates, belonged, and held him forth as a his talents had been improving, his finished model for the imitation of the faculties had been developed, and his rising generation.

“The full amount of such a loss, at every great question. Notwithstandsuch a conjuncture, and under all the ing these differences, he had often various circumstances and considera- said in private, that Mr Horner was tions of the case, I dare not attempt one of the greatest ornaments of his to estimate. My Learned Friend (Sir country, and he would now say in S. Romilly) has well observed, that, public, that the country could not have if the present loss be great, the future suffered a greater loss. The forms of is greater : for, by dispensations far Parliament allowed no means of exabove the reach of human rutin pressing the collective opinion of the he has been taken from us at a period House on the honour due to his mewhen he was only in his progress to- mory; but it must be consolatory to wards those high stations in the state, his friends to see, that if it had been in which, so far as human foresight possible to have come to such a vote, it could discern, his merits must have would certainly have been unanimous.” placed him, and which would have The subject of this well-merited given to his country the full and praise, and of all these sincere but inripened benefits of his rare and admi- effectual regrets, was born at Edinrable qualities.”

burgh, on the 12th of August 1778. Mr C. Grant “ had known his la- In the month of October, 1786, he enmented friend before he had distin- tered the high school of that city; and guished himself so much as he had having remained at this seminary for subsequently done, and could not be six years, during the four first of which silent when such an opportunity oc he was the pupil of Mr Nicol, and the curred of paying a tribute to his me two last of the celebrated Dr Adam, mory. Whatever difference of opinion he passed on to the university in Oca they might have on public questions, tober 1792. In November 1795, he he could suspend that difference to was placed under the care of the Rev. admire his talents, his worth, and his Mr Hewlett in London, with whom virtues. It was not his talents alone he lived, and who superintended his that were developed in his eloquence. education for a period of two years. His eloquence displayed his heart: He then returned to Edinburgh, ani through it were seen his high-minded applied himself to the study of the law, probity, his philanthropy, his benevo- and passed advocate in the year 1800. lence, and all those qualities which Soon after, he took up his residence in not only exacted applause, but excited London, with the view of preparing love. It was the mind that appeared himself for the English bar. In 1806, in speeches that gave them character. he was appointed by the East India He would not enter into the account Company one of the commissioners of his private life, although his private for the liquidation of the debts of the virtues were at least on a level with Nabob of Arcot; but resigned this his public merits. Amid all the cares

laborious situation in little more than and interests of public life, he never two years, finding that the duties lost his relish for domestic society, or which it imposed on him were incomhis attachment to his family. The patible with the application due to his last time that he (Mr G.) conversed professional pursuits. In October 1806, with him, he was anticipating with he was returned Member of Parliapleasure the arrival of a season of lei- ment for St Ives. The following year, sure, when he could spend a short he was elected Member for Wendover, time in the bosom of his family, and and was called to the English bar. amid the endearments of his friends. In 1813, he was chosen to represent When he looked at his public or pri the borough of St Mawes in the preyate conduct, his virtues, or his ta sent parliament. lents, he would be allowed to have The disease which proved fatal to earned applause to which few other Mr Horner was an induration and men ever entitled themselves.” contraction of the lungs; a malady,

Lord LASCELLES“ hoped to be ex the existence of which is not marked cused for adding a few words to what by any decided symptom, and which had been said, though he had not the is wholly beyond the reach of medihonour of a private acquaintance with cal aid. He died at Pisa on the 8th of Mr Horner, whom he knew only in February 1817, aged thirty-eight years this House, where they had almost and six months, and was interred in the uniformly voted on opposite sides on Protestant burying-ground at Leghorn.

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in every thing which respects the fine -Γενoιμαν

arts very different from ourselves; and Ιν' όλαεν έπεςι ποντ8

we must endeavour to determine the Προβλημαλικλυσον, άκραν

nature and the causes of their taste,

without allowing ourselves to be seΥπο πλακα Σενια

duced by the depravity of our own. Τας τερας πως προσει

The character of the individual was ποιμαν 'Αθανας.

every thing among the Greeks. They Sophoclis Ajax, v. 1217. cultivated his moral part, and they For the last two thousand years, a perfected his physical part, because few blocks of marble, cut in resem his physical and his moral qualities blance of the human body, have form were alike necessary for the purposes ed the almost solitary subject of uni- of the state. The case is very differform opinion among all men, and ex ent among modern nations. What cited, without qualification, the uni- signifies the beauty, or even the virtue versal admiration of the world. The of an individual, to the overgrown Romans took them from the Greeks, empires of the west ? Removed, as we and were not ashamed to confess them- are, to an inconceivable distance from selves overcome by the artists of a na the Greeks in our appreciation of the tion which they had subdued. In the model, it is no great wonder that we midst of wars and of triumphs, the should have little in common with nations of Modern Europe treat these them on principles of the imitamarbles as they do cities and provinces tion. Much difficulty might have -gain possession of them by victories, been spared us, had the numerous and cede them by treaties. The an- writings of the Greek artists descendcients who have written concerning ed to our hands; these, however, have them, speak of them, like ourselves, all perished in the lapse of centuries; in hyperbolical expressions of enthus and a few scattered notices, gathered siasm; and by the general consent of from the allusions of their poets and Greeks, Romans, and Barbarians, these philosophers, are all that we have in

