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AUTOMATIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR STEAM ENGINES, TURBINES AND MOTORS Chas. M. Heminway

Vol. XXV-1906, pp. 635-641 Types and applications of automatic engine stops, value of the protection and methods of maintenance of devices in proper condition.

No discussion.

GAS ENGINE REGULATION FOR DIRECT-CONNECTED UNITS Charles E. Lucke

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1-24 General discussion of speed regulation problems, defining the function of governors, fly-wheels and valve gears, and listing the variables that enter into the problem. The use of crank-pin force and speed diagrams, in the solution of such problems, is suggested and its application to steam turbine operation used as an illustration. A number of papers before the A. I. E. E. and A. S. M. E. on this subject are abstracted and com

mented upon.

No discussion.

THE RATIO OF HEATING SURFACE TO GRATE SURFACE AS A FACTOR IN

POWER PLANT DESIGN Walter S. Finlay, Jr.

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1709-1719 Account of results obtained in the power plant of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company by installing a second grate under the existing boilers. Analytical study of the economy and saving produced thereby, with graphical performance diagrams and tabular comparison of the cost of maintenance and operation of the single and double grate plants.

Discussion, pp. 1720-1737, by Messrs. Charles E. Lucke, W. F. Wells, Walter T. Ray, Henry Keisinger, W. L. Abbott, A. Bement, F. V. Henshaw, W. S. Finlay, Albert A. Cary, J. P. Sparrow, and J. E. Moultrop.

General remarks on boiler efficiency, with results of experimental investigation and tests on methods of improving efficiency. Actual figures on grate surface, heating surface, rate of combustion, efficiency, etc.

AN EXHAUST STEAM TURBINE PLANT Henry H. Wait

Vol. XXVİ--1907, pp. 1739-1863 Results of tests on low-pressure turbines with different vacua and steam pressures at the plant of the Wisconsin Steel Company, Chicago.

Discussion, pp. 1764-1769, by Messrs. Francis Hodgkinson and J. R. Bibbins.

Characteristics and tests of low-pressure turbine performance.

DOUBLE-DECK STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANTS J. R. Bibbins

Vol. xxvii—1908, pp. 1099-1118 General discussion of the advantages of the double-deck turbine station, based on a description of three actual plants, giving space, weights, foundation design, cost and other interesting features.

Discussion, pp. 1119-1121, by Messrs. C. W. Ricker and J. R. Bibbins. Actual itemized cost of West Point double-deck turbine station.

WORKING RESULTS-GAS-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS J. R. Bibbins

Vol. xxvii – 1908, pp. 1123-1134 Account of thirty-day test of producer-gas engine plant, with analysis of results indicating the commercial efficiency and the cost of energy at different load-factors. Comparison of costs with steam-turbine station practice.

Discussion, pp. 1135-1137, by Messrs. J. P. Jackson and J. R. Bibbins. Reliability and overload capacity of gas engines.

FUEL—THE PURCHASE OF, ON A BRITISH THERMAL UNIT BASIS Lawrence P. Crecelius

Vol. xxviii-1909, pp. 51-62 Details of a fuel contract on heat unit basis and discussion of sampling and testing.

No discussion.

PRIME MOVERS Charles P. Steinmetz

Vol. xxviii-1909, pp. 63-84 Theoretical discussion of ideal economics of electrical energy production. Characteristics and limitations of various types of prime movers.

Discussion, pp. 85-99, by Messrs. Louis A. Ferguson, Charles E. Lucke, Henry E. Longwell, David B. Rushmore, Calvert Townley, and Ernst J. Berg.

Sharp criticisms of the paper. Factors to be considered in choosing prime movers. Numerical examples showing relative cost of energy production by water power and steam.

NOTES ON THE COST OF POWER H. G. Stott

Vol. xxviii - 1909, pp. 1479-1502 Graphical charts showing results of calculations on the cost of energy as effected by load, load factor and load curve, with different types of prime movers-reciprocating engines, steam turbines, reciprocating engine and exhaust turbine, gas engine and steam turbine, and hydraulic turbines.

No discussion.

TESTS OF A 15,000-KW. STEAM-ENGINE-TURBINE UNIT H. G. Stott and R. J. S. Pigott

Vol. xxix-1910, pp. 183-229 Description of the combined high-pressure reciprocating engine and low-pressure turbo-induction generator plant of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, together with reasons for adopting this type of apparatus and summary of results accomplished by its use. Results and principal data of tests covering economy and performance of the prime movers are presented in tabular and diagrammatic form.

Discussion, pp. 230-248, by Messrs. W. L. R. Emmet, Max Rotter, E. F. Miller, Edward L. Clark, E. D. Dreyfus, Charles P. Steinmetz, J. W. Lieb, Jr., D. S. Jacobus,

Schauber, G. R. Parker, O. Junggren, F. Samuelson, R. J. S. Pigott, and H. G. Stott.

THE GENERATING SYSTEM OF AN ELECTRIC LIGHTING COMPANY A. R. Cheyney

Vol. xxix–1910, pp. 339-360 General discussion of important economic features in the operation of large central station plants, showing how economy, efficiency and reliability are maintained in every state of the process from the coal mine to the outgoing feeders of the sub-station.

No discussion.

GAS ENGINES IN CITY RAILWAY AND LIGHTING SERVICE E. D. Latta, Jr.

