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THE RATIO OF HEATING SURFACE TO GRATE SURFACE AS A FACTOR IN

POWER PLANT DESIGN Walter S. Finlay, Jr.

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 1709-1719 Account of results obtained in the power plant of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company by installing a second grate under the existing boilers. Analytical study of the economy and saving produced thereby, with graphical performance diagrams and tabular comparison of the cost of maintenance and operation of the single and double grate plants.

Discussion, pp. 1720-1737, by Messrs. Charles E. Lucke, W. F. Wells, Walter T. Ray, Henry Keisinger, W. L. Abbott, A. Bement, F. V. Henshaw, W. S. Finlay, Albert A. Cary, J. P. Sparrow, and J. E. Moultrop.

General remarks on boiler efficiency, with results of experimental investigation and tests on methods of improving efficiency. Actual figures on grate surface, heating surface, rate of combustion, efficiency, etc.

PRIME MOVERS

Charles P. Steinmetz

Vol. xxviii-1909, pp. 63-84 Theoretical discussion of ideal economics of electrical energy production. Characteristics and limitations of various types of prime movers.

Discussion, pp. 85-99, by Messrs. Louis A. Ferguson, Charles E. Lucke, Henry E. Longwell, David B. Rushmore, Calvert Townley, and Ernst J. Berg.

Sharp criticisms of the paper. Factors to be considered in choosing prime movers. Numerical examples showing relative cost of energy production by water power and steam.

CENTRALIZATION OF POWER SUPPLY

Presidential Address Louis A. Ferguson

Vol. xxviii-1909, pp. 355-361 Financial, technical and industrial advantages of centralization of electrical energy production.

No discussion.

COMMENTS ON THE OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS Henry L. Doherty

Vol. Xxviii — 1909, pp. 1361-1379 General discussion of certain features in the operation and development of hydroelectric plants with a view to improving the standing and value of water-power securities.

Discussion, pp. 1380-1478, by Messrs. L. B. Stillwell, Henry G. Stott, S. E. Doane, Cary T. Hutchinson, H. W. Buck, W. N. Ryerson, Calvert Townley, Julian C. Smith, Henry L. Doherty, Carl Schwartz, C. P. Fowler, J. Lester Woodbridge, W. E. Winship, Francis Blossom, Philip P. Barton, C. H. Baker, H. F. Parshall, J. F. Vaughan, E. C. Brown, J. H. Wilson, James Lyman, R. A. Ross, M. H. Collbohm, H. A. Storrs, E. P. Roberts, P. W. Sothman, O. S. Lyford, Jr., D. S. Jacobus, Ralph

D. Mershon, David B. Rushmore, John Martin, Irving E. Brooke, and W. G. Chace.

A very full discussion of hydroelectric economics, with special reference to the following topics: Fixed and operating charges for energy production in hydroelectric plant with steam reserve for different ratios of water power to steam and for different load curves; numerous estimates of first cost of hydroelectric and steam plants and also of plant depreciation; Various data for actual practice of reliability and continuity of service for electric transmission plants; Preliminary data and factors which enter into the valuation of water-power development; Government control.

NOTES ON THE COST OF POWER H. G. Stott

Vol. xxviii-1909, pp. 1479-1502 Graphical charts showing results of calculations on the cost of energy as affected by load, load factor and load curve, with different types of prime movers-reciprocating engines, steam turbines, reciprocating engine and exhaust turbine, gas engine and steam turbine, and hydraulic turbines.

No discussion.

THE APPLICABILITY OF ELECTRICAL POWER TO INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS Dugald C. Jackson

Vol. xxix-1910, pp. 107-114 General outline of the advantages of electric power in manufacturing plants, touching upon the cost of producing energy in steam plants and pointing out the advantages of centralizing energy production of factories in same locality.

Discussion, incorporated with that of Mr. Walter B. Nye's paper on "The Requirements for an Induction Motor from the User's Point of View."

