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the Electromotive Force at Any Point of a Transmission Line for Alternating Current"; and paper by H. W. Buck on "The New Generating Plants of the Niagara Falls Power Company"), pp. 802-808 and 1210, by Messrs. F. A. C. Perrine, F. G. Baum, C. A. Adams, H. W. Buck, A. V. Garratt, P. H. Thomas, Chas. P. Steinmetz and B. A. Behrend.

Results of tests with Baum's compensator for compound excitation of alternators, design data for the compensator. General discussion of switchboard arrangement.

AN EXPERIMENT WITH SINGLE-PHASE ALTERNATORS ON POLYPHASE CIRCUITS C. 0. Mailloux

Vol. xix-1902, pp. 851-861 Description of tests made on the lines of the Phoenix Light and Fuel Company, Arizona, to determine the suitability of operating single-phase generator in each phase of a polyphase system, and of producing a polyphase system with single-phase generators, and a synchronous converter as balancer.

Discussion, pp. 862-864, by Messrs. C. P. Steinmetz, W. B. Potter, C. O. Mailloux, H. E. Heath and John Murphy.

General remarks on this method of operation. Experience with twophase converter operated from single-phase generator.

ENERGY LOSS IN COMMERCIAL INSULATING MATERIALS WHEN SUBJECTED

TO HIGH POTENTIAL STRAINS Charles Edward Skinner

Vol. xix-1902, pp. 1047-1062 Experimental study of energy losses in dielectrics, showing the effects of variation in voltage, temperature, moisture and frequency. The exact nature of the dielectric not given. Test of energy losses in 5,000-kilowatt engine-type alternator of Manhattan Railway Company.

Discussion (including that of paper by Percy H. Thomas on "The Function of Shunt and Series Resistance in Lightning Arresters," and paper by Miles Walker on "Electrostatic Wattmeter in Commercial Measurements"), pp. 1063-1073, by Edw. L. Nichols, Chas. F. Hopewell, Chas. E. Skinner, W. S. Andrews, F. A. C. Perrine, Elihu Thomson, William Maver, Jr., P. B. Woodworth, C. P. Steinmetz and P. H. Thomas.

Observed dielectric strength of mica under oil. Electrolytic conduction in cable insulation. Effect of moisture on dielectric strength of oil. General remarks on lightning arresters.

THE DETERMINATION OF ALTERNATOR CHARACTERISTICS Louis A. Herdt

Vol. xix-1902, pp. 1093-1121 Analytical and experimental study of alternator characteristics with description of different methods for determining regulation. Results of calculations checked with tests on inductor and revolving field types of machines. Diagrams of the magnetic circuits of the machines tested, and many test curves of load and saturation characteristics, flux distribution, etc.

No discussion.

THE EXPERIMENTAL BASIS FOR THE THEORY OF THE REGULATION

OF ALTERNATORS B. A. Behrend

Vol. xxi-1903, pp. 497-517 Experimental study of regulation of alternators indicating an approximate method of determining the regulation from the combination of the Behn-Eschenburg or e. m. f. inethod and the Institute or ampere-turn method.

THE COMPOUNDING OF SELF-EXCITED ALTERNATING-CURRENT GENERATORS

FOR VARIATION IN LOAD AND POWER-FACTOR A. S. Garfield

Vol. xxi -1903, pp. 569-577 Description of the compounding and compensating characteristics of the Latour self-exciting alternator with brushes in different positions on both inductive and non-inductive loads.

Discussion, pp. 578-587, by Messrs. C. F. Scott, B. A. Behrend, C. A. Adams, Gano S. Dunn, W. L. Waters, J. R. Armstrong, Marius Latour, P. M. Lincoln, V. Karapetoff, Schmit, J. S. Peck and E. Molin.

General remarks on importance of specifying regulation and on methods of estimating it. Latour method of compounding alternators.

COMMERCIAL ALTERNATOR DESIGN W. L. Waters

Vol. xxii-1903, pp. 39-57 Practical discussion of the economic design of revolving field alternators. Numerical examples used to demonstrate the quantitative effect of various factors that enter into the design. Comparison of the design constants and cost of present-day alternators with those of ten years ago.