vinster-pieces of art have been raised their room. Among the moderns, on to the rank of so many unfailing stand- the other hand, systems concerning ards, by a comparison with which the theory, as well as the practice, of alone the excellencies of the produce the arts, -on the essence of the beauti, tions of nature herself can be duly ful, on the ideal, and on the principles appreciated and admired. It is yet of imitation,-have been so multiplied, more wonderful, that though these that which ever side we take in any of admirable figures have for some cen these very difficult questions, we are turies been made the subject of un sure to meet with abundance of cele

ceasing imitation, they maintain to brated writers with whom we must Ý this hour an undisputed superiority contend, and jealous opinions which

over all the productions of the mo we must either confute or reconcile. derns. We are never weary of ask Those authors who, in treating of ing, by what art they have been pro- the history of the arts, have recoga duced ?--and this problem has never nized the superiority of the Greeks yet been entirely solved. In order to over their modern imitators, have geanswer it in a satisfactory manner, it nerally attributed this superiority to is not enough to shew wherein consists the influences of climate, of religion, the perfection of the ancient statues, of political liberty, of the facility with and by what rules of execution they which the naked figure was studied, have been rendered so perfect as they and the recompenses with which their are; it is necessary to go deeper into artists were distinguished. They have the subject, and to examine what may thought that the genius, the physical have been the causes of this perfection ; beauty, and a certain charm of characthat is to say, by what train of actions ter, which they regard as having been and opinions the Greeks arrived at the peculiar to the Greeks, were the proformation and realization of those duct of the temperature of their cliprinciples by which it has been pro

They have said, that the veduced. To do this well, we must for- neration of the Greeks for the statues get our own habits and manners; we of their gods, and the majestic ideas must transport ourselves into Greece of religion, had elevated the imaginaherself-into the country of a people tion of artists above the sphere of Vol. I.



sense ; that the entire liberty which an astonishing circumstance, that withthe Greeks enjoyed that constant in a territory by no means extensive, source of all their revolutions and all and under the influence of a climate their jealousies) had spread abroad almost every where the same, the difamong them the seeds of noble and ferent states of Greece by no means sublime sentiments; that the habit of cultivated the arts with the same zeal seeing the naked figure, a habit derived or the same success. Despised in not only from the nature of their public Crete, and proscribed at Sparta, they games, but even from the character of were never thought of in Arcadia, their ordinary costume, was of itself Achaia, Ætolia, Phocis, or Thessaly. sufficient to lead many to the imitation In Bæotia (in the native country of of the human body; and that, in fine, Hesiod, Pindar, and Corinna) they the honours with which the artists were proverbially disregarded and conwere signalized, and, above all the rest, temned. In Corinth, they remained the noble use which was made of their stationary in the second rank;—but atworks, by consecrating them as the re tained, alike, the full consummation of compense of illustrious actions, must their glory in Sicyon and in Athens. have furnished to the enthusiasm of It must moreover be evident, that the their youth, at once opportunity and brilliant qualities which the Greeks impatience for distinction.

derived from the influence of their It is impossible to doubt that all climate, might have been as likely to these different causes have contributed lead them astray as to conduct them to the perfection of the artists. These aright. The poetical genius which was theories are, in many respects, full of habitual to them, was very far from justice and truth, but they involve, at resembling in every thing that which the same time, many errors, and it is the inspiration of painting and of is no difficult matter to detect the in- sculpture. These Athenians, in every sufficiency of the systems which they thing else so light, so imprudent, so would propose.

irascible, who alternately crowned and The history of the arts, in truth, exiled their great men—who slumwhether we compare Greeks with bered during peace, and formed vast Greeks, or Greeks with other nations, projects of empire in the midst of irpresents many phenomena which can reparable defeats,-shewed, in their only be explained by a great multipli- taste relative to the fine arts, a wisdom city of researches. In this study, as and a coolness which may be said to in that of the natural sciences, we form the exact reverse of their natural must be not unfrequently content to disposition. Faithfully attached to the make almost as many definitions as same principles, they avoided, during there are individuals.

a long course of ages, all error and all 1. The Greeks had received from novelty. Somewhere else, then, than the hand of nature a climate full of in the mere heat and effervescence of contrasts-a sky sometimes of the pur- the Athenian blood, must we seek for est azure, sometimes surcharged with the causes of this firmness, and of the the most dark and the most tempestu- perfection to which it conducted.