CENTRAL STATIONS VERSUS ISOLATED PLANTS FOR TEXTILE MILLS Charles T. Main

Vol. xxix-1910, pp. 115-127 Analytical discussion of the cost of energy for operating textile mills under various conditions, with special reference to advantages and disadvantages of central station service.

Discussion, incorporated with that of Mr. Walter B. Nye's paper on "The Requirements for an Induction Motor from the User's Point of View."

THE SUPPLY OF ELECTRICAL POWER FOR INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS

FROM CENTRAL STATIONS R. S. Hale

Vol. xxix—1910, pp. 129-137 General discussion of the relative cost of energy production in a central station and in isolated manufacturing plants, with special reference to items usually overlooked in making such estimates.

Discussion, incorporated with that of Mr. Walter B. Nye's paper on “The Requirements for an Induction Motor from the Users' Point of View."

THE GENERATING SYSTEM OF AN ELECTRIC LIGHTING COMPANY A. R. Cheyney

Vol. xxix—1910, pp. 339-360 General discussion of important economic features in the operation of large central station plants, showing how economy, efficiency and reliability are maintained in every state of the process from the coal mine to the outgoing feeders of the sub-station.

No discussion.

DIVERSITY FACTOR H. B. Gear

Vol. xxx-1910, pp. 375-384 Analytical discussion of diversity factor between various elements of the distribution system and of various classes of business, showing its effect on initial investment and cost of service.

No discussion.

C. HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS
THE ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION OF POWER FROM NIAGARA FALLS
Lewis B. Stillwell

Vol. xviii-1901, pp. 445-531 Historical outline of the development, design, construction and operation of the electrical equipment of the Niagara Falls power plant. Description of the generators, their design and their performance under tests and in operation. Also a description of the transmission and distribution system, its construction and difficulties encountered in its operation.

Discussion, pp. 532-544, by Messrs. L. B. Stillwell, Chas. P. Steinmetz, H. W. Buck, P. M. Lincoln, E. A. Sperry, F. A. C. Perrine, P. K. Stern, H. G. Stott, and Clarence E. Gifford.

General discussion of the methods of operation for large transmission and distribution systems with reference to interruptions from various causes. Experience with grounded wire on long lines in the West. Difficulties in operation of railway converter sub-stations in Buffalo.

THE NEW GENERATING PLANTS OF THE NIAGARA FALLS POWER COMPANY H. W. Buck

Vol. xix-1902, pp. 765-780 Brief description of the No. 2 American power house and of the Canadian power house, giving general data concerning the equipment, the wiring and the switchboards.

Discussion, incorporated with that of paper by Chas. P. Steinmetz on "Notes on the Theory of the Synchronous Motor."

AN EFFICIENT HIGH-PRESSURE WATER-POWER TRANSMISSION PLANT George J. Henry, Jr., and Joseph N. Le Conte

Vol. xxii-1903, pp. 627-645 General description of Pelton wheels and hydraulic equipment for 1923-ft. head. Methods of making performance tests, the results of tests being given in tables and curves.

Discussion, pp. 646-647, by Messrs. F. O. Blackwell and H. A. Lardner.

First three-phase transmission plant in United States. Pipe lines for high pressure.

WATER POWERS OF THE SOUTH EASTERN APPALACHIAN REGION. Frederick A. C. Perrine

Vol. xxiv-1905, pp. 789-800 Brief comparison of the general characteristics of the Appalachian system with other great mountain ranges of the United States. Short résumé of the different water sheds in the South Appalachian system, giving area, rainfall, run-off characteristics, etc.

Discussion, pp. 801-806, by Messrs. Ralph W. Pope, C. E. Waddell, L. S. Randolph, A. M. Schoen, F. A. C. Perrine, Carl Hering, J. W. Lieb, Jr., and Gano S. Dunn.