Discussion, pp. 58-62, by Messrs. W. L. Waters, David B. Rushmore, Ralph D. Mershon, and Harris J. Ryan.

Effects of various degrees of regulation. Desirability of standardizing regulation at zero, instead of unity power-factor.

THE MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION OF REVOLVING-FIELD ALTERNATORS David B. Rushmore

Vol. xxiii-1904, pp. 253-290 Comprehensive review of the constructive details of modern alternatingcurrent generators. Profusely illustrated with working drawings and sketches covering practically all types of construction.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by H. M. Hobart and F. Punga on "A Contribution to the Theory of the Regulation of Alternators."

A CONTRIBUTION TO THE THEORY OF THE REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS 8. M. Hobart and F. Punga

Vol. xxiii -- 1904, pp. 291-322 Theoretical investigation of armature reaction in single-phase and polyphase generator. Development of method of calculating the regulation and excitation from the design constants of the machine. Actual tests of

accuracy of the method in given instances. Complete design data given for the machines tested. Derivation of all new formulas.

Discussion (including that of paper by David B. Rushmore on "The Mechanical Construction of Revolving-Field Alternators”), pp. 323-343, by Messrs. C. A. Adams, Jr., B. A. Behrend, W. L. Waters, Gano S. Dunn, David B. Rushmore, F. A. C. Perrine, Bradley T. McCormick, V. Karapetoff, H. M. Hobart and Franklin Punga.

Discussion of analytical and graphical methods of calculating exciting current and regulation from design data and experimental data.

OPERATION OF SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS 8. C. Lindsay

Vol. xxiii-1904, pp. 345-351 Account of experience with the parallel operation of 60-cycle synchronous converter, where much trouble was experienced from hunting.

No discussion.

DATA AND TESTS ON A 10,000-CYCLE-PER-SECOND ALTERNATOR B. G. Lamme

Vol. xxiii-1904, pp. 417-428 Description of construction of machines, covering mechanical and electrical features. Results of tests plotted as curves showing the performance of the machine at different frequencies—saturation curves, iron losses, short-circuit current, friction and windage.

Discussion, pp. 459-460, by Mr. F. D. Newbury.
Method of measurements in 10,000-cycle generator tests.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS FOR REGULATION OF POWER-FACTOR AND LINE PRESSURE
B. G. Lamme

Vol. xxiii – 1904, pp. 481-492 Discussion of factors which enter into the design of synchronous motor for power-factor regulation. Application of synchronous motors as regulators and as combined motor and regulator. General remarks on powerfactor regulation, use of synchronous converters, cost of synchronous motor regulation, choice of location of regulator, etc.

Discussion, pp. 494-510, by Messrs. F. O. Blackwell, W. L. Waters, H. B. Gear, W. B. Jackson, F. A. C. Perrine, Ralph D. Mershon, S. B. Storer, Charles F. Scott, J. S. Peck, H. W. Buck and T. J. Johnston.

General remarks on power-factor and e. m. f. regulation with synchronous motors. Description of methods of automatically adjusting the excitation of the synchronous motor.

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A SELF-EXCITING ALTERNATOR E. F. Alexanderson

Vol. XIV-1906, pp. 61-77 Description of a self-exciting compounding alternator which operates with rectifying commutator.

Discussion, pp. 78-80, by Messrs. A. E. Kennelly, F. C. Scott, W. L. R. Emmett, A. S. McAllister and E F. Alexanderson.

SOME FEATURES AFFECTING THE PARALLEL OPERATION OF SYNCHRONOUS

MOTOR-GENERATOR SETS J. B. Taylor

Vol. XXV–1906, pp. 113-13 Analysis of phenomena causing unequal division of load between synchronous motor-generator sets, with requirements in design, construction and operation necessary to overcome these difficulties. Tests showing magnitude and character of unbalanced conditions. Detailed directions for starting synchronous motor-generator sets.

Discussion, pp. 137-138, by Messrs. W. L. Waters and J. B. Taylor. Experience in parallel operation of synchronous motor-generator sets.