Vol. xxix-1910, pp. 429-461 Description of the gas engine plant of the Charlotte Electric Railway Company, followed by a detailed explanation of the mode of operation of the engines and the producers, together with actual performance record as to shut-downs, speed regulation, parallel running, cost of operation, maintenance and repairs. The theory of producer gas manufacture and combustion.

Discussion, pp. 462-464, by Messrs. H. K. English, F. D. Gatchell, and E. D. Latta, Jr.

Additional data on piston-rod packing and the slow oxidation of coal.

TESTING STEAM TURBINES AND STEAM TURBO-GENERATORS B. D. Dickinson and L. T. Robinson

Vol. xxix-1910, pp. 1679-1688 Brief description of methods of testing turbo-generator units, pointing out the precaution that must be exercised in order to attain a high degree of accuracy.

Discussion, pp. 1689-1707, by Messrs. Gano Dunn, W. L. R. Emmet, Francis Hodgkinson, W. L. Robb, Edwin D. Dreyfus, W. C. L. Eglin, A. Henry Pikler, E. W. Yearsley, E. B. Rosa, L. T. Robinson, I. E. Moultrop, and E. D. Dickinson.

General remarks on turbine and turbo-generator testing correction factors, methods of test, accuracy of different measurements, etc.

A. BUILDINGS

CEMENT IN CENTRAL STATION DESIGN Eugene B. Clark

Vol. xxiv-1905, pp. 55-63 Description of the construction and installation of concrete floors, roofs, switch cells, conduits, etc.

No discussion.

B. ECONOMICS

ECONOMICAL AND SAFE LIMITS IN THE SIZE OF CENTRAL STATIONS H. A. Lardner

Vol. xxi-1903, pp. 407-416 Brief discussion of the factors that bear upon the relative economy of one large and several small stations. Probable effect of steam turbines on size of generator units. Actual figures as to most economical size of steam engine. Classified advantages and disadvantages of large central stations.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by Peter Junkersfeld on “Multiple Versus Independent Operation of Units and Central Stations."

CENTRAL STATION ECONOMIES W. E. Goldsborough and P. E. Fansler

Vol. xxii--1903, pp. 467-499 Description of power plant of the Indiana Union Traction Company and methods used in testing the equipment. Detailed discussion of tests, giving losses in the different parts of the system and the efficiency of the different steps in the transmission from the coal pile to the cars.

Discussion, pp. 500-505, by Messrs. W. E. Goldsborough, M. H. Gerry, Jr., H. G. Stott, Gano S. Dunn, W. F. Wells, and P. M. Lincoln.

Ultimate object in the design of a power plant.

GAS POWER FOR CENTRAL STATIONS

J. R. Bibbins

Vol. xxii—1903, pp. 767-790 Analysis of the performance of a number of gas engine stations, covering the operation characteristics, the economy and cost of operation and maintenance. Discussion of the advantages of operating a gas-electric station in connection with gas works, with estimated revenues and cost of operation and maintenance. Much data in tabular form and in form of characteristic curves.

Discussion, pp. 791-797, by Messrs. Ralph D. Mershon, Philip Torchio, Herbert A. Wagner, H. G. Stott, and J. R. Bibbins.

Fixed charges of gas-electric and steam-electric plants. Amount of jacket water required by gas engines under different conditions. Relative importance of labor and maintenance with gas and steam engines.

DUPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS TO SECURE RELIABILITY OF SERVICE H. W. Buck

Vol. xxiv-1905, pp. 261-268 Brief detailed discussion of the conditions which govern the economic usefulness of reserve apparatus in different divisions of a power plant system.

Discussion (including that of paper by George F. Chellis on “TimeLimit Relays”), pp. 269-282, by Messrs. H. G. Stott, Philip Torchio, C.O. Mailloux, S. D. Sprong, W. F. Wells, G. F. Chellis, H. W. Buck, H. R. Stuart, P. M. Lincoln, and Charles F. Scott.

General remarks on and experience with time-limit relays. Description of the relay practice of The New York Edison Company. Practice of large company in maintaining continuity of service.

POWER PLANT ECONOMICS

Henry G. Stott

Vol. XXV–1906, pp. 1-27 Complete analysis of the losses involved in the transformation of heat energy from coal into electrical energy, the data being taken from one year's record in the power plant of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. Characteristics and maintenance and operation charges for various prime movers-steam engines, steam turbines, steam engines and exhaust turbines, gas engines and steam turbines. Methods of operation suggested whereby best plant economy could be improved.

Discussion, pp. 28-60, by Messrs. E. W. Rice, Jr., Chas. E. Lucke, C. O. Chappelle, W. L. R. Emmett, F. E. Junge, Calvert Townley, Hartley LeH. Smith; Paul M. Lincoln, W. E. Moore, Rudolph Wintzer, and J. R. Bibbins.

General discussion of the characteristics, economy and cost of operation of various prime movers, with special reference to low pressure turbines and gas engines. Notes on gas engine practice in Europe. Effect of load factor on cost of electric energy.

THE RELATION OF LOAD FACTOR TO THE EVALUATION OF

HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS S. B. Storer

Vol. xxv-1906, pp. 139-143 Brief theoretical study of effect of load factor on cost of electric energy production in steam and water power plants.

No discussion.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION LOSSES IN A LARGE CENTRAL

STATION SYSTEM L. L. Elden

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. Record of four years' study of the losses in a certain large energy distribution system, with an account of methods employed to reduce losses between switchboard and consumer.

No discussion.

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