General remarks on hydroelectric power development. Relation between rainfall, distribution and uniformity of run-off. Motion carried to appoint a water power conservation committee.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ONTARIO POWER COMPANY. P. N. Nunn

Vol. xxiv-1905, pp. 807-833 Description of the layout and construction of the generating and distribution plants, profusely illustrated with photographs and working drawings.

Discussion, pp. 834-838, by Messrs. Gano S. Dunn, W. E. Goldsborough, H. G. Stott, P. H. Thomas, C. A. Greenidge, P. N. Nunn, and Philip P. Barton.

Probable effect of taking water at Chicago upon the flow at Niagara Falls. Characteristics of ice formation in the Niagara River and cause of ice difficulties experienced by Niagara Falls Power Company.

THE RELATION OF LOAD-FACTOR TO THE EVALUATION OF HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS S. B. Storer

Vol. XXV-1906 pp. 139-143 Brief theoretical study of effect of load-factor on cost of electric energy production in steam and water-power plants.

No discussion.

NOTES ON DESIGN OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS David B. Rushmore

Vol. XXV--1906 pp. 145-163 General remarks on some of the factors which enter into the design of a hydroelectric plant. Determination of the magnitude of a given development, choice of wheel and generator rating, of speed, and of efficiency with respect to economy of operation. Data on hydraulic system taken from Reclamation Service.

No discussion.

A NEW METHOD OF TURBINE CONTROL

Lamar Lyndon

Vol. XXV-1906 pp. 165-177 Theory and description of a water wheel governor designed to compensate pressure rises in pipe systems and to prevent overrunning.

Discussion, pp. 178-179, by Messrs. Paul Spencer, Lamar Lyndon, and Carl Hering.

ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION Frederick Darlington

Vol. XXV-1906 pp. 181-190 General classification of natural water powers and loads which may be carried by such powers. Outline of data that must be determined in developing water power. Preliminary data and detailed estimates of cost of energy production in a certain plant in the Southern Appalachian mountains; also estimated cost of steam competition.

No discussion.

ECONOMIES TO BE DERIVED FROM THE UTILIZATION OF WATER POWERS OF

LOW HEAD IN THE CENTRAL WEST Dugald C. Jackson

Vol. XXV-1906, pp. 585-600 Description of development of three water powers by the Janesville Electric Company in Janesville, Wis.

No discussion.

NOTES ON HYDROELECTRIC PLANT ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION Farley Osgood

Vol. xxvi-1907, pp. 179-199 Brief general outline of the points to be covered in the development and equipment of a hydroelectric plant, followed by a collection of actual experiences in the operation of a modern plant.

No discussion.

COMMENTS ON THE OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS Henry L. Doherty

Vol. xxviii-1909, pp. 1361-1379 General discussion of certain features in operation and development of hydroelectric plants with a view to improve the standing and value of water-power securities.

Discussion, pp. 1380-1478, by Messrs. L. B. Stillwell, Henry G. Stott, S. E. Doane, Cary T. Hutchinson, H. W. Buck, W. N. Ryerson, Calvert Townley, Julian C. Smith, Henry L. Doherty, Carl Schwartz, C. P. Fowler, J. Lester Woodbridge, W. E. Winship, Francis Blossom, Philip P. Barton, C. H. Baker, H. F. Parshall, J. F. Vaughan, E. C. Brown, J. H. Wilson, James Lyman, R. A. Ross, M. H. Collbohm, H. A. Storrs, E. P. Roberts, P. W. Sothman, O. S. Lyford, Jr., D. S. Jacobus, Ralph D. Mershon, David B. Rushmore, John Martin, Irving E. Brooke, and W. G. Chace.

A very full discussion of hydroelectric economics, with special reference to the following topics: Fixed and operating charges for energy production in hydroelectric plant with steam reserve for different ratios of water power to steam and for different load curves; Numerous estimates of first cost of hydroelectric and steam plants and also of plant depreciation; Various data for actual practice of reliability and continuity of service for electric transmission plants; Preliminary data and factors which enter into the valuation of water-power development; Government control.

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