HEAT TESTS OF ALTERNATORS Sebastian Sentius

Vol. xxv—1906, pp. 311-325 Analytical discussion of various methods of making heat tests of alternators without facilities for full-load output. Author proposes method that can be used on machines having equal numbers of poles or equal layers of parallel windings.

Discussion, pp. 326-327, by Dr. C. P. Steinmetz.
Approximate heat tests of alternators of any type.

THE SELF-SYNCHRONIZING OF ALTERNATORS Morgan Brooks and M. K. Akers

Vol. XXV-1906, pp. 453-458 Synchronizing with impedance and reactance coils. No discussion.

INTRODUCTION TO DISCUSSION ON THE PRACTICABILITY OF LARGE GENERATORS

WOUND FOR 22,000 VOLTS B. A. Behrend

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 351-356 Brief outiine of some of the difficulties encountered in the construction of high voltage generators. Performance curves taken from 150-kilowatt, 22,000-volt alternator.

Discussion, pp. 357-385, by Messrs. B. A. Behrend, C. E. Skinner, W. S. Murray, A. H. Armstrong, W. L. Waters, Percy H. Thomas, Philip Torchio, F. V. Henshaw, C. F. Scott, Paul M. Lincoln, Ralph D. Mershon, F. G. Baum, Ernst J. Berg, W. J. Foster, R. S. Kelsch, L. Schuler, Farley Osgood, H. F. Parshall, A. Henry Pikler, Bertrand P. Rowe, A. B. Reynders, Guido Semenza and John Pearson.

Advantages and disadvantages of high-voltage generators. Experience with some high-voltage machines. Comparative costs of high and lowvoltage alternators.

INTERACTION OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Morgan Brooks

Vol. xxvi --1907, pp. 1027-1046 Development of a circle diagram for representing the physical relations and quantities of ideal synchronous machines in parallel operation.

Mathematical analysis of the problem and expressions for the input, output, losses, efficiency and synchronizing power.

Discussion, pp. 1047-1048, by Messrs. E. J. Berg, Charles P. Steinmetz and Comfort A. Adams.

Practical limitations of Professor Brook's method. Origin of the circle diagram used in the paper.

THE GROUNDED NEUTRAL, WITH AND WITHOUT SERIES RESISTANCE,

IN HIGH-TENSION SYSTEMS Paul M. Lincoln

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1585-1595 General discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the grounded neutral, followed by brief remarks on the making of grounds and the effect of series resistance in the ground circuit.

Discussion, incorporated with paper by George I. Rhodes on “Experience with a Grounded Neutral on the High-Tension System of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company."

EXPERIENCE WITH A GROUNDED NEUTRAL ON THE HIGH-TENSION SYSTEM OF

THE INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY George I. Rhodes

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1605-1610 Reasons for installing grounded neutral with series resistor on hightension cable system. Cross currents between star-connected generators. Relative damage resulting from cable short circuits with and without grounded neutral.

Discussion (including that of paper by Paul M. Lincoln on “The Grounded Neutral, with and without Series Resistance, in High-Tension Systems,” and that of paper by F. G. Clark on “The Grounded Neutral"), Pp. 1611-1641, by Messrs. Peter Junkersfeld, Philip Torchio, N. J. Neall, John B. Taylor, Carl Schwarz, C. W. Stone, F. B. H. Paine, Charles F. Scott, Paul M. Lincoln, George I. Rhodes, Charles P. Steinmetz, Frank G. Baum, and O. S. Lyford, Jr.

Experience with grounded neutral on very large underground cable and overhead transmission systems. Description of device for automatically selecting and disconnecting defective cables.

A NEW LARGE GENERATOR FOR NIAGARA FALLS B. A. Behrend

Vol. xxvii--1908, pp. 1057-1068 Photographs, drawings and brief description of the design and construction of a 10,000-h.p. 300-r.p.m. generator. Brief outline of theory of stresses in rotating disks and rings.

Discussion, incorporated with paper by Jens Bache-Wiig on “Application of Fractional Pitch Windings to Alternating-Current Generators.”

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