clouds--destructive winds—the 2. Although there may be some extremities of heat and cold—delight- ground for believing that the forms ful vallies, full of fertility and cultiva- of the human body were in general tion-and naked mountains, trod only more beautiful among the ancient by a few wandering goat-herds-ca- Greeks than they were among the verns full of deep mephitic vapours— greater part of modern nations, the freezing springs and boiling fountains, difference between them and us, in this all peopled with supernatural inhabit- respect, could never have been so conants, by the superstitious fancy of the siderable as to have had any great inheroic times. The natural effects of fluence on the arts. The countries in these circumstances were an extreme- which these arts had made the greatly delicate and irritable organization, est progress, were by no means those a spirit active and curious, but capable which abounded in the most beautiful of every excess

ma character change models. “ Quotus enim quisque fora able, turbulent, and passionate, alike mosus est ?” says Cicero: “ Athenis disposed to love, to vanity, and to su cum essem, e grege epheborum vix sine perstition.

guli reperiebantur.” Phryne was of But, first of all, it must strike us as Thebes, Glycera of Thespis, Aspasio of


Miletus; and as we, to praise our fine than rude masses of stone, or ill-fawomen, call them Grecian beauties, the shioned pieces of timber. He adored, European Greeks were accustomed to at Mount Elaius, a horse-headed Cea call their mistresses Ionian beauties, res; at Phygalia, an Eurynome, who xanes to Iwrixoy. Besides, the difficulty was half woman and half fish, like would be by no means resolved by the idol of the barbarians of Gath; this difference of form, even were it and at the temple of Ephesus itself, granted in its fullest extent; for I which was one of the seven wonders imagine there are few who will deny, of the world, a gigantic or hieroglythat the difference between our most phical monster, with nine or ten tiers handsome men and the most hand- of breasts. Civil usages and manners, some Athenian, is much less consider- and the general taste, had happily able than the difference between our more effect on the religion of Greece most beautiful statues and the mastere than that religion had upon them. pieces of the Greeks. Moreover, the But for the revolution which national Greeks had no models in nature for genius, taste, and the arts themselves, their architectural monuments: never- operated in the creed of the Greeks, theless, the same character,--the evi- that people, so celebrated for the beaudent product of the very same prin- ty of their gods, would have remainciples,- is displayed in their templesed prostrate before the monsters of as in their statues ; and, equally as in the Nile, under the despotism of their them, it is to be seen in their vases, priests. The religion of the Greeks, in their furniture-and in the most moreover, is far from being the only common of their utensils.

one which has attributed to deities the 3. The same remarks may, with a forms of men. If this religion, by very little variation, be applied to their the poetical mystery which it involve religion, and to the facility of seeing ed, favoured the perfection of the arts, the naked figure. It was the virgins and lifted the imagination of the artof Sparta who were so much celebrated ists above the sphere of the senses, why for displaying their charms in the is it that the Christian religion propublic festivals, and yet the Spartans duces no similar effects ? Did the were no lovers of the arts. Shut up poetry or the religion of the Greeks within the impenetrable walls of their contain any thing more lofty and more apartments, the women of the other imposing than the imagery of the Grecian states did not appear even at Scriptures ? The beauty of Angels is the Olympic games, and courtezans all that imagination can represent as were the only models of the artists. most admirable and most divine. Mara Our artists, on the other hand, who tyrs, Prophets, and Apostles, are at see every day, without restraint, heads least equal in dignity with Philosoand hands of the most exquisite ele- phers, Fauns, and Pentathletæ. The gance, well worthy of the finest days dying resignation of the holy Stephen of Miletus or of Sparta, produce nei- is surely as good a subject as the exther heads nor hands which can bear piring shudder of a hireling gladiator. the most remote comparison with the Moses found lying among the bule antique. As for the spirit of religion, rushes by the daughter of Pharoah, I confess I am greatly inclined to is as picturesque an incident as the banish it altogether from the number discovery of Edipus by the shepherds of those influences which were favour- of Cithæron. Samson was as strong able to the arts of Greece. Easily ex as Milo; and many beauties are recited, and disposed for unquestioning corded in the Bible, who were at admiration, it is little fitted for the ex least as worthy of the chisel of a Phiercise of a severe judgment; it becomes dias, as the Laises and the Elpinic's every day more and more attached to of an Athenian brothel. its ancient idols, and adores in them 4. With regard to political liberty, less that which it secs in reality than we see in Greece, as every where else, what it believes is to be seen. The free people, who have rejected the devout Greek, who bowed himself at arts; and others, ruled by despots, who Olympus before the Jupiter of Phi- have cultivated them with the greatest dias, revered at Argos, at Thespis, success. Did the arts languish at and even in the bosom of Athens, fi- Sicyon, under Aristatus and the Cypures of J uno, of Venus, of the Graces, selides ; at Athens, under Hippias ; and of Love, which were nothing more at Samos, under Polycrates ; at Syra

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